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Psychology
Unit 1: Foundations and Research
First Day of Class
EQ: What are the expectations/requirements
of this course?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Attendance
Fire Drill Procedu...
Unit 1 Overview
Unit EQ:
How have philosophical perspectives and theoretical approaches
shaped the development of psycholo...
You will need to be able to “Understand” the
following:
• Psychology is a social science that studies mental
processing an...
Unit 1 Outline
Concept 1: The Discipline of Psychology
Concept 2: Foundations and Perspectives
Concept 3: Modern Perspecti...
Activator:

1. Steps of the Scientific Method
Foundations and Perspectives
EQ: How have philosophical perspectives and
theoretical approaches shaped the development of
...
Activator:

1. What role do scientific methods
play in psychology?
2. Steps of the Scientific Method
Foundations and Perspectives
EQ: How have philosophical perspectives and theoretical
approaches shaped the development of ...
Foundational Perspectives
Using textbook pg. 18-19, summarize the beliefs of each of
the following perspectives.

Structur...
Structuralism
• Wilhelm Wundt
• Focused on the basic elements of consciousness
• “What are the elements of psychological
p...
Functionalism
• William James
• Stated conscious experience can’t be broken
down
• Focused on how mental processes help
or...
Key Contributors to Psychology
Name
Charles Darwin
Wilhelm Wundt

William James
Sigmund Freud
John B. Watson
B.F. Skinner
...
Modern Psychological Perspectives
Summarize the key aspects of each perspective. When applicable,
identify which Key Contr...
Gestalt
• Wertheimer, Koffka, and Kohler
• Context influences people’s interpretation of
information.
• Our perceptions ar...
Conducting Psychological Research
EQ: How do psychologists use a variety of scientific research
methods to draw reasonable...
Activator:

1. Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Question
• Research questions are best
focused on behavior rather than
constructs that cannot be seen or
measured direc...
Kitty
Genovese
Bystander
Effect
And
Diffusion of
Responsibility
Assignment: Experiment Creation
• Create a testable thesis
• Your group should then design an experiment that could be
use...
Variables
• Psychologists use the experimental method to answer
questions about cause and effect.
• Independent and Depend...
Adderall Experiment Exercise 1

DV

IV

Hypothesis: If a person diagnosed with Attention Deficit
Disorder (ADD) is given 2...
Assignment: Terms
Read: The Experimental Method and
Single- and Double-Blind Study on
pages 52-54.
Define the terms using ...
Variables
• Confounding Variables
• Hidden variables that distort the association being
studied

Questions:
1. In the Byst...
Blind Studies
Single-Blind Studies
• Participants unaware of the treatment.
• Helps to avoid The Placebo Effect
– A placeb...
• Experimental and Control
Groups
– Members of an
experimental group
receive the treatment;
members of a control
group do ...
Adderall Experiment Exercise 2

Hypothesis: If a person diagnosed with Attention Deficit
Disorder (ADD) is given 20mg of A...
Adderall Experiment Exercise 2
Vocabulary

Application to the Experiment

Independent
Variable

20mg of Adderall

Dependen...
Summarizing Activity

5 Steps of the Scientific Method, 2 Variables,
and Questions Remaining
Classwork/Homework Assignment
Finding Evidence: What do you think?
(Read Textbook pg. 32-33. Answer questions and identify...
Conducting Psychological Research: Flaws and
Confounding Variables
EQ: How do psychologists use a variety of scientific
re...
What do you think?
(Read Textbook pg. 32-33)
• What flaws did the Hawthorne study have, and how did
these flaws affect the...
Case Study: Learning from a Flawed Experiment

The Hawthorne Effect

Flaws in the Hawthorne Study

• The tendency of resea...
Participatory Learning – Flawed Experiment
Pick out the flaws in the following statement.
1. Hypothesis: “Smart” people te...
Flaws & Confounding Variables
• Confounding Variables
• Hidden variables that distort the association being
studied

Examp...
Samples
• Ensure samples accurately represent the population.
• Random Sample
• individuals are selected by chance from th...
Volunteer Bias
• When conducting surveys, bias may occur on the part of the
respondents.
• Bias is a predisposition to a c...
Critical Thinking Activity
Complete Methods of Psychology: Critical
Thinking Activity worksheet in your packet.

Average S...
How can a scientific
mistake lead to a
scientific truth?
Data
Conducting Psychological Research: Methods and Data
EQ: How do psychologists use a variety of scientific
research methods ...
Psychological Methods
Psychological Methods
Psychological Methods
Analyzing the Observations
One method psychologists use to analyze and interpret their
observations is correlation. Correl...
Correlation: Scatterplot
Standard Deviation: IQ
Assignment: Frankenstein and Ethics
• In your packet, read Ethics in
Experimentation: Frankenstein and
Complete Questions ...
APA Ethical Guidelines
for Human Research
• Informed Consent - participants must know that they are involved in
research a...
Unit 1 Exam Topics
• Definition of Psychology
• Applied vs. Research Psychologist
• Historical Figures/Contributions
• Psy...
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  1. 1. Psychology Unit 1: Foundations and Research
  2. 2. First Day of Class EQ: What are the expectations/requirements of this course? • • • • • • • Attendance Fire Drill Procedures Medical Team/Crisis Response Team Bathroom Sign-out Syllabus Assign Books Questions
  3. 3. Unit 1 Overview Unit EQ: How have philosophical perspectives and theoretical approaches shaped the development of psychology? You will need to be able to “Do” the following: • PPS 1.1-Define psychology as a discipline and identify its goals as a science • PPS 1.2-Describe the emergence of psychology as a scientific discipline • PPS-1.3-Describe perspectives employed to understand behavior and mental processes • PPS-1.4-Explain how psychology evolved as a scientific discipline • RMS 1.1: Describe the scientific method and its role in psychology • RMS 1.2: Describe and compare a variety of quantitative and qualitative research methods • RMS 2.1: Identify ethical standards psychologist must address regarding research with human participants.
  4. 4. You will need to be able to “Understand” the following: • Psychology is a social science that studies mental processing and behavior • Psychology employs several different major theoretical perspectives and/or subfields • Psychologists use several approaches to conducting research, all sociologists follow a seven step research process, and psychologists are bound by ethical guidelines.
  5. 5. Unit 1 Outline Concept 1: The Discipline of Psychology Concept 2: Foundations and Perspectives Concept 3: Modern Perspectives Concept 4: Conducting Psychological Research Lesson: Concept 5: Ethics 1 2 3
  6. 6. Activator: 1. Steps of the Scientific Method
  7. 7. Foundations and Perspectives EQ: How have philosophical perspectives and theoretical approaches shaped the development of psychology? Vocabulary • • • • • • • Structuralism Functionalism Gestalt Charles Darwin Sigmund Freud Carl Rogers Wilhelm Wundt • • • • • William James • Humanistic Perspective John Watson • Sociocultural Perspective B.F. Skinner Psychoanalytic Perspective Behavioral (Learning) Perspective • Biological Perspective
  8. 8. Activator: 1. What role do scientific methods play in psychology? 2. Steps of the Scientific Method
  9. 9. Foundations and Perspectives EQ: How have philosophical perspectives and theoretical approaches shaped the development of psychology? Vocabulary • • • • • • • Structuralism Functionalism Gestalt Charles Darwin Sigmund Freud Carl Rogers Wilhelm Wundt • • • • • William James • Humanistic Perspective John Watson • Sociocultural Perspective B.F. Skinner Psychoanalytic Perspective Behavioral (Learning) Perspective • Biological Perspective
  10. 10. Foundational Perspectives Using textbook pg. 18-19, summarize the beliefs of each of the following perspectives. Structuralism Functionalism
  11. 11. Structuralism • Wilhelm Wundt • Focused on the basic elements of consciousness • “What are the elements of psychological processes?” • Broke consciousness down (Human Mind) • Objective sensations • Accurately reflect outside world • Subjective sensations • Included emotional experiences • Introspection: a person carefully examines and reports their own experiences
  12. 12. Functionalism • William James • Stated conscious experience can’t be broken down • Focused on how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment • “What is the purpose of behavior and process?” • Used introspection and observation • Evolution
  13. 13. Key Contributors to Psychology Name Charles Darwin Wilhelm Wundt William James Sigmund Freud John B. Watson B.F. Skinner Carl Rogers Kenneth & Miriam Clark Key Contributions
  14. 14. Modern Psychological Perspectives Summarize the key aspects of each perspective. When applicable, identify which Key Contributors are associated with a perspective. Psychoanalytic Gestalt Learning (Behaviorist/Social Learning) Cognitive Biological Humanistic Sociocultural Evolutionary Biopsychosocial
  15. 15. Gestalt • Wertheimer, Koffka, and Kohler • Context influences people’s interpretation of information. • Our perceptions are more than the sum of its parts. • We see things a wholes • They reject the structuralist perspectives. • Examine pg. 20
  16. 16. Conducting Psychological Research EQ: How do psychologists use a variety of scientific research methods to draw reasonable conclusions? Vocabulary • scientific method • Dependent variable • Independent variable • Experimental group • • • • Control group Double-blind study Confounding variable Placebo • RMS 1.1: Describe the scientific method and its role in psychology • RMS 1.2: Describe and compare a variety of quantitative and qualitative research methods
  17. 17. Activator: 1. Steps of the Scientific Method
  18. 18. 1. Question • Research questions are best focused on behavior rather than constructs that cannot be seen or measured directly. 2. Hypothesis • Form a hypothesis about the answer to the research question. • A hypothesis is an educated guess. 3. Testing the Hypothesis • A hypothesis cannot be considered to be correct until it has been scientifically tested and proved to be right.. • May use a variety of research methods to test a hypothesis. 4. Analyzing the Results • What do their findings mean? • Psychologists often look for patterns and relationships in the data. 5. Drawing Conclusions • Psychologists draw conclusions about their research question and their hypothesis. • When observations do not support a hypothesis, they often must change the theories or beliefs from which the hypothesis was derived.
  19. 19. Kitty Genovese Bystander Effect And Diffusion of Responsibility
  20. 20. Assignment: Experiment Creation • Create a testable thesis • Your group should then design an experiment that could be used to test the phenomenon of diffusion of responsibility (bystander effect). • Include as many details as possible. • Be prepared to share out.
  21. 21. Variables • Psychologists use the experimental method to answer questions about cause and effect. • Independent and Dependent Variables • Experiments have variables, which are factors that can vary, or change. • The independent variable is the factor that researchers manipulate. • The dependent variable is the factor whose value depends on a change made to the independent variable.
  22. 22. Adderall Experiment Exercise 1 DV IV Hypothesis: If a person diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is given 20mg of Adderall then his/her focus time will increase. Formative Assessment: Using all the hypothesis above, identify the independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV). Write your answer on a sheet of paper.
  23. 23. Assignment: Terms Read: The Experimental Method and Single- and Double-Blind Study on pages 52-54. Define the terms using the Advanced Organizer (Note Sheet)
  24. 24. Variables • Confounding Variables • Hidden variables that distort the association being studied Questions: 1. In the Bystander Effect study or the Adderall Study, what might be some of the confounding variables? 2. What does the phrase “the power of suggestion” mean?
  25. 25. Blind Studies Single-Blind Studies • Participants unaware of the treatment. • Helps to avoid The Placebo Effect – A placebo is a substance or treatment that has no effect apart from a person’s belief in its effect. – Feeling better simply because we expect to feel better—and for no other reason—is an example of the placebo effect. Double-Blind Studies • Participants and researchers are unaware of who receives the treatment. • Double-blind studies help researchers avoid the influence of expectations and remain unbiased.
  26. 26. • Experimental and Control Groups – Members of an experimental group receive the treatment; members of a control group do not. – All other conditions are held constant for both the experimental group and the control group. – A controlled experiment uses both a control group and an experiment group. Groups
  27. 27. Adderall Experiment Exercise 2 Hypothesis: If a person diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is given 20mg of Adderall then his/her focus time will increase. Formative Assessment : Using all terms on the vocabulary sheet, design and label and experiment that tests the above hypothesis
  28. 28. Adderall Experiment Exercise 2 Vocabulary Application to the Experiment Independent Variable 20mg of Adderall Dependent Variable Ability to Focus Control Group Experimental Group Groups that receives the Placebo not the Adderall Group that receives the Adderall Placebo False pill to make up for the power of suggestion Single-Blind Study Researcher knows who took the Adderall/Subject Doesn’t Double-Blind Study Neither Researcher or Subject knows who took Adderall
  29. 29. Summarizing Activity 5 Steps of the Scientific Method, 2 Variables, and Questions Remaining
  30. 30. Classwork/Homework Assignment Finding Evidence: What do you think? (Read Textbook pg. 32-33. Answer questions and identify where you found the evidence for your answer) • What flaws did the Hawthorne study have, and how did these flaws affect the study’s outcome? • What is the Hawthorne effect, and why do some people question its existence?
  31. 31. Conducting Psychological Research: Flaws and Confounding Variables EQ: How do psychologists use a variety of scientific research methods to draw reasonable conclusions? Activator: What are confounding variables? What are some examples discussed yesterday? Vocabulary • • • • Survey Method Naturalistic Observation Interviews Hawthorne Effect • • • • Case Study Psychological Tests Longitudinal method Cross-Sectional Method
  32. 32. What do you think? (Read Textbook pg. 32-33) • What flaws did the Hawthorne study have, and how did these flaws affect the study’s outcome? • What is the Hawthorne effect, and why do some people question its existence?
  33. 33. Case Study: Learning from a Flawed Experiment The Hawthorne Effect Flaws in the Hawthorne Study • The tendency of research subjects to change their behavior as a result of their awareness of being observed. • Was not a blind study • Did not have a control group • Small Sample Size • It was named for a 1927 workplace study. • Results of the study may have been misinterpreted
  34. 34. Participatory Learning – Flawed Experiment Pick out the flaws in the following statement. 1. Hypothesis: “Smart” people tend to be more open-minded and flexible. 2. Subjects: To test the hypothesis above, the experimenter asks a wide variety of friends to complete a puzzle that requires flexibility. Then he or she compares their scores. 3. Procedure: The experimenter tries to test the hypothesis above on his friends, but they are too busy. Instead, he or she uses strangers. The experimenter administers a brief intelligence test, then gives subjects a test of flexibility. In the morning he or she finds a group in the cafeteria and passes out the tests to them. In the afternoon, the experimenter finds people in the library who are studying by themselves.
  35. 35. Flaws & Confounding Variables • Confounding Variables • Hidden variables that distort the association being studied Examples: 1. “Power of Suggestion” --- Single-blind study 2. Researcher Bias --- Double-blind study
  36. 36. Samples • Ensure samples accurately represent the population. • Random Sample • individuals are selected by chance from the target population. • Stratified Sample • consists of subgroups in the population that are represented proportionally. • A large random sample is more likely to be accurately stratified even if researchers take no steps to ensure that it is.
  37. 37. Volunteer Bias • When conducting surveys, bias may occur on the part of the respondents. • Bias is a predisposition to a certain point of view • Volunteer bias: People who volunteer to participate in studies may have a different outlook from people who do not volunteer. – Volunteers are usually more willing to disclose personal information. – They may have more spare time to participate. – Volunteers probably do not represent the target population.
  38. 38. Critical Thinking Activity Complete Methods of Psychology: Critical Thinking Activity worksheet in your packet. Average Score (Mean) Highest Score Lowest Score Median Score (Mid-Point) Experimental Group 81% Control Group 67% 89% 73% 79% 87% 34% 77%
  39. 39. How can a scientific mistake lead to a scientific truth?
  40. 40. Data
  41. 41. Conducting Psychological Research: Methods and Data EQ: How do psychologists use a variety of scientific research methods to draw reasonable conclusions? Activator: Remember the Methods of Research Vocabulary • • • • Quantitative Qualitative Naturalistic Observation Interviews • • • • • Case Study Psychological Tests Longitudinal method Cross-Sectional Method Survey Method
  42. 42. Psychological Methods
  43. 43. Psychological Methods
  44. 44. Psychological Methods
  45. 45. Analyzing the Observations One method psychologists use to analyze and interpret their observations is correlation. Correlation is a measure of how closely one thing is related to another. The stronger the correlation between two things, the more closely the two things are related. Positive and Negative Correlation • Positive correlation occurs when an increase in one thing is accompanied by an increase in the other. • Negative correlation occurs when a increase in one thing is accompanied by a decrease in the other. (or vice versa) Limits of Correlation • Correlation describes relationships, but it does not reveal cause and effect. • Just because two things are related does not necessarily mean that one causes the other.
  46. 46. Correlation: Scatterplot
  47. 47. Standard Deviation: IQ
  48. 48. Assignment: Frankenstein and Ethics • In your packet, read Ethics in Experimentation: Frankenstein and Complete Questions 1, 3-5 • REMINDER: UNIT 1 Exam is Wednesday STUDY!!!
  49. 49. APA Ethical Guidelines for Human Research • Informed Consent - participants must know that they are involved in research and give their consent or permission • Deception - if the participants are deceived in any way about the nature of the study, the deception must not be so extreme as to invalidate the informed consent. • Coercion - participants cannot be coerced in any way to give consent to be in the study. • Anonymity-the identities and actions of participants must not be revealed in any way by the researcher. • Risk-participants cannot be placed at significant mental or physical risk. This clause requires interpretation by the review board. • Debriefing Procedures -participants must be told of the purpose of the study and provided with ways to contact the researchers about the results.
  50. 50. Unit 1 Exam Topics • Definition of Psychology • Applied vs. Research Psychologist • Historical Figures/Contributions • Psychological Perspectives • Experimentation (Terms and Application) • Data (Correlation) • Methods of Research • Ethics
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