3 Basic Principal Of Fo Installation

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Basic Principal of FO Installation

Basic Principal of FO Installation

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  • 1. Basic Principal of FO INSTALLATION 1
  • 2. Fiber Connector Types Epoxy Epoxy-less Pre-polished 2
  • 3. Splicing 3
  • 4. CONNECTING IT ALL TOGETHER 4
  • 5. Mechanical Splices Flat plate V-grooved substrate Butt jointed fiber 5
  • 6. Fusion Splices Electrodes Fixed block Movable block Fiber Fiber alignment groove 6
  • 7. MT-RJ 7
  • 8. AMP SC Duplex Style Connector Cable Boot Crimp Sleeve Ferrule Assembly Connector Body Dust Cover 8
  • 9. SC Connector (Epoxy) 9
  • 10. SC Connector (Epoxyless) 10
  • 11. ST Connector (Epoxyless) 11
  • 12. Fiber Cleaving Method A (Using Scribe Tool) Method B (Using Cleave Tool) 12
  • 13. Fiber Connector Polishing Step 1 : Air polishing Step 2 : Polishing on polishing plate Procedure: Air polish the connector tip by gently Procedure : rubbing the tip of the connector in Install the connector into the polishing bush small circles (or figure 8) until the and polish the connector tip using the 5 µm cleaved fiber no longer makes polishing film. scratches on the film. With a thin layer of epoxy on the connector tip, replace the 5 µm with a 1 µm polishing film and continue polishing until the epoxy is totally removed. Finally, using 0.3 µm polishing film, polish until a smooth clear finishing on the fiber tip is achieved. 13
  • 14. Inspecting The Fiber Termination 14
  • 15. Optical Fiber Cabling Systems 15
  • 16. Optical Fiber Parameters • Optical Fiber Type • Cable Performance • Cabling Distance • Connector Performance • Splice Performance • System Performance • Performance Testing 16
  • 17. Optical Fiber Cable Types • Horizontal Cabling − 50/125µm multimode − 62.5/125µm multimode • Backbone Cabling − 50/125µm multimode − 62.5/125µm multimode − Singlemode • Optical fiber types must be manufactured to meet attenuation specifications measured at both wavelengths specified for each type 17
  • 18. Optical Fiber Transmission Performance Maximum Minimum Info. Optical Fiber Wavelength Transmission Attenuation Cable Type (nm) Capacity (dB/km) (MHz•km) 850 3.5 500 50/125µm 1300 1.5 500 850 3.5 160 62.5/125µm 1300 1.5 500 Singlemode 1310 1.0 N/A Inside Plant 1550 1.0 N/A Singlemode 1310 0.5 N/A Outside Plant 1550 0.5 N/A 18
  • 19. Horizontal Cabling Distance 6m 90 m 3m 19
  • 20. Backbone Cabling Distance HC/FD 2000m MC/CD EP 3000m 500m 500m 1500m Multi-mode HC/FD IC/BD 2500m Singlemode Cross-connect jumpers/patch cables = 20m Telecommunications equipment cables = 30m 20
  • 21. Centralized Optical Fiber Cabling 90 meters Pull-through TC WA Splice/Interconnect WA TC 90 meters Centralized 300 meters Cross- Connect 21
  • 22. TIA-568B.1 Maximum Fiber Distances 50/125 62.5/125 Network Platforms (850MHz/1300MHz) (850MHz/1300MHz) 10BASE-FL 2000m/--- 2000m/--- 4 & 16 Mbps Token Ring 2000m/--- 2000m/--- IEEE 802.12: Demand Priority 500m/2000m 500m/2000m ATM @ 52Mbps ---/3000m ---/3000m ATM @ 155 Mbps 1000m/2000m 1000m/2000m ATM @ 622 Mbps 300m/500m 300m/500m Fiber Channel (FC-PH) @ 133 Mbps ---/1500m ---/1500m Fiber Channel (FC-PH) @ 266 Mbps 2000m/1500m 700m/1500m Fiber Channel (FC-PH) @ 531 Mbps 1000m/--- 350m/--- Fiber Channel (FC-PH) @ 1062 Mbps 500m/--- 300m/--- 1000BASE-SX/LX 550m/550m 220m/550m FDDI LCF-PMD (low-cost) ---/500m ---/500m FDDI PMD ---/2000m ---/2000m 100BASE-FX ---/2000m ---/2000m 22
  • 23. Connector Performance • Attenuation Specifications - 0.75 dB max/mated pair - 1.5 dB max through a cross-connect (based on 2 panels) • Typical Attenuation - SC - .3 dB - ST - .3 dB 23
  • 24. Splice Performance • Attenuation Specifications - 0.3 dB max - Fusion or Mechanical • Typical Attenuation - Fusion - 0.1 dB - Mechanical - 0.2 dB 24
  • 25. Power Budgets - Definition “The difference in optical power between what the transmitter delivers into a fiber and what the receiver requires from the fiber to operate properly” -19dBm -36dBm 15dB TX RX 25
  • 26. System Power Budget Tx Rx Launch Power (dBm) Input power Output Power = Power launched Sensitivity = Minimum input into a specific type fiber (i.e. power to obtain specified bit error 62./125) rate Example = Power -14 dBm to -19 Sensitivity = -14 dBm to -36 dBm dBm Power Budget : -19-(-36) =17dB 26
  • 27. Power Budgets - Units of Measure • dB - A Measurement of Loss/Gain - In This Case a Positive Number • dBm, dBu - A Measurement of Power as Compared to One Milliwatt or One Microwatt - Normally a Negative Number 27
  • 28. Power Budgets - Elements for Calculation • TX Power Out • RX Sensitivity • Margin (Average = @3 dB) − Aging − Safety Aging - Safety 28
  • 29. Power Budgets - Calculation Example TX Power: -19dBm RX Sensitivity: -36dBm Margin: 3dB Formula: -19-(-36)-3 Power Budget = 14dB 29
  • 30. Link Loss Budget Elements for Calculation −Fiber Attenuation −Connector Loss −Splice Loss −Passive Component Loss 30
  • 31. Link Loss Budgets - Calculation Example Splice TX RX Connectors 1Km (62.5/125µm) Link Loss Budget 3.5 dB - _______ (Fiber Attenuation) 1.5 dB - _______ (Connector Loss) 0.3 dB - _______ (Splice Loss) 0.0 dB - _______ (Passive Component Loss) = 5.3 dB System loss measurement should always be less than the link loss budget 31
  • 32. Link Margin - Calculation Example Splice TX RX Connectors 1Km (62.5/125µm) System Power Budget = 17 dB Link Loss = 5.3 dB Link Margin = 11.7 32
  • 33. Inspection & Test Equipment ∗ Microscope : 100 - 200x Visual Inspection of Connector End Faces ∗ Power Meters : Measure power (mW) and relative power (dB) ∗ OTDR : Measures length of fiber Attenuation Connector and Splice Return Loss Look for : Multiple wavelengths - 850 -1300 -1550 Short dead zone Accuracy & resolution 33
  • 34. Testing Requirements • Link Attenuation − Required • Polarization − Recommended 34
  • 35. Horizontal Link Attenuation Horizontal Link Measurement • Measured at only one Wavelength − Either 850 nm or 1300 nm − Only one direction required • ANSI/EIA/TIA-526-14A, Method B − One Reference Jumper • Attenuation results less than 2.0 dB − Based on the loss of two connector pairs plus 90 meters of optical fiber cable 35
  • 36. Centralized Link Attenuation Centralized Link Measurement • Measured at only one Wavelength − Either 850 nm and 1300 nm − Only one direction required • ANSI/EIA/TIA-526-14A, Method B − One Reference Jumper • Attenuation results less than 2.9 dB A − Based on the loss of two connector pairs plus 300m meters of optical fiber cable and 1 splice in the TC • Attenuation results less than 3.3 dB − Based on the loss of two connector pairs plus 300m meters of optical B fiber cable and an interconnection 36
  • 37. Centralized Link Attenuation Example 300 meters (1.05 dB) A .75 dB .3 dB .75 dB (mated pair) (splice) (mated pair) B .75 dB .75 dB .75 dB (Interconnection) (mated pair) 37
  • 38. Backbone Link Attenuation Measurement Backbone Link Measurement • Measured at both operating Wavelengths − Multi-mode at 850 nm and 1300 nm − Singlemode at 1310 nm and 1550 nm − Only one direction required • ANSI/EIA/TIA-526-14A, Method B − Multi-mode - one Reference Jumper • ANSI/TIA/EIA-526-7, Method A.1 − Singlemode - one Reference Jumper 38
  • 39. Backbone Link Attenuation Specifications Backbone Link Attn. = Cable Attn. + Connector Attn. + Splice Attn. Maximum Optical Fiber Wavelength Attenuation Cable Type (nm) (dB/km) 850 3.5 50/125µm 1300 1.5 850 3.5 62.5/125µm 1300 1.5 Singlemode 1310 1.0 Inside Plant 1550 1.0 Singlemode 1310 0.5 Outside Plant 1550 0.5 Connector Attenuation (mated pair) = 0.75 dB Splice Attenuation = 0.3 dB 39
  • 40. Backbone Link Attenuation Example 300 meters (1.05 dB) .75 dB .3 dB .75 dB (mated pair) (splice) (mated pair) 40
  • 41. Optical Fiber Link Certification EIA/TIA-526-14A EIA/TIA-526-7 • Measures Optical Loss of Cable • Measures Optical Loss of Cable Plant Plant • Specifies Power Meters • Specifies Power Meters and OTDR • Indicates if Cable Plant Meets • Indicates if Cable Plant Meets Power Budget Power Budget • For Multimode Fiber Only • For Singlemode Fiber Only • Includes Two Methods • Includes Two Methods • Includes Three Methods for Power Meters and One for OTDR 41
  • 42. EIA-TIA-526-14A(B)/TIA/EIA-526-7(A.1) Test Jumper 1 Reference P1 Source Detectors Cable Plant Test Jumper 1 Test Jumper 2 Test P2 42
  • 43. Troubleshooting Flashlight Microscope OTDR VFL Power Meters 43
  • 44. Common Failures/Faults • Polarity − Patch/drop cables reversed • Attenuation − Cable Breaks − May be caused by exceeding tensile load or bend radius − Core Mismatch/Misalignment − Caused by mixing different fiber types in the same channel − Caused by connecting hardware imperfections/installation/assembly − Poor Splice − Poor cleave, fusion arc, mechanical assembly − Poor Finish on Connector − Dust, chipped/cracked/pistoned fiber 44
  • 45. Loss Mechanisms in Connections Loss from Angular Loss from End Separation Misalignment Loss from Lateral Displacement 45
  • 46. OTDR Troubleshooting Cable Plant Dead Zone Fiber 46
  • 47. Backscatter plot from a fiber under test with an OTDR Reflected power Backscatter Reflection from joint Fresnel end reflection Light pulse Fault loss launched into fiber Faulty region of Splice high attenuation Fiber end test under F ib e r Time Distance from launch 47
  • 48. WHAT IS BACK REFLECTION ? Air Refractive Barriers Caused by Polishing Reflected Signals Travel Backward Toward Light Source 48
  • 49. ANGLED PC FERRULES Back Reflection is Directed Away from the Core and Cladding Angle PC (APC) 8 ° Angle, PC Polish 60dB 49
  • 50. Summary • Identified performance characteristics and industry standard specifications of optical fiber types and connecting hardware • Defined power budgets • Determined how to calculate unused margins • Identified attenuation specifications for both horizontal and backbone optical fiber cabling links • Identified the industry standards methods for the certification of an optical fiber cabling system • Determined how to recognize common faults in an optical fiber cabling system 50