Introduction to
PREMISES CABLING SYSTEM




                          1
Standards
                               ISO

CENELEC AS/NZS                 ANSI             IEC           CSA

         ...
Benefits of Standards Compliance

• Assurance that cabling system will support
  standards-based applications
   − Future ...
ISO/IEC-11801
• Generic cabling for customer premises Standard
   − Approved and released in 1995
   − The de-facto standa...
TIA/EIA-568A
• Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling
  Standard
  − EIA/TIA-568 - July 1991
  − TIA/EIA-568A - Oc...
ISO/IEC-11801 and TIA/EIA-568A
             Overview
Major sections include:
• Definitions, Acronyms, Abbreviations
• Hori...
ISO/IEC-11801 and TIA/EIA-568A
             Differences
Cable Type:
• ISO allows 120Ω cable and 50/125µm optical fiber
Ter...
TIA/EIA-569A
• Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications
  Pathways and Spaces
• Purpose
  − Standardize specifi...
TIA/EIA-606
• Administration Standard for the Telecommunications
  Infrastructure of Commercial Buildings
• Purpose
  − To...
TIA/EIA-607
• Commercial Building Grounding and Bonding
  Requirements for the Telecommunications Industry
• Purpose
  − T...
Elements/Sub-Systems

• Work Area
• Horizontal Cabling
• Telecommunications Closet
• Backbone Cabling
• Equipment Room
• E...
Campus Cabling Diagram




                         12
Campus Cabling Diagram




                         13
Hierarchical Star Topology


              MDF/CD

                                          IDF/BD

                     ...
Work Area, Horizontal Cabling,
 Telecommunications Closet




                                 15
Backbone Cabling, Equipment Room,
       Entrance Facilities




                                    16
Elements/Sub-Systems - Administration

• Work Area
• Horizontal Cabling
• Telecommunications Closet
• Backbone Cabling
• E...
Twisted Pair Cabling




                       18
Cable Classification

 Category 3/Class C - 16 MHz

Category 5/Class D - 100 MHz

Category 5e/Class D - 100 MHz

Category ...
Twisted Pair Types


    UTP




                                 FTP, SFTP




STP, PiMF



                             ...
Crosstalk




            21
Near End Crosstalk (NEXT)

Transmit


Receive


  • Crosstalk measures the amount of signal
    interference from one pair...
Twisted Pair Construction


 22/24 AWG




                                 PVC, LSZH, FEP




22/26 AWG
(PiMF = 23 AWG, 4...
Optical Fiber Overview

• Reflection
• Refraction
• Refractive Index
• Core/Cladding
• Numerical Aperture
• Modes
• Wavele...
Advantages of Fiber Optics

•   Large Bandwidth
•   Low Attenuation
•   No Crosstalk
•   No Radio Freq. or Electromagnetic...
Reflection vs. Refraction



               Refraction

Source           Reflection




                                  ...
Refractive Index



N2
N1




          Speed of Light (Vacuum)
     N=
          Speed of Light (Medium)

               ...
Internal Reflection in a Fiber

                                          Cladding = n1

                           n 1 = ...
Core/Cladding
                                  Core
       Cladding                   Glass
                      Claddin...
CROSS SECTION OF A TYPICAL FIBER




                    Core

                Cladding
                 125 um
          ...
Numerical Aperture and Modes

          Low Order Modes   Axial Mode




Acceptance Cone         High Order Modes


      ...
Wavelength




ATTENUATION




              850      1300/1310   1550
                    WAVELENGTH



                 ...
Optical Fiber Review

• Reflection
• Refraction
• Refractive Index
• Core/Cladding
• Numerical Aperture
• Modes
• Waveleng...
Optical Fiber Types

• Multi-mode
  − accepts many modes of light
  − supports 850 and 1300 nanometer wavelengths


• Sing...
Optical Fiber Types


Multimode             Singlemode




            Graded
            Index
            Preform


    ...
Multi-mode Step Index


                                               Dispersion

Source




         Input Pulse

      ...
Multi-mode Graded Index


                                            Dispersion

Source




         Input Pulse



     ...
Multi-mode Optical Fiber Sizes




 62.5/125            50/125
                                 38
Singlemode Fiber



Source



                                               125   m Cladding Diameter



         Input P...
FIBER TYPES
Multimode step index fiber

                                                  Low Order Mode
                 ...
Optical Fiber from a preform


                     Preform




                                Muffle furnace




       ...
Optical Fiber Components




Fiber   Coating   Protective   Strength   Outer
                    Buffer     Members    Jac...
CABLE CONSTRUCTION

               Simplex, Tight Buffer Cable




PVC Outer Jacket
        
 Kevlar Strength Members
   ...
Coatings and Buffers




                       Tight Tube




Loose Tube


                                    44
Strength Members and Outer Jackets

PVC, LSZH, FEP (Plenum)
                           Kevlar




Steel/Fiberglass


     ...
Optical Fiber Cable




                      46
Cable Construction
Interconnect Cables
                                  Pigtail, Patchcords, Intrabuilding
              ...
Cable Construction
Breakout Cables
                           Backbones - Campus - Zone cabling
                          ...
Cable Ratings

Defined by National Electrical Code. Tested by UL, etc. Cables must meet
specific requirements for flammabi...
CABLE APPLICATIONS

•   Outside Plant (OSP), Loose Tube
     − Use: All Outside Applications
         − Aerial
           ...
Cabling Media Types
    Media                           Connector
                    Bandwidth
    Type                  ...
CONNECTING IT ALL TOGETHER




                             52
Horizontal Cabling Distance


6m             90 m           3m




                                   53
Backbone Cabling Distances

HC/FD                    A                          MC/CD     EP

                            ...
Summary

• Premises Cabling System
• ISO and TIA/EIA Standards
• Elements of Telecommunications
  Infrastructure
• Cable/F...
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1 Introduction To Premises Cabling System

  1. 1. Introduction to PREMISES CABLING SYSTEM 1
  2. 2. Standards ISO CENELEC AS/NZS ANSI IEC CSA TIA EIA EN50173 AS/NZS 3080 TIA/EIA-568A ISO/IEC 11801 CSA T 529 AS 3084 TIA/EIA-569 CSA T 530 AS/NZS 3085 TIA/EIA-606 CSA T 529 TIA/EIA-607 CSA T 528 2
  3. 3. Benefits of Standards Compliance • Assurance that cabling system will support standards-based applications − Future network applications will most likely be developed based on infrastructure standards • Simplify administration − Reduce Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) • Accommodate future growth 3
  4. 4. ISO/IEC-11801 • Generic cabling for customer premises Standard − Approved and released in 1995 − The de-facto standard that all other organizations model their standards after • Purpose − To provide a world standard for the design, installation, and administration of commercial building telecommunications systems. 4
  5. 5. TIA/EIA-568A • Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard − EIA/TIA-568 - July 1991 − TIA/EIA-568A - October 1995 − EIA/TIA-568B - 2000 • Purpose − To enable the planning and installation of a structured cabling system for commercial buildings... − ...specifying a generic telecommunications cabling system that will support a multi-product, multi-vendor environment 5
  6. 6. ISO/IEC-11801 and TIA/EIA-568A Overview Major sections include: • Definitions, Acronyms, Abbreviations • Horizontal and Backbone Cabling • Telecommunications Closets, Equipment Rooms, Building Entrance Facilities • Unshielded Twisted Pair, Shielded Twisted Pair and Optical Fiber Cabling and Connecting Hardware • Shielding Practices • Link Specifications and Testing 6
  7. 7. ISO/IEC-11801 and TIA/EIA-568A Differences Cable Type: • ISO allows 120Ω cable and 50/125µm optical fiber Terminology: TIA/EIA-568A ISO/IEC 11801 Main Cross Connect Campus Distributor Intermediate Cross Connect Building Distributor Horizontal Cross Connect/ Floor Distributor Telecommunications Closet Entrance Facility Building Entrance Facility Interbuilding Backbone Campus Backbone Intrabuilding Backbone Building Backbone 7
  8. 8. TIA/EIA-569A • Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces • Purpose − Standardize specific design and construction practices within and between buildings which are in support of telecommunications media and equipment • Sections − Horizontal Pathways − Backbone Pathways − Work Area − Telecommunications Closet, Equipment Room, Entrance Facilities 8
  9. 9. TIA/EIA-606 • Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial Buildings • Purpose − To provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications and establishes guidelines for owners, end users, manufacturers, consultants, contractors, designers, installers, and facilities administrators involved in the administration of telecommunications infrastructure • Sections − Administration Concepts − Pathway and Space, and Grounding & Bonding Administration − Labeling and Color Coding 9
  10. 10. TIA/EIA-607 • Commercial Building Grounding and Bonding Requirements for the Telecommunications Industry • Purpose − To enable the planning, design, and installation of a telecommunications grounding system that supports a multi- vendor, multi-product environment as well as the grounding practices for various systems • Sections − Grounding and Bonding Overview − Components of the Grounding and Bonding Infrastructure − Telecommunications Closet, Equipment Room, and Entrance Facilities 10
  11. 11. Elements/Sub-Systems • Work Area • Horizontal Cabling • Telecommunications Closet • Backbone Cabling • Equipment Room • Entrance Facility • Administration 11
  12. 12. Campus Cabling Diagram 12
  13. 13. Campus Cabling Diagram 13
  14. 14. Hierarchical Star Topology MDF/CD IDF/BD Backbone Cabling TC TC TC TC TC TC FD Horizontal Cabling H………H H………H H………H H………H H………H H………H WA WA WA WA WA WA 14
  15. 15. Work Area, Horizontal Cabling, Telecommunications Closet 15
  16. 16. Backbone Cabling, Equipment Room, Entrance Facilities 16
  17. 17. Elements/Sub-Systems - Administration • Work Area • Horizontal Cabling • Telecommunications Closet • Backbone Cabling • Equipment Room • Entrance Facility • Administration 17
  18. 18. Twisted Pair Cabling 18
  19. 19. Cable Classification Category 3/Class C - 16 MHz Category 5/Class D - 100 MHz Category 5e/Class D - 100 MHz Category 6/Class E - 250 MHz Category 7/Class F - 600 MHz 19
  20. 20. Twisted Pair Types UTP FTP, SFTP STP, PiMF 20
  21. 21. Crosstalk 21
  22. 22. Near End Crosstalk (NEXT) Transmit Receive • Crosstalk measures the amount of signal interference from one pair to another pair • NEXT measures crosstalk at the signal source (Near End) 22
  23. 23. Twisted Pair Construction 22/24 AWG PVC, LSZH, FEP 22/26 AWG (PiMF = 23 AWG, 4-pair) 23
  24. 24. Optical Fiber Overview • Reflection • Refraction • Refractive Index • Core/Cladding • Numerical Aperture • Modes • Wavelength 24
  25. 25. Advantages of Fiber Optics • Large Bandwidth • Low Attenuation • No Crosstalk • No Radio Freq. or Electromagnetic Emissions • No RFI or EMI susceptibility • No Ground Loops • Safety, no Shock or Spark Hazards • High Future Upgrade Capability • No EMP susceptibility 25
  26. 26. Reflection vs. Refraction Refraction Source Reflection 26
  27. 27. Refractive Index N2 N1 Speed of Light (Vacuum) N= Speed of Light (Medium) 27
  28. 28. Internal Reflection in a Fiber Cladding = n1 n 1 = 1.46 80.6 80.6 n 2 = 1.48 n 1 = 1.46 b C = sin 1.46 = 80.6° -1 1.48 Core = n 2 28
  29. 29. Core/Cladding Core Cladding Glass Cladding Rod Glass Tube Core Heat Heat Fiber 29
  30. 30. CROSS SECTION OF A TYPICAL FIBER Core Cladding 125 um Coating 250 um, 400 um or 900 um 30
  31. 31. Numerical Aperture and Modes Low Order Modes Axial Mode Acceptance Cone High Order Modes 31
  32. 32. Wavelength ATTENUATION 850 1300/1310 1550 WAVELENGTH 32
  33. 33. Optical Fiber Review • Reflection • Refraction • Refractive Index • Core/Cladding • Numerical Aperture • Modes • Wavelength 33
  34. 34. Optical Fiber Types • Multi-mode − accepts many modes of light − supports 850 and 1300 nanometer wavelengths • Singlemode − accepts only one mode of light - the axial mode − supports 1310 and 1550 nanometer wavelengths 34
  35. 35. Optical Fiber Types Multimode Singlemode Graded Index Preform 35
  36. 36. Multi-mode Step Index Dispersion Source Input Pulse Output Pulse 36
  37. 37. Multi-mode Graded Index Dispersion Source Input Pulse Output Pulse 37
  38. 38. Multi-mode Optical Fiber Sizes 62.5/125 50/125 38
  39. 39. Singlemode Fiber Source 125 m Cladding Diameter Input Pulse Output Pulse 8.3 to 10 m Core Diameter 39
  40. 40. FIBER TYPES Multimode step index fiber Low Order Mode High Order Mode Input Pulse Refractive Output Pulse Index Profile Multimode graded index fiber Input Pulse Output Pulse Refractive Index Profile Singlemode step index fiber Output Pulse Only one mode, No mode dispersion Refractive Input Pulse Index Profile 40
  41. 41. Optical Fiber from a preform Preform Muffle furnace Fiber 41
  42. 42. Optical Fiber Components Fiber Coating Protective Strength Outer Buffer Members Jacket 42
  43. 43. CABLE CONSTRUCTION Simplex, Tight Buffer Cable PVC Outer Jacket  Kevlar Strength Members  Hytrel Buffer Optical Fiber 43
  44. 44. Coatings and Buffers Tight Tube Loose Tube 44
  45. 45. Strength Members and Outer Jackets PVC, LSZH, FEP (Plenum) Kevlar Steel/Fiberglass PE 45
  46. 46. Optical Fiber Cable 46
  47. 47. Cable Construction Interconnect Cables Pigtail, Patchcords, Intrabuilding Internal equipment connections Patch panels - Wall outlet to desktop User friendly Distribution Cables Backbones Cabling Vertical/Horizontal Cabling For cabling behind the wall and patch panels. Less fiber protection at connectorized level. 47
  48. 48. Cable Construction Breakout Cables Backbones - Campus - Zone cabling Vertical Cabling - Horizontal Cabling Fiber very well protected at connectorized level Essentially simplex cables in common jacket Outdoor Cables Long distance Buried - Aerial - Building Entrance Generally no flame rating - limited distance in building Gel filled to eliminate moisture Loose tube for expansion/contraction/movement No fiber protection at connector level 48
  49. 49. Cable Ratings Defined by National Electrical Code. Tested by UL, etc. Cables must meet specific requirements for flammability and smoke generation. OFN : General use, less than 50´ OFNR : Riser rated, Can be used in vertical passages. OFNP : Plenum rated, Can be installed in air plenums without conduit. LSZH : Low Smoke, Zero halogen, No specific flame requirements 49
  50. 50. CABLE APPLICATIONS • Outside Plant (OSP), Loose Tube − Use: All Outside Applications − Aerial − Gel-filled − Ultra-violet Resistant − Self-supporting or Lashed − Direct Burial (Trenched) − Rodent Protected − Gel-filled − Strong Central Strength Member − Burial (Conduit) − Gel-filled, Not as Rugged 50
  51. 51. Cabling Media Types Media Connector Bandwidth Type Type 100Ω/120Ω up to 8-Position CAT 3/5/5e/6 UTP 16/100/200 MHz IDC 100Ω up to 8-Position CAT 7 STP 600 MHz IDC up to 4-Position 150Ω STP-A 300 MHz Data 62.5/125µm up to Duplex Multi-mode 500 MHz-km 568SC Singlemode up to Duplex Fiber 500 MHz-km + 568SC 50/125µm up to Multi-mode 500 MHz-km SC-D 51
  52. 52. CONNECTING IT ALL TOGETHER 52
  53. 53. Horizontal Cabling Distance 6m 90 m 3m 53
  54. 54. Backbone Cabling Distances HC/FD A MC/CD EP C HC/FD B IC/BD MEDIA A B C UTP voice 800 m/2624ft 500 m/1640ft 300 m/984ft UTP data 90 m/295ft STP-A 90 m/295ft Multimode Fiber 2000 m/6560ft 500 m/1640ft 1500 m/4920ft Singlemode Fiber 3000 m/9840ft 500 m/1640ft 2500 m/8200ft 54
  55. 55. Summary • Premises Cabling System • ISO and TIA/EIA Standards • Elements of Telecommunications Infrastructure • Cable/Fiber Types, Categories, Classes and Performance • Cable Construction • Cable, Connectors and Cabling Distances 55
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