ReptilesAmphibiansBirds

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ReptilesAmphibiansBirds

  1. 1. Reptiles, Amphibians & Birds Ecotourism
  2. 2. Reptiles Phylum: Chordata Class Reptilia mostly live on land or in freshwater. Relatively few live in the ocean. Herpetology: the study of reptiles. 5-2
  3. 3. ReptilesCharacteristics: ◦ Ectothermic. (cold- blooded). Maintain their body temperatures through external means. ◦ Breathe with lungs at all stages of their lives. 5-3
  4. 4. Reptiles◦ Have scales.◦ Most reproduce by laying internally fertilized eggs. 5-4
  5. 5. Reptiles◦ Order Crocodilia – Alligators, Crocodiles, and Caimans.  Are semi-aquatic with most living in freshwater. Exception is the giant saltwater crocodile. 5-5 American Alligator
  6. 6. Reptiles◦ Order Crocodilia – Crocodiles American Crocodile 5-6
  7. 7. Reptiles Is it a crocodile or an alligator?crocodile has a very long, narrow, V-shaped snout,alligators snout is wider and U-shaped. Crocodilestop and bottom teeth are visible from the side. 5-7
  8. 8. Reptiles◦ Order Crocodilia  Giant Saltwater Crocodile are the biggest crocs. 5-8
  9. 9. Reptiles◦ Order Crocodilia  Crocodile eats man! 5-9
  10. 10. Bill Nye Reptiles - Reptiles Alligators P1 ◦ Order Crocodilia – Caimans are smaller, although one species, the Black caiman, can exceed 13 ftChapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 5 - 10 Caimans
  11. 11. Reptiles / Crocodilia Review #11. What are three members of the crocodilia order?2. Classify the groups alligators and crocodiles belong to. K, P, Subphylum, C, O3. Why are crocodiles chordates?4. What does “cold blooded” really mean?5. What are three characteristics of reptiles?6. How do most reptiles have sex?7. Do most reptiles lay eggs?8. Distinguish an alligator from a crocodile?9. What is the largest member of crocodilia?10. Differentiate between a chordate and being a vertebrate? 5 - 11
  12. 12. ReptilesOrder Chelonia – Turtles and Tortoises.  7 species of marine turtles – all live in warm waters. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Hawksbill Sea Turtle Green Sea Turtle
  13. 13. Reptiles Order Chelonia – Turtles and Tortoises Kemps Ridley Sea Turtle Olive Ridley Sea TurtleLeatherback Sea Turtle Flatback Sea Turtle
  14. 14. Threats to Sea TurtlesFibropapilloma (FPV) TumorsPollution may be weakening their immune system, like HIV in us. 5- 14 Similar to HPV & HIV
  15. 15. Threats to Sea TurtlesNesting Threats (loss of nesting habitat) The loss of even one beach can have a significant effect on their population.
  16. 16. Threats to Sea TurtlesIncreased Human Presence on beaches.Chapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 5- 16
  17. 17. Threats to Sea TurtlesPoaching: killing illegally.
  18. 18. Threats to Sea TurtlesArtificial Lighting: baby sea turtles instinctively follow the moon light into the ocean after birth. Human lights confuse them and go the wrong way and die. 5- 18
  19. 19. Threats to Sea TurtlesNets: Entangled in nets, they drown and suffer serious injuries to their flippers from constriction by the ropes. 5- 19
  20. 20. Threats to Sea TurtlesNet trawls that are not outfitted with turtle excluder devices (TEDs) do not allow turtles to escape, which result in drowning. Pacific loggerheads in MX 5- 20
  21. 21. Threats to Sea TurtlesPollution - plastic Real Jellyfish Plastic
  22. 22. Threats to Sea TurtlesPollution - plastic Plastic blocking intestines
  23. 23. Threats to Sea Turtles Using your notes, pick one of the threats to sea turtles and explain 1. the problem, 2. if anything is being done to stop it and 3. what the average person can do to help. • Intro paragraph • Body paragraphs • Conclusion paragraph 5- 23
  24. 24. Sea Turtle Review1. What are the names of two sea turtles?2. What is the K, P, Subphylum, C and O of turtles?3. What makes a sea turtle a vertebrate?4. A-D: List 4 things that are reducing the sea turtles and explain how it harms the sea turtles. – (worth four points)5. What may be causing fibropapilloma tumors?6. In what human viral infection do we get skin cancer? Why does the skin cancer happen? 5- 24
  25. 25. Tortoises: Class Reptilia. Order TestudinataThe desert tortoise is native to the Mojave desert andSonoran desert of the southwestern United States andnorthwestern Mexico. They can be located in the westernArizona, southeastern California, south Nevada, and thesouthwestern region of Utah 5- 25
  26. 26. Reptiles: TortoisesSonoran Desert Desert Tortoises 1 Desert Tortoises 2 5 - 26
  27. 27. Desert TortoiseThreats:Urbanization• growing towns &cities cause tortoisesto lose their homesand food. 5 - 27
  28. 28. Desert TortoiseThreats: Poaching:taking animals illegally. 5 - 28
  29. 29. Desert TortoiseThreats: Taken aspets 5 - 29
  30. 30. Desert TortoiseThreats:•Shooting 5- 30
  31. 31. Desert TortoiseThreats:•Roads & Off-Roading 5- 31
  32. 32. Threats: Predation: •Stray dogs have killed or maimed tortoises. •Ravens have had a greater impact. Raven have increased as a result of food and trash provided by humans. 5- 32
  33. 33. Desert TortoiseThreats: DiseasesBacterial respiratory disease,viral disease, and shelldiseases. Mortality may be aresult of a weakened immunesystem due to a combination Desert Tortoises 3of factors including drought,poor nutrition, environmental Desert Tortoises 4toxins, habitat degradationincluding exotic plant invasionand fire. 5- 33
  34. 34. Desert Tortoise Review 1. Classify tortoises (K,P, SP, C & O) 2. In what two deserts can one find a desert tortoise? 3. Name three states where one can see a desert tortoise. 4. What are five threats to desert tortoises? 5. What do you think are the two easiest threats to fix and what is your idea on how to fix those two threats?HW: Describe two things you would do to protect the desert tortoise if- 5 34you were mayor of a town where they are found.
  35. 35. Class: ReptilesOrder Squamata:Snakes and Lizards.  61 species of sea snakes SEA SERPENTS
  36. 36. Class: Reptiles Order: SquamataOnly one lizard is a true marine reptile – the marine iguana. 5- 36 Marine Iguanas
  37. 37. Class: Reptiles Order: SquamataOnly one lizard is poisonous (neurotoxin)– Gila Monster in Arizona 5- 37
  38. 38. Order: Squamata - SnakesCharacteristics of Snakes In many the left lung is reduced or absent Lay eggs or give birth to live young - rattlesnakes give birth to live young Snake Live Birth
  39. 39. Order: Squamata - Snakes In all of North America  10-15 fatalities ◦ In 2010 there were 34 fatal dog attacks in the USA. More than 350,000 dog bite victims are seen Venom is a prey immobilization adaptation - it is composed of neurotoxins (attack nervous system) and/or hemotoxins (attack circulatory system) neurotoxins in gila monsters & coral snakes
  40. 40. Order: SquamataCalifornia Venomous Snakes: Rattlesnake Sidewinder 5- 40
  41. 41. 5-41
  42. 42. Order: SquamataA World Without Snakes Mouse Plague Infested!- Rat Invasion Other important animals in the control of rats & mice – coyotes, hawks & owls. 5- 42
  43. 43. Order: SquamataBill Nye- Snakes 5- 43
  44. 44. Order: Squamata California Venomous Snakes: Yellow-bellied Sea SnakeRing-necked Snake 5- 44
  45. 45. Order: SquamataCalifornia Non-venomous Snakes Rubber BoaRosy Boa 5- 45
  46. 46. Order: Squamata California Non-venomous Snakes Sharp-Tailed Snake Shovel-Nosed SnakeChapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 5- 46
  47. 47. Order: Squamata California Non-venomous SnakesBlack-headed Snake Southern Watersnake Chapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 5- 47
  48. 48. Order: Squamata California Non-venomous SnakesStriped RacerChapter 5 Pages 5-77 to 5-80 Whipsnake 5- 48
  49. 49. Order: SquamataCalifornia Non-venomous SnakesThreadsnake Coachwhip 5- 49
  50. 50. Order: SquamataCalifornia Non-venomous Snakes:Gartersnake Glossy Snake 5- 50
  51. 51. Order: SquamataCalifornia Non-venomous Snakes: Gopher Snake Groundsnake 5- 51
  52. 52. Order: SquamataCalifornia Non-venomous Snakes Kingsnake Leaf-nosed Snake Long-nosed 5- Snake 52
  53. 53. Order: SquamataCalifornia Non-venomous Snakes Lyresnake Nightsnake
  54. 54. Order: SquamataCalifornia Non-venomous Snakes:Patch-nosed Snake Yellow-bellied Racer 5- 54
  55. 55. Coral Snake and Milk Snake 5- 55
  56. 56. Order: Squamata - SnakesInside Natures Giants - The Python Part 1Inside Natures Giants - The Python Part 2Inside Natures Giants -The Python Part 3Inside Natures Giants - The Python Part 4Inside Natures Giants - The Python Part 5 5- 56
  57. 57. Snakes Review1. List three orders of reptiles we learned?2. Name two types of reptiles in the order Squamata.3. Why are reptiles considered chordates?4. Why are reptiles considered vertebrates?5. What member of crocodilia is found most in U.S?6. What are two poisonous snakes in California?7. What is the only venomous lizard in the U.S.8. Why are snakes so important?9. Differentiate between a rattlesnake and a non- venomous CA snake?10. Name two other animals that control rats. 5- 57
  58. 58. Amphibians: frogs, toads, The Vanishing salamanders, newts and Frog caecilians. ectothermic (or cold- Parts 1-2 blooded) metamorphose from a water-breathing form to an adult air-breathing form, or to a paedomorph (retains some juvenile characteristics). Mudpuppies, retain juvenile gills. 5- 58
  59. 59. Class Amphibia Many amphibians lay their eggs in water. Amphibians are superficially similar to reptiles, but reptiles are amniotes (eggs have an amniotic sac), as do mammals and birds. Amphibians also have a larval stage. FYI-The study of amphibians is called batrachology. 5- 59
  60. 60. Class Amphibia Amphibians are ecological indicators (can inform us about the health of their ecosystem. Many amphibians are now threatened or extinct. 5- 60
  61. 61. Class Amphibia Threatened: likely to become an endangered species in the near future. Endangered Species: at risk of extinction. Extinct: none are found alive. 5- 61
  62. 62. Class: Amphibia Order: Anura frogs and toads 5- 62
  63. 63. ? 5- 63
  64. 64. Class: Amphibia Order: Caudatasalamanders 5- 64
  65. 65. Class: Amphibia Order: Gymnophiona Caecilians: limbless amphibians that resemble snakes. The Vanishing Frog 5- 65
  66. 66. Reptiles & Amphibians - Life 5- 66
  67. 67. Amphibian Review1. What are three orders of amphibians?2. Why are reptiles considered chordates?3. Why are reptiles considered vertebrates?4. Metamorphosis5. What is an ecological indicator?6. What is ectothermic or cold blooded?7. What is chytrid?8. Why are snakes so important?9. Differentiate b/w amphibians and reptiles?10.Differentiate b/w endangered and threatened? 5- 67
  68. 68. Reptiles & Amphibians Test on …? Study your notes Will collect your Cornell notes on reptiles and amphibians. Typed cover page with full name, period, title and date 3-5 Questions on the left side of each page of notes. Summary at end of reptiles and at end of amphibians. On Test: ◦ Reptiles, Amphibians & Chytrid ◦ Sea turtle threats, including FPV 5- ◦ Desert Tortoises and their concerns 68
  69. 69. CW or HW: Test Prep1. List 5 things that threaten sea turtles and explain each a little. Write clearly and use ink.2. List 5 things that are threatening the desert tortoises and explain each a little.3. List 2 differences between reptiles & amphibiansShort Answers 5- 69
  70. 70. Characteristics of Birds Class Aves. Characteristics: ◦ Feathers ◦ Forelimbs that are wings. ◦ A four-chambered heart and ◦ lay internally fertilized eggs. 5- 70
  71. 71. Introduction to Southern California Birds BirdOrnithology:study of birds 5- 71
  72. 72. House Sparrow MockingbirdHouse Sparrow Mockingbird House Finch Purple FinchHouse finch 5- 72
  73. 73. Anna’s Hummingbird Costa’s H. California Towhee Anas Hummingbird Call Annas Hummingbird Up Close Hummingbirds Magic 5- 73
  74. 74. Barn Swallow Mourning Dove Mourning Dove Barn Swallows CA Quail California Quail 5- 74
  75. 75. Brewers Blackbird Starling 5- White-Crowned Sparrow 75
  76. 76. Scrub Jay Scrub JayStellar Jay Black Phoebe 5- 76
  77. 77. Raven Crow Ravens 1 Adaptability Ravens 4 Intelligence 5-Raven vs- Crow 77
  78. 78. ? 5- 78
  79. 79. Brown Pelican Great Blue Heron 5- 79 Western Grebe
  80. 80. Cormorant Black Crowned Night Heron Mallard (a type of duck) 5- 80
  81. 81. Great Egret Cattle Egret 5- 81 Snowy Egret
  82. 82. They tilt as they soarTurkey with a v-shapeVulture Turkey Vulture Preening Turkey Vulture Flying 5- 82
  83. 83. RaptorsBirds of Prey1. Sharp talons (claws)2. Sharp beak3. CarnivorousRaptors - Part 1 Raptors - Part 1Raptors - Part 2Cooper Hawk releaseAmerican Eagle 5- 83
  84. 84. Barn Owl Great Horned OwlBurrowing Owl Great Horned Owl 5- 84
  85. 85. Northern Harrier Red Tailed HawkCoopers Hawk Raptors - Part 2 5- 85 Coopers Hawk with Dove Cooper Hawk release
  86. 86. Golden Eagle Huge raptors Bald Eagle 5- American Bald Eagle 86
  87. 87. Homework:Make flashcards for each bird using index cards or cut very neatly some poster paper with a paper cutter.Print the color picture from the internet and glue it on one side, and write the name of the bird neatly on the other side. (# birds)Due in one week – date? 5- 87

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