WHAT HAPPENED TO HARTFORD?• Write down what you think happened in Hartford over the years• Think about the events in history since after WWII.
URBAN SPRAWL If these are all houses, where does everybody work?The American Dream
OH YA, RIGHT. COMMUTING This is how life is for manyof your parents and the rest of the world. WHY?
URBAN SPRAWL• Poorly planned: no one plans a community. It just grows!• Low Density: Few people per square mile• Single use development: Houses here, stores there.• High dependence on gasoline
HOW THE US IS BROKENDOWN IN LAND COVER Forest Use 28% 642 million acresRange, grassland 26% 580 million acres Cropland 20% 455 million acres Misc. other 13% 301 million acres Special uses 13% 286 million acres
TYPES OF LAND USE• Urban: the city (Hartford)• Suburban: the outskirts of the city (West Hartford)• Rural: The country (East Haddam)
URBAN, SUBURBAN, RURAL 1,516 million Rural 93.4% acres Urban and 107 million 6.6% Suburban acres75% of the population lives in urban and suburban areas.
WHY IS URBAN SPRAWL BAD?• Dead City centers• Loss of open space (farms, watersheds, habitat)• Isolation• Economic collapse if people can’t get to work • What would happen when we run out of gas?• FAT people!!!!
HEAT ISLAND EFFECT• Cities have higher temperature. WHY?• The city can be up to 10ºF warmer than the surrounding areas
HEAT ISLAND EFFECT• Tall buildings and narrow streets can heat the trapped air and reduce air ﬂow• Citieshave higher amounts of dust particulates- leads to higher amounts of condensation nuclei- leads to more fog and clouds
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS• Flooding: Occurs when you remove more vegetation that the water does not get absorbed and accumulates• Higher amounts of air pollution from cars and trucks• More waste, road congestion, and greenhouse gases
WHAT CAUSED URBAN SPRAWL?• Federal Government • Low interest mortgages for returning WWII who want the “American Dream” • $$ for highways- we are talking big bucks • No $$ for cities except for housing projects • Electricity reaches the countryside• Local Town • Single-use zoning • Cheap GAS
WHAT SHOULD WE DO?• Revise how the government taxes and how they distribute money to schools• Rebuild foot friendly cities for people, NOT cars
WHAT SHOULD WE DO?• Conservation: the need for careful and efﬁcient management to guarantee a sustained supply of productive land resources for future generations• Preservation: the need to protect scenery and ecosystems in a condition that minimizes human impact
WHAT SHOULD WE DO?• Rule out any project that is gated, that lacks sidewalks, or that have a tree-like street system, rather than a grid network. The project as a whole should connect well with surrounding neighborhoods, developments, or towns, while also protecting regional open space.• Rule out "single-use" projects that are just housing, just retail, or just ofﬁce. The various types of building should all be seamlessly integrated -- from different types of housing, to workplaces, to stores.
WHAT SHOULD WE DO?• Theproject should have a neighborhood center within that is an easy and safe walk from all dwellings in the neighborhood.• Buildings should be designed to make the street feel safe and inviting, by having front doors, porches, and windows facing the street -- rather than having a streetscape of garage doors.• The project, and particularly the neighborhood center, should include formal civic spaces and squares.
SMART GROWTH DESIGN•A theory for urban and transportation planning that concentrates growth in compact walkable urban centers.• Transit-orientated, walking, bicycle-friendly city• Large selection of housing choices to accommodate everybody• Promotes living close to where you work