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Photography Basics:The images and words in the following presentation are for the express personal use oftodays audience. ...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light                Michael E. Stern      Photographer Educator Autho...
Photography Basics:         Camera Controls & The Study of LightThe objective of this presentation is to understand the ba...
Photography Basics:                       Camera Controls & The Study of Light“A successful photograph is a series of smal...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light      The three ideas for today:      1) camera controls      2) ...
Photography Basics:                          Camera Controls & The Study of LightThoughtfully setting the camera controls ...
•Diopter               Photography Basics:•White Balance•Color Space•File Type•Picture Style•Metering Modes•Exposure Modes...
Photography Basics:                   Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                     DiopterThe ...
Photography Basics:                         Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                   White B...
Photography Basics:                      Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                White Balance...
Photography Basics:                          Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                    White...
Photography Basics:                         Camera Controls & The Study of Light                           Kelvin Color Te...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light          White Balance
Photography Basics:      Camera Controls & The Study of Light                    TargetsA successful photograph is a serie...
Photography Basics:   Camera Controls & The Study of Light                 Targets As Shot                                ...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light                Targets
Photography Basics:                        Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                         Co...
Photography Basics:                                Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                   ...
Photography Basics:                                Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                   ...
Photography Basics:                                 Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                  ...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light                     File Type       More like a learning highway...
Photography Basics:     Camera Controls & The Study of Light                         File TypeWith few guard rails, stops ...
Photography Basics:                       Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                           F...
Photography Basics:                                Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                   ...
Photography Basics:                                 Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                  ...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light            Picture Style                Michael E. Stern        ...
Photography Basics:                    Camera Controls & The Study of Light                              Picture StyleCame...
Photography Basics:                       Camera Controls & The Study of Light                               Metering Mode...
Photography Basics:                   Camera Controls & The Study of Light                           Metering ModesSpot me...
Photography Basics:                   Camera Controls & The Study of Light                           Metering ModesIf the ...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light          Metering Modes                 HUH?                Mich...
Photography Basics:                  Camera Controls & The Study of Light                            Metering ModesIn-came...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light              Questions?                Michael E. Stern      Pho...
Photography Basics:              Camera Controls & The Study of Light                     Exposure ModesManual - shutter s...
Photography Basics:                       Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                 Av ModeIf t...
Photography Basics:                          Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                    Tv Mo...
Photography Basics:                    Camera Controls & The Study of Light                          Exposure Compensation...
Photography Basics:                         Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                   Histogr...
Photography Basics:                               Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                    ...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light                 Break                Michael E. Stern      Photo...
Photography Basics:                 Camera Controls & The Study of Light                        Qualities of LightPhotogra...
Photography Basics:               Camera Controls & The Study of Light                 Qualities of Light - Formative• DIR...
Photography Basics:                              Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                Quali...
Photography Basics:                 Camera Controls & The Study of Light                   Qualities of Light - Comparativ...
Photography Basics:                   Camera Controls & The Study of Light                          Qualities of Light    ...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light           Back to work                Michael E. Stern      Phot...
Photography Basics:                  Camera Controls & The Study of Light                            Exposure             ...
Photography Basics:            Camera Controls & The Study of Light                      ExposureLight + ISO + Shutter Spe...
Photography Basics:                           Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                     Exp...
Photography Basics:                        Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                  ExposureA...
Photography Basics:                     Camera Controls & The Study of Light                               ExposureA one s...
Photography Basics:                  Camera Controls & The Study of Light                            ExposurePhotographers...
Photography Basics:                          Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                    Expos...
Photography Basics:                         Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                 Shutter S...
Photography Basics:                       Camera Controls & The Study of Light                               Shutter Speed...
Photography Basics:               Camera Controls & The Study of Light                       Shutter Speed1 sec. 1/2 sec. ...
Photography Basics:       Aperture: 5.6    ISO: 200     Shutter Speed: Change              Camera Controls & The Study of ...
Photography Basics:                        Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                ApertureThe...
Photography Basics:                        Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                ApertureHow...
Photography Basics:                  Camera Controls & The Study of Light                          Aperture      Big numbe...
Photography Basics:      Shutter Speed: 1/20      ISO: 200    Aperture: Change                Camera Controls & The Study ...
Photography Basics:                   Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                ISOISO describes...
Photography Basics:                   Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                ISOWhen the ambi...
Photography Basics:            Camera Controls & The Study of Light                         ISO25 32 40 50 64 80 100 125 1...
Photography Basics:      Aperture: 5.6         Shutter Speed:1/40             ISO: Change50               100             ...
Best Practices to Improve Your Digital Photographs                What is the correct exposure?5.6      6.4               ...
Photography Basics:                      Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                   Scales    ...
Photography Basics:                            Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                      E...
Photography Basics:                Camera Controls & The Study of Light                          ExposureIf the exposure c...
Photography Basics:                           Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                     Exp...
Photography Basics:          Camera Controls & The Study of Light                    Exposure• Increase the diameter of th...
Photography Basics:                           Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                        ...
Photography Basics:                       Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                 ExposureWe’...
Photography Basics:                              Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                     ...
Photography Basics:                          Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                  Exposur...
Photography Basics:                         Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                 Exposure ...
Photography Basics:                            Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                    Exp...
Photography Basics:                                   Equivalent Exposure                         Camera Controls & The St...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light             Questions?                Michael E. Stern      Phot...
Best Practices to Improve Your Digital Photographs                     Composition & POV         Light Background         ...
Best Practices to Improve Your Digital Photographs                                    Composition & POVLow Horizontal POV ...
Best Practices to Improve Your Digital Photographs                                    Composition & POV                   ...
Photography Basics:                         Depth of Field                Camera Controls & The Study of Light1/60 @ f/5.6...
Photography Basics:        Camera Controls & The Study of Light                  ExposureCan you guess the shutter speed u...
Photography Basics:            Camera Controls & The Study of Light                                 Checklist:•   White Ba...
Photography Basics:  Camera Controls & The Study of Light    Let’s Shoot!                Michael E. Stern      Photographe...
Michael E. SternPhotographer Educator Author Radio Host              818-422-0696       BuildABetterPhotograph.com        ...
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Camera Controls and the Study of Light

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Transcript of "Camera Controls and the Study of Light"

  1. 1. Photography Basics:The images and words in the following presentation are for the express personal use oftodays audience. No distribution or reproduction (in whole or in part) allowed without theexpress written consent of Michael E. Stern.Thank you for respecting the rights of professional artists everywhere. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  2. 2. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  3. 3. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of LightThe objective of this presentation is to understand the basiccamera controls, the qualities of light and exposure.Afterwards you will be able to build better personal andprofessional photographs. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  4. 4. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light“A successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.” Michael E. Stern Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  5. 5. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light The three ideas for today: 1) camera controls 2) identifying light 3) setting exposure Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  6. 6. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of LightThoughtfully setting the camera controls minimizes on-board and post-capture processing. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  7. 7. •Diopter Photography Basics:•White Balance•Color Space•File Type•Picture Style•Metering Modes•Exposure Modes•Exposure Compensation•Histogram•Formatting•Exposure•Shutter Speed•Aperture•ISO•Equivalent Exposures A successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.
  8. 8. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light DiopterThe Diopter is an adjustment made to ensure the photographer sees a sharpimage through the eyepiece. Focus at infinity then adjust this knob left or right until the image seen through the eyepiece is sharp. This is a custom setting and may not be suitable for multiple users.
  9. 9. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light White BalanceDifferent light sources produce different colors. Human vision neutralizes these differences.Cameras are not capable of performing color neutralization without operator intervention.Cameras have preset and custom white balance settings that can be set to match the mainlight source illuminating a scene. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  10. 10. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light White BalanceThe Kelvin Scale was developed by William Thomson in 1864. His scale assigns numericalvalues associated with hot and cold temperatures. Photography has adapted this scale todescribe the warm and cool hues associated with light sources. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  11. 11. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light White BalanceUnless shooting RAW files (where color is assigned in post-production), set the whitebalance to match the main light source. Refer to the camera’s manual to learn what theicons look like and how to change them. This is critical when shooting in JPEG.Set WB: tungsten for indoors, sunlight for clear sky, overcast for cloudy days, etc.Invest in a neutral color target or always include a white, gray or black target to furtherrefine the color characteristics after-the-fact. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  12. 12. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Kelvin Color Temperature Scale ICON Mode Approximate Degrees Kelvin AWB Automatic WB Correction 1800 - 10000 Sunlight/Daylight 5000 - 5200 Open Shade 7000 - 8000 Cloudy 7500 - 9000 Tungsten 3200 Flourescent* 3800 - 6500* Flash 5500 - 6500 Custom 1800 - 10000 K Manual CT 1800 - 10000*Check owners manual to learn what type of fluorescent bulb the manufacturer has calibrated for.
  13. 13. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light White Balance
  14. 14. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light TargetsA successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.
  15. 15. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Targets As Shot Corrected
  16. 16. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Targets
  17. 17. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Color SpaceThe display and reproduction of digital photographs varies between cameras,monitors and printers.Red. Rojo. Rouge. The same color in different languages. In order to get accurate andpredictable color from camera to monitor to printer, we need a translator.Color management is the methodology (translator) for maintaining accurate andpredictable color throughout the entire workflow, from camera to monitor to print. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  18. 18. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Color SpaceAdobe ’98 is has more capacity than sRGB. Extracapacity produces better files and prints.Images displayed online need less color information,so it’s at this stage that I convert files to sRGB.
  19. 19. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light File TypeRAW is a proprietary format. JPEG is universal.If you choose to shoot in JPEG, set your camera to thehighest (lowest compression, best quality) possible JPEGsetting. It may be listed as Best, Fine, Superfine or Large.JPEG’s can produce prints with great detail, color andtonal range.
  20. 20. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light File TypeThe editing flexibility of a RAW file allows manyversions to be had from the same source material.Lightroom is one such program and providesunprecedented control over how one can interpret aRAW file. iPhoto, Picasa, Elements, Gimp andPhotoshop are similar programs.But you’ll be performing the functions your cameradoes when in JPEG mode.But you’ll have to learn additional software. Andthere is a learning curve.
  21. 21. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light File Type More like a learning highway. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  22. 22. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light File TypeWith few guard rails, stops signs and turn signals. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  23. 23. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light File TypeWe will concentrate on the basics of making better photos regardless of file format. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  24. 24. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Picture StyleThe process of turning analog information into individual pixel values creates a loss of sharpness, coloraccuracy and contrast.Light energy passes through the lens and strikes the sensor. The ADC processes the light energy intothe one’s and zero’s of computer code. When shooting JPEG you can set the sharpening, color andcontrast.Once set however, changing these after the fact will affect image quality. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  25. 25. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Picture StyleI shoot RAW and set these attributes to zero or neutral. I’ll apply my own aesthetics to the image fileduring post-processing.Learn the picture styles for your camera: landscape, portrait, faithful, custom and neutral.Experiment to understand which one works best for you. A successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.
  26. 26. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Picture Style Michael E. Stern Photography Education Consulting 626-298-6747 CyberStern.com
  27. 27. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Picture StyleCamera original Sharpened Michael E. Stern Photography Education Consulting 626-298-6747 CyberStern.com
  28. 28. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Metering ModesThere are several metering schemes in todays’ digital cameras. These are the top two: 1) Spot - the meter looks at a small area in the center of the view finder, ignoring everything else in the scene. 2) Evaluative or Matrix Metering - Viewfinder is divided into numerous metering zones to which AF points are linked. After detecting the main subject’s position, brightness, background, front and back lighting conditions, camera orientation, the in-camera meter calculates the exposure.
  29. 29. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Metering ModesSpot metering and evaluative are very accurate because it’s clear where in thescene the light measurement is being taken from: dead center or from theentire scene.When the sun or other light source is at your back and the subject has a fullrange of colors and tones (think group portrait, crowd scene or landscape),use evaluative. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  30. 30. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Metering ModesIf the main light source is at a position other than your back, use spotmetering mode and mindfully point the camera at a part of the scene thatwould look like a medium gray tone if the color had been removed. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  31. 31. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Metering Modes HUH? Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  32. 32. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Metering ModesIn-camera reflective meters average the light. They “see” tone and not color.This is referred to as 18% or middle gray.The meter “sees” light gray tone and not the light yellow color of a flower.The meter “sees” a dark gray instead of a red apple. As such it’s crucial toensure you are pointing the camera at a full range scene when in evaluativemode or at a mid-tone value if in spot mode.This takes practice and a trained eye. What we see How the meter interprets the scene
  33. 33. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Questions? Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  34. 34. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure ModesManual - shutter speed and aperture are set by the photographer.Av (aperture variable) - aperture is set manually and the cameraselects a shutter speed to achieve the correct exposure.Tv (time variable) - shutter speed is set manually and the cameraselects an aperture to to achieve the correct exposure.Attempt to know what you’re trying to accomplish beforehandand it will make choosing the better exposure mode less stressful. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  35. 35. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Av ModeIf the image you are attempting to produce requires a specific f/stop (depth offield), select this mode. Pick a large aperture number (small opening) and thecamera does the rest.If shallow depth of field is needed, pick a small aperture number (large opening)and the camera does the rest. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  36. 36. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Tv ModeIf it’s important to freeze action, select a fast shutter speed (1/250 or higher) andthe camera does the rest. Conversely if it’s movement or blur you are trying tocreate, use a slow shutter speed (one-eighth second or longer) and the cameraselects the appropriate aperture.You may need a tripod to help steady the camera and your nerves. A successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.
  37. 37. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure CompensationSometimes in semi-automatic mode the exposure may be too dark or too light.The Exposure Compensation (EC) control will mitigate this problem. This allowsyou to add to or subtract from the camera’s calculated exposure.Read your camera’s manual for a more thorough explanation.
  38. 38. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light HistogramA graph that displays the distribution of shadow, mid-tone and highlight information inevery exposure.There are two choices: brightness/luminosity and color/RGB.
  39. 39. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Card FormattingCard formatting resets the File Allocation Table(FAT). The File Allocation Table enables files to belocated and retrieved.Format your card after files have beendownloaded and checked.Formatting doesn’t delete files. If you format andshoot before downloading, it’s still possible torecover the previous files.I’ve had good results using file recovery softwarecalled Klix from prosofteng.com.
  40. 40. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Break Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  41. 41. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Qualities of LightPhotographs are two dimensional recreations of the light reflected off a subject.Therefore, the characteristics of light literally make the photograph. Thesecharacteristics are divided into two categories: Formative & Comparative
  42. 42. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Qualities of Light - Formative• DIRECTION - Where the is light coming from?• SPECULAR - Direct light• DIFFUSE - Indirect light
  43. 43. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Qualities of Light - Formative • DIRECTION - Where is the light coming from? • SPECULAR - Direct light • DIFFUSE - Indirect lightDirect sunlight Direct sunlight with a fill card Direct sunlight with a fill card Open shade with a fill card against a dark background
  44. 44. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Qualities of Light - Comparative• COLOR - What is it’s color temperature?• CONTRAST - Does the image feel hard, soft or average in the distribution ofits gray, black and white tones• BRIGHTNESS - Does the image feel too light, just right or too dark?
  45. 45. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Qualities of Light Direction Specular Diffused Color Contrast Brightness Back-lightSide-light Front-light Non-directional
  46. 46. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Back to work Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  47. 47. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure is a combination of:Light - how much is available? This is the ambient light.ISO sensitivity - settings range from 50 to 200,00. OY!Shutter Speed - from 1/8000 of a second down to whatever you choose.Aperture - ranges from f/.4 to f/256. Practical range: f/3.5-f/22 Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  48. 48. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureLight + ISO + Shutter Speed + Aperture = Exposure Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  49. 49. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureThe unit of measurement used to adjust ISO, shutter speed and aperture is called a stop.A one stop change will double the light or cut it in half, depending on how a particularcamera control is changed.This halving and doubling principle is the fundamental concept of photographic theory. A successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.
  50. 50. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureAdjusting the shutter speed from 1/500 to 1/250 lets in twice as much light,because the shutter is open twice as long.The fractional number has been halved but the time has been doubled.Adjusting the exposure via f/stops is similar: changing an f/stop from f/8 to f/11reduces the light intensity by half, cutting the exposure one stop. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  51. 51. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureA one stop change doubles (1X2 ) or halves the exposure. (1/2)A two stop change doubles or halves the exposure again which means eitherfour times (2X2) as much light is reaching the sensor or one quarter as much.(1/2X1/2)A three stop change doubles or halves the exposure again.(2X2X2 or 1/2X1/2X1/2)In practical terms this means a two stop change is four times as much or 1/4 asmuch light, and a three stop change is eight times as much or 1/8 as much light. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  52. 52. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposurePhotographers control exposure (the amount of light energy thataccumulates on the camera’s sensor) to influence the viewer’s responseand to create reproducible images.This is accomplished by manipulating three camera controls..... Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  53. 53. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureShutter Speed - the length of time the shutter is open affects theamount of light reaching the sensor. The choice of shutter speed helps determine if theimage will be affected by camera shake or if moving objects will be blurry or sharp.Aperture - the size of the lens opening affects the intensity of light reaching the sensor.The choice of aperture (f/stop) also affectsdepth of field. Aperture determines how much of the image is in focus.ISO - how sensitive is the chip to the light? Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  54. 54. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Shutter SpeedThe amount of time light is allowed to accumulate onto the camera sensor. Shutterspeeds can be as brief as 1/8000 of a second or as long as several hours. The amountof time depends on a variety of factors:Is the subject moving?Do you wish to freeze this movement? Is the subject moving slow?Do you wish to make it appear to be moving fast? Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  55. 55. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Shutter SpeedHow do you wish to interpret the scene? Stopping action or creating movement?Answer these questions and the appropriate shutter speed will reveal itself. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  56. 56. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Shutter Speed1 sec. 1/2 sec. 1/4 sec. 1/5 1/8 1/10 1/13 1/15 1/20 1/251/30 1/40 1/50 1/60 1/80 1/100 1/125 1/160 1/200 1/2501/320 1/400 1/500 1/640 1/800 1/1000 1/1250 1/16001/2000 1/2500 1/3200 1/4000 Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  57. 57. Photography Basics: Aperture: 5.6 ISO: 200 Shutter Speed: Change Camera Controls & The Study of Light1/20 1/25 1/30 1/40 1/501/60 1/80 1/100 1/125 1/160
  58. 58. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ApertureThe intensity of water flowing through a pipe is controlled by changing the valve size.In photography we control the intensity of light flowing through a lens by changingthe size of its’ valve.Big numbers (f/16) represent a small valve opening and small numbers (f/4.0)represent a large valve opening.This inverse relationship confuses a lot of photographers. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  59. 59. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ApertureHow do you know which one to select?If you want a picture to have a lot of in focus details (large depth of field), choose abig (f/16 or higher) f/stop.If you want a picture where the subject is in focus but the background is out of focus,choose a small (f/4.0 or smaller) f/stop.All things being equal, a large lens opening allows more light to reach the sensor. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  60. 60. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Aperture Big number = small valve. Small number = big valve.2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.4 7.1 8.09.0 10 11 12.5 14 16 18 20 22 25 29 32 36 40 45
  61. 61. Photography Basics: Shutter Speed: 1/20 ISO: 200 Aperture: Change Camera Controls & The Study of Light5.6 6.4 7.1 8.0 9.010 11 13 14 16
  62. 62. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ISOISO describes the light sensitivity of a camera’s sensor: a low ISO willrequire more light than a high ISO.ISO changes are made for a variety of reasons: how much light ispresent, whether or not a fast moving subject is being photographed oryou wish to work with specific shutter speed and aperturecombinations. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  63. 63. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ISOWhen the ambient light is so low that hand-holding without camerashake is impossible (and a tripod is not handy), switch to an ISO thatallows a shutter speed between 1/60 and 1/125 of a second. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  64. 64. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ISO25 32 40 50 64 80 100 125 160 200 250 320400 500 640 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 32004000 6400 8000 Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  65. 65. Photography Basics: Aperture: 5.6 Shutter Speed:1/40 ISO: Change50 100 125 160 Michael E. Stern Photography Education Consulting 626-298-6747 CyberStern.com200 250 320 400
  66. 66. Best Practices to Improve Your Digital Photographs What is the correct exposure?5.6 6.4 7.1 8.0 9.010 11 13 14 16
  67. 67. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Scales The Aperture Scale: 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.4 7.1 8.0 9.0 10 11 12.5 14 16 18 20 22 25 29 32 36 40 45 The ISO scale: 25 32 40 50 64 80 100 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 640 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 6400 8000 1sec. 1/2 sec. 1/4 sec. 1/5 1/8 1/10 1/13 1/15 1/20 Shutter Speed Scale: 1/25 1/30 1/40 1/50 1/60 1/80 1/100 1/125 1/160 1/200 1/250 1/320 1/400 1/500 1/640 1/800 1/1000 1/1250 1/1600 1/2000 1/2500 1/3200 1/4000Each red number is a one stop change. The intermediate numbers areone-third stop changes.You will see these numbers on each of thethree scales in your camera: Aperture, ISO and Shutter Speed.
  68. 68. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureWhen working in manual mode where the photographer controls the ISO, shutter speed andf/stop, underexposures and overexposures are common.In manual mode if you decide the picture is one stop underexposed, you can add one stopby:• Increasing the ISO by one stop• Increase the length of time the shutter is open by one stop• Increase the diameter of the lens opening by one stop A successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.
  69. 69. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureIf the exposure change is more than one stop you can employ a variety ofchoices... Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  70. 70. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure• Add one stop of light to the scene (via shutter speed or f/stop) and increase thesensitivity of the chip by one stop• Increase the sensitivity of the chip by one stop and increase the diameter of the lensopening by one stop• Increase the length of time the shutter is open by one stop and increase the diameterof the lens by one stop. -or- Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  71. 71. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure• Increase the diameter of the lens opening by two stops.• Slow the shutter speed down by two stops.• Increase the sensitivity of the chip by two stops. Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  72. 72. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureIf the picture is overexposed, reverse the process.To correct exposure issues while in Tv or Av mode, navigate to the ExposureCompensation (EC) button and for overexposures subtract 1 stop (or whatever you feel isnecessary. For underexposures add 1 stop (or whatever you feel is necessary)How do you know what is necessary? How do you know if it is correctly exposed?
  73. 73. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureWe’ll look at the camera’s histogram to determine the correct exposure.While the histogram provides accurate information, it takes time to understand what it’sdisplaying and how to translate the information.
  74. 74. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure - HistogramThe histogram’s scale runs from 0 to 255. Composite ShadowShadows on the left, highlights on the right. Highlights RedPortions of the scale bunched up at either endindicate underexposure or overexposure andinformation is lost. GreenDepending on the subject matter and thephotographers interpretation of the scene, this Bluemay be appropriate. Histograms graph the distribution of tones.
  75. 75. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure - Histogram Composite Red GreenThis picture is mostly mid-tone values with Bluea slight emphasis on the lighter values.However there are dark shadows indicatedby the tall spike of information along the Histograms graph theleft side of the graph. distribution of tones.
  76. 76. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure - Histogram Composite Red GreenThis picture is mostly lower-tone values. Blue Histograms graph the distribution of tones.
  77. 77. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Exposure - Histogram Composite Red Green BlueThis picture is mostly higher-tone values. Histograms graph the distribution of tones.
  78. 78. Photography Basics: Equivalent Exposure Camera Controls & The Study of Light These two images demonstrate the concept of equivalent exposures. Equivalent exposures is the process of maintaining the same exposure value despite changing camera controls. How is this accomplished? As one camera control moves (shutter speed), the other camera control (f/stop) moves in an equal1/60 @ f/5.6 ISO 200 but opposite direction. .6 sec @ f/36 ISO 200
  79. 79. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Questions? Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  80. 80. Best Practices to Improve Your Digital Photographs Composition & POV Light Background Dark Background A successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.
  81. 81. Best Practices to Improve Your Digital Photographs Composition & POVLow Horizontal POV Eye Level Horizontal POVLow Horizontal POV High Vertical POV
  82. 82. Best Practices to Improve Your Digital Photographs Composition & POV Eye Level Horizontal POV High Horizontal POV Eye Level Vertical POVLow Horizontal POV
  83. 83. Photography Basics: Depth of Field Camera Controls & The Study of Light1/60 @ f/5.6 ISO 200 .6 sec @ f/36 ISO 200
  84. 84. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light ExposureCan you guess the shutter speed used in these photos?
  85. 85. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Checklist:• White Balance - match to main source• Color Space - Adobe ‘98• RAW or JPEG?• Picture Style?• Tv, Av or Manual?• Histogram• Card Format• ISO? Shutter Speed? Aperture?• Format Card• Equivalent Exposures A successful photograph is a series of small decisions made correctly.
  86. 86. Photography Basics: Camera Controls & The Study of Light Let’s Shoot! Michael E. Stern Photographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com
  87. 87. Michael E. SternPhotographer Educator Author Radio Host 818-422-0696 BuildABetterPhotograph.com michael@cyberstern.com

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