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Atoms, Minerals, Rocks  Wasley
 

Atoms, Minerals, Rocks Wasley

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Atoms, Minerals, Rocks  Wasley Atoms, Minerals, Rocks Wasley Presentation Transcript

  • ATOMS, MINERALS, AND ROCKS Mr. Wasley Earth Science
  • Once Upon a Time (based on current data)
  • The universe was full of Hydrogen, and nothing else. What is Hydrogen?
  • The universe was full of Hydrogen, and nothing else. Hydrogen is the simplest ELEMENT. An ELEMENT is a type of matter that can not be broken down into anything but protons, electrons and neutrons. Neutron Water can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen, but hydrogen and oxygen can only be broken into protons, electrons and neutrons. Hydrogen and oxygen are ELEMENTS
  • Every proton is just like every other proton. Every neutron is like every other neutron. Every electron is like every other electron. When you put them together in different combinations, you get ELEMENTS
  • Each ELEMENT has a unique number of protons and electrons. Oxygen ALWAYS has 8 protons and 8 electrons. Carbon ALWAYS has 6 protons and 6 electrons.
  • The number of protons is the Atomic Number. The number of protons + neutrons is the Atomic Mass. Electrons are considered to have no mass.
  • Since Carbon has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, it has an Atomic Number of ___ and an Atomic Mass of ___.
  • The universe was full of Hydrogen, and nothing else. Hydrogen is the simplest element. It has only 1 Proton, with a ___ Charge. It has only 1 Electron, with a ___ Charge. It has nothing else! So, where do we think the other elements come from?
  • Supernovas: Exploding Stars At the center of a star, the pressure is so great that hydrogen atoms FUSE together and become helium atoms. That releases the energy that fuels the star. (e=mc 2)
  • Supernovas: Exploding Stars This energy is what keeps the star from collapsing under its own weight – a star is a balancing act between the gravity of all that matter pulling in, and the pressure produced by fusion pushing out
  • Supernovas: Exploding Stars When the star runs out of hydrogen, it starts to fuse helium into carbon, then carbon into nitrogen, nitrogen into oxygen, getting less and less energy at each step.
  • Supernovas: Exploding Stars Finally there is nothing left but silicon, and when it fuses into iron, the star collapses into itself then explodes. The intense pressure of that explosion creates all of the other elements.
  • Supernovas: Exploding Stars Since we are all made of elements, we are all made of stardust!
  • What do you get when you combine elements into definite chemical composition (recipe) with the atoms arranged in orderly pattern (crystal)? A Mineral!
  • What makes it a mineral? 1. Minerals Are Natural: substances that form without any human help. A natural diamond A synthetic is a mineral. (man-made) diamond is not.
  • What makes it a mineral? 1. Minerals Are Natural: substances that form without any human help. 2. Minerals Are Solid: Water is not a mineral.
  • What makes it a mineral? 1. Minerals Are Natural: substances that form without any human help. 2. Minerals Are Solid: substances that don't droop or melt or evaporate. 3. Minerals Are Inorganic: substances that aren't carbon compounds made in living things. Coal was formed from ancient dead plants: It is not a mineral!
  • What makes it a mineral? 1. Minerals Are Natural: substances that form without any human help. 2. Minerals Are Solid: substances that don't droop or melt or evaporate. 3. Minerals Are Inorganic: substances that aren't carbon compounds like those found in living things. 4. Minerals have a distinct chemical composition – one or more elements in a specific recipe.
  • What makes it a mineral? 1. Minerals Are Natural: substances that form without any human help. 2. Minerals Are Solid: substances that don't droop or melt or evaporate. 3. Minerals Are Inorganic: substances that aren't carbon compounds like those found in living things. 4. Minerals have a distinct chemical composition – one or more elements in a specific recipe. 5. Minerals have atoms arranged in an orderly pattern called a crystal.
  • What makes it a mineral?
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? Color (green, red, blue…) is the least reliable All of these are Quartz: All of these are Sulfur:
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? ● Luster (glassy, waxy, metallic, dull/earthy) is how light reflects off the sample Metallic: Pearly: Why is a pearl NOT a mineral? Glassy: and many others.
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? Specific Gravity (Density compared to water) Weigh it in water, weigh it out of water.
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? Hardness (what can scratched it) compared to another mineral, glass, your fingernail, a diamond No, MOHS! Mohs Scale of Hardness: 1) softest, 10) hardest 1 = Talc. Soft enough for a baby’s bottom – anything can scratch it 7 = Quartz. Made of Silicon and Oxygen (the 2 most common elements on Earth), the hardest common mineral 10 = Diamond. Can scratch any other mineral
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? Hardness (what can it be scratched with) compared to another mineral, glass, your fingernail, a diamond
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? Streak - The color of the powdered mineral, which might NOT be the same color as the outside of the sample
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? Crystal Shape - because of arrangement of atoms
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? Cleavage or Fracture – Some minerals separate (CLEAVE) nicely along the lines of the crystals. Others just break, or FRACTURE.
  • How can I tell which Mineral I have? The ACID TEST: Some minerals dissolve in acid, others do not. This coral is made of Calcite (CaCO3) the main ingredient in limestone. CaCO3 dissolves in acid. Other minerals that look like calcite do not dissolve in acid. What would extra CO2 in the air do to sea creatures?
  • LET’S PLAY: IS THAT A MINERAL?
  • Cubic Zirconium (synthetic diamond)?
  • Garnet (Fe3Al2(SiO4)3)?
  • Coal?
  • Water?
  • So What Is A Rock? A rock is a mixture of one or more minerals. We tell them apart 1. by the mineral and chemical composition (what they are made of), 2. and by the processes that formed them (volcanoes, erosion, colliding continents).
  • Summary  Protons, Neutrons and Electrons make ELEMENTS  Elements make MINERALS  And Minerals form ROCKS