Typesof photosynthesis

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Typesof photosynthesis

  1. 1. Types of Photosynthesis C3 C4 CAM
  2. 2. Concepts: Photosynthesis Sugar
  3. 3. Concepts <ul><li>Photosynthesis : CO 2 + Water --> Sugar + O 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis is the production of sugar (stored energy) and oxygen using energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide and water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 is brought into plants and O 2 is released from plants through pores (stomata) in their leaves and other tissues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RUBISCO is the enzyme plants use to undergo photosynthesis. </li></ul></ul>+ Solar Energy Stomata
  4. 4. Concepts <ul><li>Respiration : Sugar + O 2 --> CO 2 + Water + E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration is the burning of sugar in the presence of oxygen to release energy stored in the sugar and produces carbon dioxide and water as by-products. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photorespiration : Occurs under high light/heat when RUBISCO tends to react with O 2 (undergoing respiration) rather than CO 2 (undergoing photosynthesis). This slows rates of photosynthesis under high light/heat (this is not what the plant wants to happen). </li></ul>Energy
  5. 5. Concepts <ul><li>Transpiration : Loss of water out of stomata (pores) of plants during gas exchange (O 2 and CO 2 ) while photosynthesizing and respiring. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Use Efficiency (WUE) : How good a plant is at bringing in CO 2 without losing too much water. In other words it is the ratio of rate of photosynthesis (energy generation) to rate of transpiration (water lost). </li></ul>Stoma
  6. 6. Type 1: C3 Photosynthesis <ul><li>Adaptive Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient under normal light, temperature, and moisture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses RUBISCO to collect CO 2 during the day and undergo photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who : most plants </li></ul>
  7. 7. Type 2: C4 Photosynthesis <ul><li>Adaptive Value 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesizes faster under high light/heat conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates Photorespiration by using PEP carboxylase (another enzyme) to collect CO 2 during the day and hand delivering CO 2 to RUBISCO so that it can’t react with O 2 . </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Type 2: C4 Photosynthesis <ul><li>Adaptive Value 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better water use efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PEP carboxylase is faster at pulling in CO 2 so stomata don’t have to be open as much so don’t lose as much water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many desert summer annuals and grasses </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Type 3: CAM Photosynthesis <ul><li>Adaptive Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better water use efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cam-idling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses PEP carboxylase to collect CO 2 during the night (when evaporation rates are less) , stores the CO 2 as acid, closes stomata during day when conducts photosynthesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can keep stomata closed all the time, using CO 2 from respiration to photosynthesize and O 2 from photosynthesis for respiration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who : cactuses, agaves, bromeliads </li></ul>
  10. 10. Review of Photosynthesis Types <ul><li>Adaptive Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C3 photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient under normal light, temperature, and moisture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C4 photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesizes faster under high light/heat conditions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better water use efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAM photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better water use efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cam-idling </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Review of Photosynthesis Types <ul><li>How (Summary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C3 photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses RUBISCO to collect CO 2 during day . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C4 photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses PEP carboxylase to collect CO 2 during day . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers CO 2 directly to RUBISCO to eliminate photorespiration and is faster at pulling in CO 2 . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAM photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses PEP carboxylase to collect CO 2 during night . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores CO 2 in form of acid. Allows idling. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers CO 2 directly to RUBISCO to eliminate photorespiration and is faster at pulling in CO 2 . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Review of Photosynthesis Types <ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C3 photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C4 photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of plants, especially our summer annuals (weeds) and many of our grasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAM photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cacti, agaves, bromeliads, and others </li></ul></ul></ul>

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