Chordates
Fish
Mr. R. Estrella
Phylum - Chordata
•Characteristics - have a
notochord and a dorsal nerve
cord at some point in their life
cycle.
•A dorsal...
Phylum - Chordata
•Phylum Chordata
•Subphylum Urochordata
•Subphylum Cephalochordata
•Subphylum Vertebrata
•Class Agnatha
...
Subphylum Urochordata
•Subphylum Urochordata: includes
tunicates, colonial drifting salps, and
larvacean.
•Larvaceans are ...
 Subphylum Cephalochordata
includes 25 species of lancelet.
Small filter feeders resemble
vertebrates, except they lack
v...
Subphylum Vertebrata
•Subphylum Vertebrata: A
notochord has developed
into a spinal cord protected
by vertebrae (spine) an...
lampreys
hagfish
Eddie and the Hagfish
Lampreys & Paddlefish
 Class Agnatha: jawless fish.
 Species include lampreys and...
Chordates Review
1. Dorsal
2. Ventral
3. Notochord
4. Why are lampreys and hagfish important fish in evolution?
5. What ch...
Class: Chondrichthyes
•Class Chondrichthyes
includes sharks, rays and
skates.
•Sharks and rays share a
basic anatomy.
•Cha...
•Sharks have a sense
of smell that detects
incredibly diluted
substances.
•Sharks have a
“conveyor belt” of
multiple rows ...
SharksandRays–TeethandWings
Sharks and rays have lateral lines – that detect
water motion and vibrations.
Class: Chondric...
 Sharks and rays have organs called ampullae of
Lorenzini which you can see as visible pits near their
snouts used to det...
•Fewer, but more mature
offspring.
•Most fertilize eggs
internally.
Males deposit sperm in
the female via a pair of
organ...
•A few shark species are ovoviviparous – the eggs
hatch within the mother’s body.
They give birth to live young rather th...
•Shark size ranges from hand-sized to the
whale shark – the largest fish.
•Whale sharks can reach 14m/46 feet.
•Basking sh...
Shark Cage Diving for Tourists
Shark Cage Diving
Sharks & Rays Review 1
1. What type of animals are in class chondrichthyes?
2. List three characteristics of sharks & rays...
Many sharks are in danger of
going extinct due to human
activities.
Sharks are typically not
dangerous to humans – we
don’...
1. Shark nets
Sharks in Peril
Sharks And Nets
2. Shark Fin Soup
Sharks in Peril
Shark Finning
3. Sport Fishing
Sharks in Peril
Shark Fishing TX
Rays
•Rays, skates and guitarfish
•Ray anatomy is suited to life on
sandy bottoms or midwater.
•Adapted to midwater are th...
Rays
•No longer need a tail for
swimming, (the tail has
become a defensive whip in
some species.)
•Rays literally fly thro...
Sharks & Rays Review - 2
1. What animals are in class chondrichthyes?
2. What are two differences b/w fish and sharks/rays...
Sharks in Peril
5 - 25
Sharks in
Deep
Trouble
Yao Ming
姚明
Shark Fin
Soup
Title: Sharks in Peril
• Write an essay that includes the three topics listed below.
Your essay should be persuasive in pr...
Class: Osteichthyes
•Characteristics: jawed fish with
bone skeletons.
•Most have scales.
•Most control buoyancy using
oxyg...
Class: Osteichthyes
Class: Osteichthyes
•Most bony fish reproduce externally.
•The female lays her eggs, the male immediately
fertilizes them....
Class: Osteichthyes
•Most open-ocean and schooling fish
have a lighter underside and dark
topside for concealment.
•Bony f...
•Important in worldwide
fisheries.
•herrings, pilchards,
sardines, and anchovies.
Herring
Sardines
Anchovy
Unloading
herri...
•pollack, haddock, whitings, etc…
•A sixth of the world’s fish
catch.
•Alaskan pollack, the haddock and
whitings are impor...
•Salmon
•Important fish in California
Return of the
Salmon
Schools of Fish
Do other animals do this?
- Next slide
Flock of birds
Herds
Osteichthyes Review
1. What does “osteo” mean?
2. Swim Bladder
3. Spawn
4. Lateral line
5. Open Ocean
6. What are most fis...
Classification Chart
• Phylum Chordata
• Subphylum Vertebrata
• Class Osteichthyes – bony fish
• Class Chondrichthyes – ca...
10 FC on Osteichthyes - Fish
No T/F
Question on one side, answer on the other
No ridiculous answers
Top card is just a...
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Chordates - Fish, Sharks & Rays

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  • Chordates - Fish, Sharks & Rays

    1. 1. Chordates Fish Mr. R. Estrella
    2. 2. Phylum - Chordata •Characteristics - have a notochord and a dorsal nerve cord at some point in their life cycle. •A dorsal nerve cord is a tube of nervous tissue just above the notochord. •A notochord is a firm tissue mass along the dorsal side. •Dorsal: top •Ventral: underneath
    3. 3. Phylum - Chordata •Phylum Chordata •Subphylum Urochordata •Subphylum Cephalochordata •Subphylum Vertebrata •Class Agnatha •Class Chondrichthyes •Class Osteichthyes 5 - 3
    4. 4. Subphylum Urochordata •Subphylum Urochordata: includes tunicates, colonial drifting salps, and larvacean. •Larvaceans are tadpole-like planktonic organisms thought to resemble the theorized ancestor of vertebrates. Larvaceans
    5. 5.  Subphylum Cephalochordata includes 25 species of lancelet. Small filter feeders resemble vertebrates, except they lack vertebrae. Subphylum Cephalochordata
    6. 6. Subphylum Vertebrata •Subphylum Vertebrata: A notochord has developed into a spinal cord protected by vertebrae (spine) and a head with a brain.
    7. 7. lampreys hagfish Eddie and the Hagfish Lampreys & Paddlefish  Class Agnatha: jawless fish.  Species include lampreys and hagfish.  Represent the ancestor of bony fish / sharks. Subphylum Vertebrata - Class: Agnatha
    8. 8. Chordates Review 1. Dorsal 2. Ventral 3. Notochord 4. Why are lampreys and hagfish important fish in evolution? 5. What characteristics does phylum Chordata have? 6. What are the characteristics of subphylum vertebrata? 7. What animals are in class Agnatha? 8. What happened to the notochord in vertebrates? 5 - 8
    9. 9. Class: Chondrichthyes •Class Chondrichthyes includes sharks, rays and skates. •Sharks and rays share a basic anatomy. •Characteristics - jawed fish, that lack a swim bladder, and have cartilaginous skeletons. 5 - 9
    10. 10. •Sharks have a sense of smell that detects incredibly diluted substances. •Sharks have a “conveyor belt” of multiple rows of teeth. •The new teeth swing into place as old teeth wear out and fall away. 5 - 10 Class: Chondrichthyes
    11. 11. SharksandRays–TeethandWings Sharks and rays have lateral lines – that detect water motion and vibrations. Class: Chondrichthyes
    12. 12.  Sharks and rays have organs called ampullae of Lorenzini which you can see as visible pits near their snouts used to detect the electrical current created by muscles and nerves of other animals. Class: Chondrichthyes Inside Natures Giants - The Great White Shark Part 1
    13. 13. •Fewer, but more mature offspring. •Most fertilize eggs internally. Males deposit sperm in the female via a pair of organs called claspers. Females lay egg cases that develop for up to six months. Class: Chondrichthyes Shark Hatching
    14. 14. •A few shark species are ovoviviparous – the eggs hatch within the mother’s body. They give birth to live young rather than egg cases.. Class: Chondrichthyes Lemon Shark Gives Birth The Great White Shark Part 2
    15. 15. •Shark size ranges from hand-sized to the whale shark – the largest fish. •Whale sharks can reach 14m/46 feet. •Basking sharks can reach 10m/33 feet. •Megamouth sharks can reach 6m/20 feet. •All three are filter feeders that consume plankton. Whale Shark
    16. 16. Shark Cage Diving for Tourists Shark Cage Diving
    17. 17. Sharks & Rays Review 1 1. What type of animals are in class chondrichthyes? 2. List three characteristics of sharks & rays. 3. What is the ampullae of lorenzini for? 4. What are lateral lines for? 5. What is special about shark teeth? 6. Electroreception 7. Which gender of sharks has claspers? 8. What are two ways sharks give birth? 9. What is the largest fish in the world? 10. List three things you found most interesting about sharks or rays. The Great White Shark Part 3
    18. 18. Many sharks are in danger of going extinct due to human activities. Sharks are typically not dangerous to humans – we don’t taste good to them. 5 - 18 Sharks in Peril Swims With Whiite Sharks
    19. 19. 1. Shark nets Sharks in Peril Sharks And Nets
    20. 20. 2. Shark Fin Soup Sharks in Peril Shark Finning
    21. 21. 3. Sport Fishing Sharks in Peril Shark Fishing TX
    22. 22. Rays •Rays, skates and guitarfish •Ray anatomy is suited to life on sandy bottoms or midwater. •Adapted to midwater are the eagle ray and manta ray. •Pectoral fins have become “wings” that stretch forward over the gills and are fused to the sides of the head. 5 - 22
    23. 23. Rays •No longer need a tail for swimming, (the tail has become a defensive whip in some species.) •Rays literally fly through the water. •The largest rays are mantas with wingspans exceeding 8 meters (26 feet). •Like the largest shark, the mantas feed on plankton. The Secret World of Sharks and Rays
    24. 24. Sharks & Rays Review - 2 1. What animals are in class chondrichthyes? 2. What are two differences b/w fish and sharks/rays? 3. What are lateral lines for? 4. Electroreception 5. Why do people cut the fins off sharks? 6. What is the tail of the ray used for? 7. What is the largest ray? 8. At what depth in the water do most rays live in? 9. What do the largest rays feed on? 10. What are three things reducing the shark population? Quiz next time
    25. 25. Sharks in Peril 5 - 25 Sharks in Deep Trouble Yao Ming 姚明 Shark Fin Soup
    26. 26. Title: Sharks in Peril • Write an essay that includes the three topics listed below. Your essay should be persuasive in protecting the world’s sharks that are left. Typed, double space, Vocabulary will be checked. • Shark nets • Shark fin soup • Shark sport fishing • Introduction paragraph (1) • Paragraph per topic discussed (3) • Conclusion paragraph (1) • 5 paragraphs all together (typed) HW: Essay – due in four days
    27. 27. Class: Osteichthyes •Characteristics: jawed fish with bone skeletons. •Most have scales. •Most control buoyancy using oxygen gas exchanged to and from blood circulation to a swim bladder. (This allows many species to hover nearly motionless in midwater.)
    28. 28. Class: Osteichthyes
    29. 29. Class: Osteichthyes •Most bony fish reproduce externally. •The female lays her eggs, the male immediately fertilizes them. •Produce a vast number of off-spring with only a few expected to survive to maturity.
    30. 30. Class: Osteichthyes •Most open-ocean and schooling fish have a lighter underside and dark topside for concealment. •Bony fish living in reefs and on the bottom use survival strategies more diverse and include concealment and armor instead of swimming. •For this reason, you see far more diversity in color, shape, and size among reef and bottom fish.
    31. 31. •Important in worldwide fisheries. •herrings, pilchards, sardines, and anchovies. Herring Sardines Anchovy Unloading herring
    32. 32. •pollack, haddock, whitings, etc… •A sixth of the world’s fish catch. •Alaskan pollack, the haddock and whitings are important fisheries. •Historically, worldwide fisheries have influenced politics and caused wars.
    33. 33. •Salmon •Important fish in California Return of the Salmon
    34. 34. Schools of Fish Do other animals do this? - Next slide
    35. 35. Flock of birds
    36. 36. Herds
    37. 37. Osteichthyes Review 1. What does “osteo” mean? 2. Swim Bladder 3. Spawn 4. Lateral line 5. Open Ocean 6. What are most fish color shading that live in the open ocean? 7. What are two defenses reef fish use? 8. What are some concerns regarding salmon? 9. What are two important fish that people eat a lot? 10. List three interesting things about bony fish.
    38. 38. Classification Chart • Phylum Chordata • Subphylum Vertebrata • Class Osteichthyes – bony fish • Class Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fish
    39. 39. 10 FC on Osteichthyes - Fish No T/F Question on one side, answer on the other No ridiculous answers Top card is just a title card with your full name, period, title and date

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