OIL AND NATURAL GAS Mr. Wasley Environmental Science
OIL (PETROLEUM)• Primary energy used in the US and the world• Liquid form - known as crude oil; makes it easy to store, transport, and consume• The widespread use of automobiles made oil popular• Crude oil is produced by the decay of organic plant or animal matter- become hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon atoms)• One barrel of oil contains 42 gallons (47% is used for gasoline)• Found thousands of feet below the Earth’s surface
THE ORIGIN OF OIL• Phytoplankton and zooplankton are drifters in the ocean. Eventually, they sink to the bottom and die along with other plants and animals• The dead plankton and other plants pile up on top of each other and become buried under mud, silt, and sand• Over millions of years, these decayed plant and animals experience heat and pressure. Bacteria help break down the plants, raising the carbon percentage• The plates move, the locations of the sea change, the oil moves with the plates.• The oil becomes trapped between impermeable layers
Horsehead pumps are used when oil is below the Earth’s surfaceDrill Baby Drill!!! Ocean Drilling when the oil is located on under the ocean ﬂoor
USING OIL• Oil + O2 CO2 + H20 + heat + wastes• wastes include: unburned hydrocarbons, CO, NOx, and some sulfur gases• Reﬁningpetroleum: besides gasoline, crude oil yields many products like waxes, jet fuel, asphalt, lubricants, and kerosine.•A fractioning tower separates the different products of oil by heating the oil.
A “message” from BP
CONS TO OIL• We are running out (50 years)• Thecountries that have oil.....are not on the USA facebook fan page....• Oil spills are catastrophic to environments
NATURAL GAS• Often found with oil ﬁelds and even coal locations• mostly composed of methane, but also propane, brutane, isobutane, and other chemicals• At ﬁrst, it was an unwanted by-product of the search for oil, they would burn the gas in the oil ﬁelds• After WWII people began to realize it’s true value• Natural Gas + O2 CO2 + H20 + Heat• Missing something in that equation?.... wastes? That’s because natural gas almost produces no wastes! In addition, it produces 30% less carbon dioxide than oil, and 45% less carbon dioxide than coal!
NATURAL GAS ORIGIN•A chemical reaction occurs in the Earth that involves marine organisms that were buried along the seashore millions of years ago• Over time, more sand piles on top, adding heat and pressure to the overlying sand, creating a pockets to seal the natural gas• It’s colorless, odorless, and nontoxic
NATURAL GAS USES• Primarily a fuel source- the industrial sector is the largest consumer• More US homes are heated with natural gas than any other fuel• Major feedstock for fertilizers
CONS TO NATURAL GAS• We are running out (65 years)• You are essentially turning methane to CO2 which is a less harmful greenhouse gas, BUT sometimes the methane leaks from the pipes• It can explode!• For space heating, you need to either run pipes from the plant itself or have tanks and get it ﬁlled.