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Unit 2 Biopsychology PowerPoint

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  • 1. Psychology Unit 2: Biopsychology
  • 2. Lesson 1: The Brain ACTIVATOR: Parts of the Brain
  • 3. Lesson 1: The Brain EQ: How do biological processes and systems impact behavior? Vocabulary • Cerebrum (Cerebral Cortex) • Cerebellum • Pons • Medulla • Reticular Activating System • Corpus Callosum • Thalamus • Hypothalamus • Hippocampus • Amygdala • Pituitary Gland • Spinal Cord
  • 4. Parts of the Brain Use Your Textbook Resources to Complete the Chart Below Part of the Brain Medulla Pons Reticular Activating System Cerebellum Thalamus Hypothalamus Hippocampus Amygdala Pituitary Gland Cerebral Cortex Corpus Callosum Primary Function(s)
  • 5. Central Nervous System
  • 6. Spinal Cord • Transmits neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body. • Contains neural circuits that can independently control numerous reflexes
  • 7. The Brain
  • 8. Brain Structures • Some scientists divide the brain up into three parts. • Hindbrain • Midbrain • Forebrain
  • 9. Medulla (Oblongata) • Heart rate • Breathing • Blood Pressure
  • 10. Pons • Connects hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain together. • Respiration • Movement • Sleep • Facial expressions
  • 11. Reticular Activating System (RAS) • Responsible for regulating arousal and sleep • Helps mediate transitions from relaxed wakefulness to periods of high attention.
  • 12. Cerebellum • Means “little brain” • Voluntary muscle movements. • Coordination • Balance
  • 13. Thalamus • In Forebrain • Receives sensory information and sends them to appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. • Like a switchboard. • Everything but smell.
  • 14. Limbic System • EMOTIONAL CONTROL CENTER of the brain. • Includes: • Amygdala • Hippocampus • Hypothalamus
  • 15. Hippocampus and Amygdala • Hippocampus is involved in memory processing. • Amygdala is vital for our basic emotions. Involved with anger
  • 16. Hypothalamus • Pea sized in brain, but plays a not so pea sized role. • Body temperature • Hunger • Thirst • Sexual Arousal (libido) • Endocrine System
  • 17. Pituitary Gland • “Master Gland” • An important link between the nervous system and the endocrine system • Releases many hormones which affect growth, sexual development, metabolism and the system of reproduction.
  • 18. Cerebrum (Cerebral Cortex) • Top layer of our brain. • Responsible for highlevel mental process and thought • Contains wrinkles called fissures. • The fissures increase surface area of our brain. • Divided into two hemispheres
  • 19. Cerebral Cortex Brain Comparison
  • 20. Corpus Callosum • Corpus Callosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex. • Allows both hemispheres to communicate with one another
  • 21. Lesson 1: The Brain Summarizer: Brain Parts and Functions
  • 22. Lesson 2: The Brain ACTIVATOR: 3 Parts of the Brain 2 Facts learned 1 Question
  • 23. Lesson 2: The Brain EQ: How do biological processes and systems impact behavior? Vocabulary • Frontal Lobe • Parietal Lobe • Occipital Lobe • Temporal Lobe • Motor Cortex (Strip) • (Soma)Sensory Cortex (Strip) • Broca’s Area • Wernicke’s Area
  • 24. Lobes and Areas Assignment 1. Read the article in your packet entitled Men and Women are Different and answer the questions on the accompanying question sheet. 2. Using colored pencils, locate, label, and shade the following: (Use pg. 74 in your text) • Frontal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Motor Cortex, Somasensory Cortex, Broca’s Area, and Wernicke’s Area. • Note: The areas and cortexes are located in lobes. This means you must locate all areas prior to coloring. 3. Meet with a partner to check each other’s work
  • 25. Lobes and Areas of the Brain
  • 26. Areas of the Cerebral Cortex • Divided into eight lobes, four in each hemisphere (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal). • Any area not dealing with our senses or muscle movements are called association areas.
  • 27. Frontal Lobe • Executive center of the brain. • Deals with planning, maintaining emotional control, abstract thought, and the storage of memories. • Contains Broca’s Area. • Contains Motor Cortex (Strip)
  • 28. Parietal Lobes • Located at the top of our head. • Contains the Somasensory Cortex (Strip) • Rest are association areas.
  • 29. Temporal Lobes • Process sound sensed by ears. • Not lateralized. • Contains Wernicke’s area.
  • 30. Occipital Lobes • In the back of our head. • Contains the visual association area which handles visual information from the eyes. • Right half of each retina goes to left occipital lobe and vice versa.
  • 31. Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas • Broca’s Area • Located in the frontal lobe • Responsible for speaking • When damaged (aphasia) people speak slowly/laboriously with simple sentences • Wernicke’s Area • Located in the temporal lobe • Responsible for understanding speech • When damaged(aphasia) speech is meaningless
  • 32. Mapping of the Motor and Sensory Strips
  • 33. Lesson 3: Split Brain/Cerebral Lateralization EQ: How do biological processes and systems impact behavior? Vocabulary • Corpus Callosum • Epilepsy • Longitudinal Fissure
  • 34. Activating Strategy • Get into pairs • With your partner hold the paper in place and a writing utensil in each hand, attempt to draw a “star” and a “circle” at the same time.
  • 35. Hemispheres • Divided into a left and right hemisphere. • Contra-lateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa. • Brain Lateralization.
  • 36. Cutting the Corpus Callosum WHY? Longitudinal Fissure
  • 37. Split Brain: Assignment 1 • Read with a Purpose: Read p. 65 in alternate textbook. • Summarize the main points and the experiment discussed. • Focus on the outcomes.
  • 38. Split Brain Research Watch The Video: Part 1- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGwsAdS9Dc
  • 39. Split Brain: Assignment 2 • Group discussion: • Now that you have watched the film, what are some right and left brain abilities that were revealed in the film the film? • What are some questions that you have remaining?
  • 40. Cerebral Specialization
  • 41. Split Brain: Hint on Remembering LEFT LANGUAGE LOGIC LINEAR
  • 42. Lesson 4: The Neuron EQ: How do biological processes and systems impact behavior? Vocabulary • Dendrites • Cell body (Soma) • Axon • Myelin Sheath • Synapse • Vesicles • Nodes of Ranvier • Neurotransmitters
  • 43. Lesson 4 Activator Neural Communication Line Test Post Activity Question: Why was there a difference in the results?
  • 44. Neuroanatomy Synapse Neurotransmitters (chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel through synaptic gap) Synapse
  • 45. The Synapse
  • 46. Types of Neurons • Efferent (Motor) Neurons • Interneurons • Afferent (Sensory) Neurons
  • 47. Neuroanatomy: Formal Assessment Link Through Color: Using the three sheets provided, color the corresponding parts on each sheet. Colors should be consistent demonstrating your understanding of the connection between diagrams. You have 15 minutes to complete this assignment.
  • 48. How does a Neuron fire? • Resting Potential: slightly negative charge. • Reach the threshold when enough neurotransmitters reach dendrites. • Go into Action Potential. • All-or-none response. • Transfer of ions across axon’s membrane causes electrical charge.
  • 49. Lesson Activator Any questions prior to the neuron quiz?
  • 50. Lesson 5: Neurotransmitters EQ: How do biological processes and systems impact behavior? Vocabulary • Acetylcholine • Dopamine • Serotonin • Endorphins • Reuptake • SSRI • Neurotransmitter
  • 51. Neural Communication Refresher
  • 52. Neurotransmitter Assignment Using the article Plunge of Pleasure and the Read with a Purpose technique collect evidence on the psychological importance of dopamine and serotonin. This information includes associated behaviors, disorders, and relationship to other drugs.
  • 53. Serotonin Acetylcholine Dopamine Neurotransmitters Endorphins
  • 54. Serotonin • Involved in mood control. • Lack of Serotonin has been linked to clinical depression • SSRI’s • Paxil • Zoloft
  • 55. Dopamine • Deals with infatuation, motor movement, and alertness. • Lack of dopamine has been linked to Parkinson’s disease. • Too much has been linked to schizophrenia. • Cocaine increases levels of dopamine by blocking reuptake http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OS2C4NemJI&feature=related
  • 56. Acetylcholine (ACH) • Deals with motor movement and memory. • Lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. • Nicotine triggers ACH receptor sites. • Reduce # of ACH receptors resulting in withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
  • 57. Endorphins (Endogenous Morphine) • Involved in pain control and feelings of wellbeing • Opiates and endorphins trigger the same receptor sites. (morphine, codeine, heroin) • Causes the Runner’s High
  • 58. Drugs can be….. • Agonists- make neuron fire • Antagonists- stop neural firing • Reuptake Inhibitors- block reuptake
  • 59. Lesson 6: The Nervous and Endocrine Systems EQ: How do biological processes and systems impact behavior? Vocabulary • Central Nervous System • Endocrine System • Peripheral Nervous System • Thyroid • Somatic Nervous System • Androgen • Autonomic Nervous System • Estrogen • Sympathetic Nervous System • Parasympathetic Nervous System
  • 60. The Nervous System
  • 61. Central Nervous System
  • 62. Peripheral Nervous System • All nerves that are not encased in bone. • Everything but the brain and spinal cord. • Is divided into two categories….somatic and autonomic.
  • 63. Somatic Nervous System • Controls voluntary muscle movement. • Uses motor (efferent) neurons.
  • 64. Autonomic Nervous System • Controls the automatic functions of the body. • Divided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympathetic • Memory Hint: Auto like automatic or autopilot. Don’t have to think or do.
  • 65. Sympathetic Nervous System • Fight or Flight Response. • Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion.
  • 66. Parasympathetic Nervous System • Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event. • Heart rate and breathing slow down, pupils constrict and digestion speeds up. • Memory Hint: Para is like parachute. It slow us down.
  • 67. Pituitary Gland • “Master Gland” • An important link between the nervous system and the endocrine system • Releases many hormones which affect growth, sexual development, metabolism and the system of reproduction.
  • 68. Thyroid Metabolism: the chemical and physical processes in an organism by which protoplasm is produced, sustained, and then decomposed to make energy available.
  • 69. Gonads • Sex Glands • Ovaries • Testes • Estrogens • Greater amounts in females • Necessary for normal sexual development of the female • Regulates the menstrual cycle during the childbearing years. • Androgens • Greater amounts in males • Present in females in small amounts • Related to aggression
  • 70. Unit 2: Biopsychology Summarizer 1. Using the Learning Goals Outline in your biopsychology packet, attempt to answer the questions without the use of your notes. This will act as a pre-study test. 2. Identify your areas of weakness 3. Complete any unanswered or correct any incorrect questions 4. Study your packet using the resources provided. (Flashcards, graphic organizers, diagrams, Learning Goals Outline)
  • 71. Study for the Biopsychology Exam
  • 72. Lesson Activator Any questions prior to the Biopsychology Exam?