CHORDATES
FISH
Mr. R. Estrella
Phylum - Chordata
 Characteristics - have a
notochord and a dorsal
nerve cord at some point in
their life cycle.
 A dors...
5 - 3
 Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Urochordata
Subphylum Cephalochordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Agnatha
Class Chon...
 Subphylum Urochordata:
includes tunicates, colonial drifting
salps, and larvacean.
 Tunicates pump water to filter
feed...
 Subphylum Cephalochordata
includes 25 species of lancelet.
Small filter feeders resemble
vertebrates, except they lack
v...
 Subphylum Vertebrata:
A notochord that has
developed into a spinal
cord protected by
vertebrae (spine) and a
head with a...
lampreys
hagfish
Eddie and the Hagfish
Hagfish
Lampreys
 Class Agnatha: jawless fish.
 Species include lampreys and hagf...
Chordates Review
5 - 8
1. Dorsal
2. Ventral
3. Notochord
4. Why are lampreys and hagfish important fish in
evolution?
5. W...
FYI: During the Cambrian period (500 million
yrs. Ago) the first of three gill arches on a
jawless fish evolved into the ...
5 - 10
 Class Chondrichthyes
includes sharks, rays
and skates.
Sharks and rays share
a basic anatomy.
Characteristics -...
5 - 11
Cartilage saves energy. Saving
energy is one of the things that
have made them successful
predators.
Sharks have ...
SharksandRays–TeethandWings
Sharks and rays have lateral lines – that
detect water motion and vibrations.
Class: Chondric...
 Unique to sharks & rays is electroreception –
the ability to sense tiny electricity created by
muscles and nerves.
Class...
Class: Chondrichthyes
 Sharks and rays have organs called ampullae
of Lorenzini which you can see as visible pits
near th...
Fewer, but more mature
offspring.
Most fertilize eggs
internally.
Males deposit sperm
in the female via a pair
of organ...
A few shark species are ovoviviparous – the
eggs hatch within the mother’s body.
They give birth to live young rather th...
Shark size ranges from hand-sized to the
whale shark – the largest fish.
Whale sharks can reach 14m/46 feet.
Basking sh...
Chondrichthyes Review
1. What type of animals are in class chondrichthyes?
2. List four characteristics of sharks & rays.
...
Many sharks are in
danger of going extinct
due to human activities.
Sharks are typically not
dangerous to humans –
we don’...
Shark Cage Diving
Shark Cage Diving
1. Shark nets
Shark Nets
Sharks in Peril
2. Shark Fin Soup
Sharks in Peril
3. Sport Fishing
Sharks in Peril
Shark Fishing TX
5 - 24
 Rays, skates and guitarfish
Ray anatomy is suited to life
on sandy bottoms or
midwater.
Adapted to midwater are...
No longer need a tail for
swimming, (the tail has
become a defensive whip
in some species.)
Rays literally fly through
t...
1. What animals are in class chondrichthyes?
2. What are two differences b/w fish and
sharks/rays?
3. What are lateral lin...
Sharks in Peril
5 - 27
 Sharks in Deep Trouble
 Yao Ming 姚明 Shark Fin Soup
Title: Sharks in Peril
 Write an essay that includes the three topics listed
below. Your essay should be persuasive in pr...
 Characteristics: jawed fish
with bone skeletons.
Most have scales.
Most control buoyancy
using oxygen gas
exchanged to...
Class: Osteichthyes
 Most bony fish reproduce externally.
The female lays her eggs, the male immediately
fertilizes them.
Produce a vast nu...
 Bony fish have lateral lines that
detect water vibrations.
 Most open ocean and schooling
fish have a torpedo-like
stre...
 Most open-ocean and schooling
fish have a lighter underside and
dark topside for concealment.
 Bony fish living in reef...
 Important in worldwide
fisheries.
1. Order
Clupeiformes which
includes herrings,
pilchards, sardines,
and anchovies.
A...
 2. Order Gadiformes
includes cod, pollack,
haddock, whitings, etc…
A sixth of the world’s fish
catch.
 Alaskan pollack...
Salmon
 Important fish in California
Return of the
Salmon
Schools of Fish
Do other animals do this?
- Next slide
Flock of birds
Herds
Osteichthyes Review
1. What does “osteo” mean?
2. Swim Bladder
3. Spawn
4. Lateral line
5. Open Ocean
6. What are most fis...
Animal Classification Chart
Phylum Subphylum Class Charact. Ex.
Names
Chordata Urochord.. -------------
Cephal… ----------...
10 FC on Osteichthyes - Fish
 No T/F
 Question on one side, answer on the other
 No ridiculous answers
 Top card is ju...
Classification Chart
 Phylum Chordata
 Subphylum Urochordata
 Subphylum Cephalochordata
 Subphylum Vertebrata
 Class ...
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  • Transcript of "Chordates - Sharks, Rays & Fish"

    1. 1. CHORDATES FISH Mr. R. Estrella
    2. 2. Phylum - Chordata  Characteristics - have a notochord and a dorsal nerve cord at some point in their life cycle.  A dorsal nerve cord is a tube of nervous tissue just above the notochord.  A notochord is a firm tissue mass along the dorsal side.  Dorsal: top  Ventral: underneath
    3. 3. 5 - 3  Phylum Chordata Subphylum Urochordata Subphylum Cephalochordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Agnatha Class Chondrichthyes Class Osteichthyes Phylum - Chordata
    4. 4.  Subphylum Urochordata: includes tunicates, colonial drifting salps, and larvacean.  Tunicates pump water to filter feed.  Salps are gelatinous free- floating.  Larvaceans are tadpole-like planktonic organisms thought to resemble the theorized ancestor of vertebrates. Subphylum Urochordata Larvaceans
    5. 5.  Subphylum Cephalochordata includes 25 species of lancelet. Small filter feeders resemble vertebrates, except they lack vertebrae. Subphylum Cephalochordata
    6. 6.  Subphylum Vertebrata: A notochord that has developed into a spinal cord protected by vertebrae (spine) and a head with a brain.  Vertebrates consist of the most complex organisms. Subphylum Vertebrata
    7. 7. lampreys hagfish Eddie and the Hagfish Hagfish Lampreys  Class Agnatha: jawless fish.  Species include lampreys and hagfish.  Represent the ancestor of bony fish / sharks. Subphylum Vertebrata - Class: Agnatha
    8. 8. Chordates Review 5 - 8 1. Dorsal 2. Ventral 3. Notochord 4. Why are lampreys and hagfish important fish in evolution? 5. What characteristics does phylum Chordata have? 6. What animals are in subphylum Urochordata? 7. What animals are in subphylum Cephalochordata? 8. What are the characteristics of subphylum vertebrata? 9. What animals are in class Agnatha? 10. What happened to the notochord in vertebrates?
    9. 9. FYI: During the Cambrian period (500 million yrs. Ago) the first of three gill arches on a jawless fish evolved into the first jaws. Jaws allowed vertebrates to become very successful predators. Class: Chondrichthyes
    10. 10. 5 - 10  Class Chondrichthyes includes sharks, rays and skates. Sharks and rays share a basic anatomy. Characteristics - jawed fish, that lack a swim bladder, and have cartilaginous skeletons. Class: Chondrichthyes
    11. 11. 5 - 11 Cartilage saves energy. Saving energy is one of the things that have made them successful predators. Sharks have a sense of smell that detects incredibly diluted substances. Sharks have a “conveyor belt” of multiple rows of teeth. The new teeth swing into place as old teeth wear out and fall away. Class: Chondrichthyes
    12. 12. SharksandRays–TeethandWings Sharks and rays have lateral lines – that detect water motion and vibrations. Class: Chondrichthyes
    13. 13.  Unique to sharks & rays is electroreception – the ability to sense tiny electricity created by muscles and nerves. Class: Chondrichthyes
    14. 14. Class: Chondrichthyes  Sharks and rays have organs called ampullae of Lorenzini which you can see as visible pits near their snouts used to detect the electrical current.
    15. 15. Fewer, but more mature offspring. Most fertilize eggs internally. Males deposit sperm in the female via a pair of organs called claspers. Females lay egg cases in which the juveniles develop for up to six months.
    16. 16. A few shark species are ovoviviparous – the eggs hatch within the mother’s body. They give birth to live young rather than egg cases.. Class: Chondrichthyes
    17. 17. Shark size ranges from hand-sized to the whale shark – the largest fish. Whale sharks can reach 14m/46 feet. Basking sharks can reach 10m/33 feet. Megamouth sharks can reach 6m/20 feet. All three are filter feeders that consume plankton. Planet in Peril Shark Finning Whale Shark
    18. 18. Chondrichthyes Review 1. What type of animals are in class chondrichthyes? 2. List four characteristics of sharks & rays. 3. What is the ampullae of lorenzini for? 4. What are lateral lines for? 5. What is special about shark teeth? 6. Electroreception 7. Ovoviviparous 8. Which gender of sharks has claspers? 9. What are two ways sharks give birth? 10. What is the largest fish in the world?
    19. 19. Many sharks are in danger of going extinct due to human activities. Sharks are typically not dangerous to humans – we don’t taste good to them. 5 - 19 Sharks in Peril
    20. 20. Shark Cage Diving Shark Cage Diving
    21. 21. 1. Shark nets Shark Nets Sharks in Peril
    22. 22. 2. Shark Fin Soup Sharks in Peril
    23. 23. 3. Sport Fishing Sharks in Peril Shark Fishing TX
    24. 24. 5 - 24  Rays, skates and guitarfish Ray anatomy is suited to life on sandy bottoms or midwater. Adapted to midwater are the eagle ray and manta ray. Pectoral fins have become “wings” that stretch forward over the gills and are fused to the sides of the head. Rays
    25. 25. No longer need a tail for swimming, (the tail has become a defensive whip in some species.) Rays literally fly through the water. The largest rays are mantas with wingspans exceeding 8 meters (26 feet). Like the largest shark, the mantas feed on plankton. Rays The Secret World of Sharks and Rays
    26. 26. 1. What animals are in class chondrichthyes? 2. What are two differences b/w fish and sharks/rays? 3. What are lateral lines for? 4. Electroreception 5. What part of a shark’s body became the “wings” of rays? 6. What is the tail of the ray used for? 7. What is the largest ray? 8. At what depth in the water do most rays live in? 9. What do the largest rays feed on? Chondrichthyes Review - 2
    27. 27. Sharks in Peril 5 - 27  Sharks in Deep Trouble  Yao Ming 姚明 Shark Fin Soup
    28. 28. Title: Sharks in Peril  Write an essay that includes the three topics listed below. Your essay should be persuasive in protecting the world’s sharks that are left. Typed, double space, Vocabulary will be checked.  Shark nets  Shark fin soup  Shark sport fishing  Introduction paragraph (1)  Paragraph per topic discussed (3)  Conclusion paragraph (1)  5 paragraphs all together (typed) HW: Essay – due in four days
    29. 29.  Characteristics: jawed fish with bone skeletons. Most have scales. Most control buoyancy using oxygen gas exchanged to and from blood circulation to a swim bladder. (This allows many species to hover nearly motionless in midwater.) Class: Osteichthyes
    30. 30. Class: Osteichthyes
    31. 31.  Most bony fish reproduce externally. The female lays her eggs, the male immediately fertilizes them. Produce a vast number of off-spring with only a few expected to survive to maturity. Class: Osteichthyes
    32. 32.  Bony fish have lateral lines that detect water vibrations.  Most open ocean and schooling fish have a torpedo-like streamlined shape for speed. This fusiform shape is spindle-like, slightly broader at the head and a V-shaped tail. This makes them fast swimmers. Class: Osteichthyes
    33. 33.  Most open-ocean and schooling fish have a lighter underside and dark topside for concealment.  Bony fish living in reefs and on the bottom use survival strategies more diverse and include concealment and armor instead of swimming.  For this reason, you see far more diversity in color, shape, and size among reef and bottom fish. Class: Osteichthyes
    34. 34.  Important in worldwide fisheries. 1. Order Clupeiformes which includes herrings, pilchards, sardines, and anchovies. About one-quarter of all fish caught come from this order. Herring Sardines Anchovy Order: Clupeiformes Unloading herring
    35. 35.  2. Order Gadiformes includes cod, pollack, haddock, whitings, etc… A sixth of the world’s fish catch.  Alaskan pollack, the haddock and whitings are important fisheries.  Historically, worldwide fisheries have influenced politics and caused wars. Order: Gadiformes
    36. 36. Salmon  Important fish in California Return of the Salmon
    37. 37. Schools of Fish Do other animals do this? - Next slide
    38. 38. Flock of birds
    39. 39. Herds
    40. 40. Osteichthyes Review 1. What does “osteo” mean? 2. Swim Bladder 3. Spawn 4. Lateral line 5. Open Ocean 6. What are most fish color shading that live in the open ocean? 7. What are two defenses reef fish use? 8. What common fish belong in Clupeiformes? 9. What common fish belong in Gadiformes? 10. What are some concerns regarding salmon?
    41. 41. Animal Classification Chart Phylum Subphylum Class Charact. Ex. Names Chordata Urochord.. ------------- Cephal… ------------- Vertebrata Agnatha Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Kingdom: Animal
    42. 42. 10 FC on Osteichthyes - Fish  No T/F  Question on one side, answer on the other  No ridiculous answers  Top card is just a title card with your full name, period, title and date
    43. 43. Classification Chart  Phylum Chordata  Subphylum Urochordata  Subphylum Cephalochordata  Subphylum Vertebrata  Class Agnatha  Class Chondrichthyes  Class Osteichthyes  Order Clupeiformes  Order Gadiformes Test ?

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