Regulation of blood sugar

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Regulation of blood sugar

  1. 1. Regulation of Blood Sugar
  2. 2. <ul><li>Pancreas exerts most control over glucose concentration in blood by the secretion of 2 peptide hormones: </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon </li></ul>
  3. 3. Anatomy & Histology of the Pancreas
  4. 4. <ul><li>2 states of nutrient usage: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorptive : nutrients absorbed from intestine & into cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Absorptive : nutrients NOT entering body & must be made available from body stores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>ROLE OF INSULIN </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates entry of glucose & amino acids into cells </li></ul><ul><li>Released from  -cells in Islets of Langerhans in Pancreas </li></ul>
  6. 6. FEEDBACK LOOPS LIPASE ACTIVATED INCR. AMINO ACIDS INCR. GLUCOSE CCK ISLET  -CELLS INSULIN CATABOLIC ENZYMES INHIBITED GLYCOGEN INHIBITED ANABOLIC ENZYMES STIMULATED CELLULAR UPTAKE SYSTEMS ACTIVATED
  7. 7. RELEASE OF INSULIN <ul><li>High blood glucose & amino acid levels stimulate the release from pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone CCK and Parasympathetic Nervous System also stimulates release </li></ul><ul><li>High carb diets increase the density of insulin receptors on  -cells making them more sensitive to change </li></ul><ul><li>Low carb diets do the opposite </li></ul>
  8. 8. EFFECTS OF INSULIN <ul><li>Generally increases the uptake of glucose by cells </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase glucose uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases amino acid uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LIVER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates enzymes that make glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits enzymes that break down glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate enzymes that synthesize fats </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. ROLE OF GLUCAGON <ul><li>Acts in post-absorptive state (catabolic) </li></ul><ul><li>Made in  -cells of Islets of Langerhans in Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and other substances into glucose (a.a.’s & lipids) </li></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER GLUCOSE DOES NOT EASILY ENTER CELLS WITHOUT THE PRESENCE OF INSULIN </li></ul>
  10. 10. FEEDBACK LOOPS INCR IN LEVELS OF FATTY ACIDS & KETONES INCR. AMINO ACIDS DECR. GLUCOSE PARASYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY INSULIN ISLET  -CELLS GLUCAGON ANABOLIC ENZYMES INHIBITED SECRETION OF INSULIN GLYCOGEN BREAKDOWN LIPID & PROTEIN CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE
  11. 11. DIABETES <ul><li>Different types of diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Type I (juvenile diabetes, insulin dependent) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset in childhood or early teens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type II (adult-onset, non-insulin dependent) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity – mostly adults 40+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess sugar in blood stream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestational </li></ul>
  12. 12. Frequent urination Excessive thirst Extreme hunger or constant eating Unexplained weight loss Presence of glucose in the urine
  13. 14. DIAGNOSIS <ul><li>The amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood is measured in mmol/L. </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting blood glucose (FPG) </li></ul><ul><li>You must not eat or drink anything except water for at least eight hours before this test. A test result of 7.0 mmol/L or greater indicates diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>Casual blood glucose </li></ul><ul><li>This test may be done at any time, regardless of when you last ate. A test result of 11.0 mmol/L or greater, plus symptoms of diabetes, indicates diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral glucose tolerance test </li></ul><ul><li>You will be given a special sweetened drink prior to this blood test. A test result of 11.1 mmol/L or greater taken two hours after having the sweet drink indicates diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>A second test must be done in all cases (except if you have acute signs and symptoms). </li></ul>
  14. 15. TREATMENTS Insulin injections Monitoring of blood glucose Planning of meals (foods & times) Weight loss
  15. 16. World prevalence of diabetes (per million persons) Cost of Diabetes (billions of dollars)

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