Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Follow up chapter on  analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Follow up chapter on analysis of the women entrepreneurs in india


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. MRIDULA VELAGAPUDI Assessment Of Women Entrepreneurship In India Follow-up chapter to the Book “WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Role Of Women Entrepreneurship Towards More Inclusive Economic Growth” Mridula Velagapudi 4/30/2011 This paper is a follow-up chapter to my book “WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Role of Women Entrepreneurship Towards more Inclusive Economic Growth”. It is an essence and shows the data analysis done around the factors that drive or inhibit Women Entrepreneurship in India. © Mridula Velagapudi
  • 2. SOME REVIEWS FOR THE BOOK “Mridula, Template for the interview is good. It covers a broad range of sub topics involved in entrepreneurship without losing focus on the real issues. Domain selection is also well balanced. As presented, starting from "home services", selling home made products, offering financial advice, consumerism to waste management, the material provides, for a new comer to entrepreneurship or just to study the field, a good beginning. One of the important things that it brings out vividly, in almost all the interviews is that, a solid (backstage at home) support is required to keep the focus on the work; in this case running the business. As one author puts it (in one of the last interviews), there is no balance, one has to sacrifice a lot in one place to get success in other places. Of course, in few cases luck has played its role too. If only you could have collected more details, I mean data points in terms of hours put in; number of employees, approx. investment etc. this study could be published academically as well. There were some grammatical errors in quite a few places. No one is perfect. Please minimize them. All in all a good work.” - Dr. Rengarajan Seshadri, Ph.D, Head Core Development, SemanticInsights "Mridula, your book inspires current entrepreneurs and budding entrepreneurs alike. Especially liked the Preview of each segment which gently drew me into the following chapter hungry to read and learn about the next story. The business models and segments chosen are very interesting and are sure to inspire a lot of women sitting on the fence. The maverick women in me had always thought about taking the entrepreneurial plunge; reading your book has most certainly reassured my belief." - Shilpi Sharma, Budding Entrepreneur, ex-Relationship Manager, Mahindra Satyam “Initially I was a bit hesitant to read the book, given the lack of perceived relevance for me and the title reminiscent of a doctoral thesis. And as I started reading through it, the hesitance gave away - bit by bit (Bullet points, and shorter paragraphs would have accelerated the de-hesitancy bit; but then one can't have it all). The prologue could have been a trimmed more than a bit, as well as intros into each of the 19 cases. The set up was good, drawing the reader into each of the cases in a meaningful manner, than they appear to be on a cursory glance. The questions are to the point, charming the protagonists into laying out their experience and wisdom out there for the reader to profit from. The fields chosen are diverse and interesting; most apt for a single individual with possibly fewer resources (time, money, capital inputs) but with a sound idea and unbridled passion to bring it life and make it succeed. It may not be completely educative in terms of how to go about setting up business from scratch to success - but is inspiring enough to make a hesitant entrepreneur to take that first step. As Anjana Vivek mentions in her interview - "The main challenge for me is my mind-set, to go ask for work and then ask for money". Practical aspects like these - sprinkled across pages are what make it worthwhile to read through. I hope, though there will be a 2nd edition, one which is more engrossing as this one is educating and earnest in its attempt. Pictures of the entrepreneurs (if permitted) or their company logos (or just plain business card - to ignite the passion in one) will definitely add to the interest quotient and make the reading easier.
  • 3. As of now, break a sweat and buy the book. Don't wait for the bells and whistles to goad you. For, if you are waiting for inspiration beyond an honest portrayal of every person like you who has taken that definitive step towards pursuing their goal - no book or wisdom will be good enough!” - Arun Vemuri, Partner-Business Planning, Mindshare "This book is an idea whose time has come. Never before in human civilization have women been equal partners not just in raising family, but in powering economic development. In the past, if women took to entrepreneurship, it was simply to supplement family income. But today, even women can have game changing ideas and can be as much of trail-blazers in building highly successful enterprises. Even Mompreneurs are not just „livelihood‟ entrepreneurs any more, content with just starting at home something to „keep themselves occupied‟ but are serious surplus creators. This book captures and glorifies the wealth- creating spirit of women entrepreneurs." - Prof. Nandini Vaidyanathan Alumnus, The London School of Economics & Delhi School of Economics Co-founder & Mentor, CARMa Venture Services “….What Mridula has managed to do is bring out consistent threads of information via her questions from each entrepreneur she spoke with. One can see some patterns emerging through the book……..Books like these play an important part in highlighting streaks of innovation and change, which typically get little attention in mainstream writing. Overall an easy and simple read especially for anyone interested in the subject.” Read the full review. - Pluggd.In, India’s Leading online directory on Start-ups
  • 4. ASSESSMENT OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA I decided to publish this follow-up chapter based on suggestions from readers and on my own keenness to bring out the critical analysis of the women entrepreneurship situation in urban India vis-à-vis the international arena. If you read my book with this chapter in the backdrop, you will appreciate why I have written the book and understand that there is more than just a ray of hope for „women entrepreneurship‟ to advance in India. I have tried to give comparative analysis supported by data. But before I start to present the comparative analysis, I would like to specify the substance of my book. My book brings out the importance of some key facts after reading the interviews of the 19 women entrepreneurs. I want readers to understand and learn from the stories of these 19 women – adopt the positives (advantages) and explore how to improve upon the negatives (obstacles). There are four points which stand out in my book: 1) It is not necessary that a woman should have a career as defined and as streamlined as their men counterparts, mainly due to the fact that women have to balance motherhood also with their professional career. It is important that women understand that they can start their entrepreneurial journeys based on their comfort level with the stages of their family lives and the support system that they have. Some women may have their parents or in-laws living close-by or with them. For such women, it may be much easier to pursue their dreams. On the other hand there maybe women who do not have a good support system and may have to start their career after the kids grow up. My book covers stories of 19 women who have started their entrepreneurial dreams at very different stages of their lives. 2) There are many opportunities to start small businesses which can usually be started as bootstrapped businesses. It is important to look for such opportunities. Small and medium sized businesses are getting more importance in the wake of the recent recession. Clusters of growing SMEs/SMBs can hold the economy to the ground by generating many different types of jobs and not create a job 'monopoly' as is done by behemoth organizations. A fall of such few big organizations can lead to severe job erosion, which can further lead to recession - a fact witnessed by many in the recent global financial meltdown. 3) It is true that entrepreneurship is needed for robust economic growth. It is also true that women are the economic force which has still not been tapped to its full potential. So it is important to induct them also into entrepreneurial culture, with focus on their specific needs. This book will help women in understanding how to spot opportunity gaps. It has industry snippets followed by a story of a women entrepreneur. It is interesting to read these stories in the backdrop of short industry analysis of diverse segments
  • 5. and understand the possibility of creating a business viz-a-viz such segments where opportunities exist. 4) My effort here is to encourage entrepreneurship as an opportunity to create a value-added business; and not as a necessity, which is typical in case of rural entrepreneurship or street entrepreneurship – self-employment chosen by women out of poverty or other necessity. My focus is to encourage entrepreneurship in the urban highly educated women; to encourage opportunity women entrepreneurship; to choose entrepreneurship when alternate lucrative employment options exist. The industry snippets in my book followed by relevant stories of women entrepreneurs encourage other women to take entrepreneurship in diverse segments as opportunities for creating wealth. It encourages them to think creatively and look for possibilities beyond the typecast self-employment of opening a garment boutique or conducting subject-wise home tuitions in the traditional way. 5) Women as entrepreneurs add to the diversity when it comes to starting businesses as well as offering solutions. Importance of including this diversity is felt much strongly especially after the recent recessions and is being further explored across the globe. My book highlights technically “Why Women Entrepreneurship” and hence shows how women entrepreneurship is important for an inclusive economic growth. It is very clear from the 19 cases of the women entrepreneurs, that almost all of them have fabulous family support. By family support I mean the support that they receive either from their parents or their in-laws for managing the show back at home, managing the household and the kids. To be specific, women have a very good system of “joint family” culture to bank upon in India; not to forget the support (moral and hands-on) extended by their spouses and the cheap labour available in the form of domestic help such as aayas, nannies and cooks. The following graph will give you a better picture of this fact: Figure 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Joint Family (In-laws or parents living together) Nuclear Family No Kids in the family NumberofWomenEntrepreneurs
  • 6. Out of the total cases 52% (Figure 1) of women have family support where kids can be taken care of by grandparents. Regarding co-founding their start-ups, majority of the women have either co- founded with their husbands or they have started it alone. Figure 2 Around 42% of these women entrepreneurs started their ventures alone and 31.5% of women co-founded their start-ups with their husbands. If we combine the two categories – „spouse as co-founders‟ and „Anyone from immediate family‟, we find that it also accounts to 42%. On the funding side, it was clear that out of the 19 women entrepreneurs, all of them have self-funded their businesses. Whereas it is good to start with own funds and bootstrap your venture, but not every woman might have enough funds to go beyond kick-starting their ventures or businesses. Do we have enough investors‟ interest in funding a company owned by a woman? This is an important point to be probed further. In India women make up only approximately 15% of the entire entrepreneurial population. Out of this 15% a bigger proportion of women entrepreneurship comprises of necessity-based entrepreneurship primarily from rural India and of surrogate entrepreneurship where the businesses are registered in the name of women but are run by men. In fact, India ranks quite high in overall necessity-based entrepreneurship and ranks low in opportunity-based entrepreneurship, according a GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) report. Remarkably a bigger percentage of women in the developed countries such as USA, UK, Canada, Germany and Scandinavian (Nordic) countries take to opportunity-based entrepreneurship. In USA alone women entrepreneurs own about 40% of all the enterprises. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Anyone from immediate family Spouse as Co- founders Friend as Co- founders No Co-founders (Founded Alone) Series1
  • 7. According to Center for Women‟s Business Research, McLean Virginia, the overall scenario by 2008-2009 shows that around 10.1 million firms are owned by women in the United States. These women-owned businesses constitute 40% of all the privately held businesses. Out of these about 75% are majority women-owned firms. Moreover 3% of all women-owned businesses have revenues of $1 million or more as compared to 6% of all men-owned businesses. The United States Census Bureau predicts that by the year 2025, the percentage of women entrepreneurship will increase to over 55%. It was reported in Canada‟s Labour Force Survey that in 2008 women accounted for about one-third of all the self-employed people. This means about 33% of all the entrepreneurs were women as of 2008. Though self-employed here could include people like franchise owners too, but for broader discussion I am including the data for self-employed people. As of 2007-2008, women accounted for about 27% of all the self-employed population in UK. Similarly the Nordic countries have an average of 33% of women as entrepreneurs out of total entrepreneur population. Figure 3 Many studies have been carried out in these countries to understand the motivation factors behind women taking up entrepreneurship. Most of such studies reveal one of the following reasons to start their own ventures: 1. Self-actualisation 2. The need to be their own boss 3. Dissatisfaction with working for others 4. Increase in desire to control 5. Flexibility in work hours to balance work and family 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% France Germany US UK Canada Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) India Women Entrepreneurs as Percentage of Total Self- employed Population between 2006-2008
  • 8. 6. Philanthropic commitment towards their communities and economy. Unlike India, much of the western world does not have the culture of living in joint families. Nor do they have access to such cheap labour as aayaas, nannies or cooks. So how is it that more women in countries like USA, Canada and UK are able to contribute by taking up opportunity-based entrepreneurship? Although much of the businesses owned by women fall under small businesses category, that is still commendable and encouraged as the small businesses definitely form the backbone of an economy. The 19 cases presented in my book are actually carefully selected to highlight that women entrepreneurship is possible in India in diverse industries while making use of the „positives‟ of our society and economy. So, it brings me to contemplate, if women can enjoy some benefits like that of family support in India, why is it that women (especially in urban India) constitute a very weak percentage as opportunity-based entrepreneurs when compared to those in the Western world? India, being a developing nation with economic growth rate hovering in the range of 7.5%-9%, poses many entrepreneurial opportunities in almost all segments. Is there some serious issues which should be sorted out so that more women in urban India take up entrepreneurship as a career? Some of the prominent issues which I think of are subjective in nature. These are either inherent as personality traits or prevalent as attitude problems in our societal set-up. The observations below are based on my personal reflection also of many women who I have come across in last ten years of my life when I have travelled and lived at many different places. Inherent Issues (Personality traits): 1. Lack of confidence and aggressiveness to pursue big business. 2. Lack of motivation and complacency post marriage. Although many women gain professional education and pursue a job career before they get married, many do not get back to work life simply because they lack the drive (even if they have family support). As far as entrepreneurship as career is concerned, it also takes a back seat especially when combined with point number 1 here. There is a severe lack of motivation as is evident from the fact that the contribution of professionally educated women towards entrepreneurship is lesser than that contributed by self-employed women, driven towards entrepreneurship out of necessity. 3. Content with small turnover businesses which can be run from home such as selling ethnic wears and other household décor materials. Many women just stick to the age old formula of selling ladies and children‟s wear and household décor stuff and as a result you will see a plethora of such home-businesses with no value add. In fact, even professionally qualified women forget to understand their own potential. They fail to ascertain other business opportunities that exist and which can also be pursued from home especially in today‟s
  • 9. era of enhanced broadband connectivity and social networking avenues. Acquired Issues (Societal bars): 1. Less encouragement from close family and friends and a mark of guilt that the kids will get ignored. Though the 19 cases published in my book “WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Role of Women Entrepreneurship Towards More Inclusive Economic Growth”, have not hinted at any family conflicts as far as work-life balance is concerned, there are still many such households which may not have elders in the families with such modernistic attitudes that the women should be career-oriented. Entrepreneurship certainly is out of question as running a business is perceived as more time-consuming, though doing a job may still be permissible. (According to me this is not the case. My personal experience says that jobs can be extremely taxing too as far as personal life is concerned). 2. Less confidence shown in the business world by the men counterpart when a woman approaches for business or funding (attitude issues). Whenever a women-led company approaches another company (not woman-led) usually the deal is viewed with scepticism. This is so because people have lesser confidence on women‟s abilities to carry on a business. 3. Even the external investors are shy of investing in women-led entrepreneurial ventures (though I do not have any data to support this at this point in time). Opportunity women entrepreneurship has shown growth albeit slowly. To further encourage it in urban India, I would highly recommend following three things: 1. Provide specific mentorship to women as they have different challenges at different stages of life. 2. Focus on developing entrepreneurial skills right from the college level. Introduce special Entrepreneurship courses and/or workshops to enhance leadership skills and self-confidence. 3. Self-educate and educate others regarding giving freedom to women as far as raising family is concerned. They should be able to decide what they want and when they want, without feeling obligated. 4. Establish business women‟s alliances for more women to collaborate and network with each other and inspire more women towards taking up opportunity entrepreneurship. 5. Establish mentorship which involves successful women entrepreneurs as role models.
  • 10. References Dimakopoulos, V. (2010, January 12). Women’s Entrepreneurship: Opportunity or Obligation?, Women’s forum for the economy & society. Retrieved from http://www.womens- How many small business owners are women?. (2011, April 20). Industry Canada. Retrieved from The future of the global economy: women. (2010, October 15). Women Entrepreneurs Grow Global. Retrieved from economy-women/ Some facts about women entrepreneurs. (n.d). Go4Funding. Retrieved from Entrepreneurs.aspx Harding, R. (n.d). State of women’s enterprise in UK. Prowess. Retrieved from Damwad. (2010, August). Women entrepreneurship – a Nordic perspective. Nordisk Innovations Center. Retrieved from Welter, F. (2004, May 27). Women entrepreneurship in Germany and access to capital. Institutet för entreprenörskaps- och småföretagsforskning. Retrieved from Conceptual framework. (n.d). United Nations ESCAP. Retrieved from Mishra, S.P. (1996, November). Factors affecting women entrepreneurship in small and cottage industries in India. International Labour Organization. Retrieved from