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Of Mice and Men exam
 

Of Mice and Men exam

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    Of Mice and Men exam Of Mice and Men exam Presentation Transcript

    • Of Mice and Men Writing a Literature essay
    • Lit Exam Assessment objectivesSection B (Exploring Cultures)20% of Unit 1 Exploring Modern Texts (40%)AO1 – 5%respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select andevaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and supportinterpretationsAO2 – 5%explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’presentation of ideas, themes and settingsAO4 - 10%relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts;explain how texts have been influential and significant to selfand other readers in different contexts and at different times
    • Section B Lit Exam Mark SchemeMark Band 6 – 26-30 marksCandidates demonstrate:6.1 Insightful exploratory interpretation of ideas/themes6.2 Close analysis of detail to support interpretation6.3 Evaluation of the writer’s uses of language and/or structureand/or form and effects on readers6.4 Insightful exploratory response to context(s)6.5 Insightful exploration of a range of telling detail to supportresponse to context(s)Information is presented clearly and accurately. Writing is fluentand focused. Syntax and spelling are used with a high degree ofaccuracy.
    • Section B Lit Exam Mark SchemeMark Band 5 – 21-25 marksCandidates demonstrate:5.1 Exploratory interpretation of ideas/themes5.2 Analytical use of details to support interpretation5.3 Analysis of writer’s uses of language and/or structure and/orform and effects on readers5.4 Exploratory response to context(s)5.5 Exploration of a range of telling detail to support response tocontext(s)Structure and style are used effectively to render meaning clear.Syntax and spelling are used with a high degree of accuracy.
    • Section B Lit Exam Mark SchemeMark Band 4 – 16-20 marksCandidates demonstrate:4.1 Thoughtful consideration of ideas/themes4.2 Details linked to interpretation4.3 Appreciation/consideration of writer’s uses of languageand/or structure and/or form and effects on readers4.4 Considered/qualified response to context(s)4.5 Thoughtful selection and consideration of details to supportresponse to context(s)Information is presented in a way which assists withcommunication of meaning. Syntax and spelling are generallyaccurate.
    • Section B Lit Exam Mark SchemeMark Band 3 – 11-15 marksCandidates demonstrate:3.1 Sustained understanding of themes/ideas3.2 Effective use of details to support interpretation3.3 Explanation of effects of writer’s uses of language and/orstructure and/or form3.4 Sustained response to context(s)3.5 Selection of effective details to support response tocontext(s)Information is usually presented in a way which assists withcommunication of meaning. Syntax and spelling are generallyaccurate.
    • Section B Lit Exam Mark SchemeMark Band 2 – 6-10 marksCandidates demonstrate:2.1 Explained response to ideas/themes2.2 Details used to support a range of comments2.3 Identification of effect(s) of writer’s uses of language and/orform and/or structure2.4 Explained response to context(s)2.5 Selection of a range of details to support response tocontext(s)Information is presented in a way which is generally clear.Syntax and spelling have some degree of accuracy.
    • Section B Lit Exam Mark SchemeMark Band 1 – 1-5 marksCandidates demonstrate:1.1 Supported response to ideas/themes1.2 Comment(s) on detail(s)1.3 Awareness of writer making choice(s) of language and/orstructure and/or form1.4 Supported response to context(s)1.5 Details used to support response to context(s)Despite lapses, nformation is presented in a way which isusually clear. Syntax and spelling have some degree ofaccuracy, although there are likely to be frequent errors.
    • Of Mice And MenHow do I plan for a timed exam response?
    • Deatha) How does Steinbeck present the theme ofdeath in Of Mice And Men?•…•…•…b) How does Steinbeck try to relate thistheme to society in 1930s America?•…
    • Deatha) How does Steinbeck present the theme ofdeath in Of Mice And Men?•vulnerable are left to die (elderly, disabled)•death is sometimes accidental (mouse, puppy)•death is sometimes done for mercy (Lennie)b) How does Steinbeck try to relate thistheme to society in 1930s America?•there is no guarantee of survival, good or bad die,is it fair that the vulnerable should be abandonedby society?
    • Powera) How does Steinbeck present power in OfMice And Men?•…•…•…b) How does Steinbeck try to relate thistheme to society in 1930s America?•…
    • Powera) How does Steinbeck present power in OfMice And Men?•some people have no power (Crooks, Candy)•those without power need to stick together (G+L)•power is an illusion (is Curley powerful?)b) How does Steinbeck try to relate thistheme to society in 1930s America?•difficult times when power often meant survival –is this fair?
    • Bunkhousea) How does Steinbeck present thebunkhouse in Of Mice And Men?•…•…•…b) How does the bunkhouse relate to thenovel as a whole?•…
    • Bunkhousea) How does Steinbeck present thebunkhouse in Of Mice And Men?•basic•dark•enclosed, keeping others outb) How does the bunkhouse relate to thenovel as a whole?•microcosm of society? safe? exclusive?
    • Lennie’s Dreama) How does Steinbeck present Lennie’sDream in Of Mice And Men?•…•…•…b) How does Steinbeck try to relate thisdream to society in 1930s America?•…
    • Lennie’s Dreama) How does Steinbeck present Lennie’sDream in Of Mice And Men?•rabbits  caring for something•house  safe•Lennie’s dream = death?  rabbit tells him offb) How does Steinbeck try to relate thisdream to society in 1930s America?•even modest dreams are dashed by the hardshipof the 1930s
    • Womena) How does Steinbeck present women inOf Mice And Men?•…•…•…b) How do women fit in with the novel as awhole?•…
    • Womena) How does Steinbeck present women inOf Mice And Men?•Cat house, Curley’s wife  seen but not heard•Curley’s wife  ‘tramp’, attractive, flirty•Curley’s wife  lonely, desperate, victimb) How do women fit in with the novel as awhole?•unrecognised victims of society; vulnerable
    • Ranch workersa) How does Steinbeck represent ranchworkers?•…•…•…b) How does Steinbeck use the workers onthe ranch to represent society in the 1930s?•…•…
    • Ranch workersa) How does Steinbeck represent ranchworkers?•independent, no ties•poor/lacking in possessions•insensitiveb) How does Steinbeck use the workers onthe ranch to represent society in the 1930s?•the old and vulnerable struggle to survive•hierarchy of power
    • Lennie’s emotional developmenta) How does Steinbeck represent change in
    • Lennie’s emotional developmenta) How does Steinbeck represent change inLennie’s emotions throughout the novel?•happiness, lack of planning ahead•doubt•guiltb) How could Lennie’s emotions relate toSteinbeck’s ideas about 1930s America?•from naivety and innocence to ruin
    • Curleya) How does Steinbeck present Curley in OfMice And Men?•…•…•…b) How could the ranch relate to Americansociety as a whole in the 1930s?•…
    • Curleya) How does Steinbeck present Curley in OfMice And Men?•appearance•behaviour; reaction of other characters•holder of power; morally weakb) How could Curley relate to Steinbeck’sideas about American society in the 1930s?•symbol of every man for himself
    • Atmosphere in the barna) How does Steinbeck create a sense ofatmosphere in the barn in Of Mice AndMen?•…•…•…b) How does the atmosphere in the barnrelate to the novel as a whole?•…
    • Atmosphere in the barna) How does Steinbeck create a sense ofatmosphere in the barn in Of Mice AndMen?•empty•dormant•unsettledb) How does the atmosphere in the barnrelate to the novel as a whole?•loneliness, foreshadowing
    • Candy’s doga) How does Steinbeck present the death ofCandy’s dog in Of Mice And Men?•…•…•…b) How does this death relate to the novelas a whole?•…•…
    • Candy’s doga) How does Steinbeck present the death ofCandy’s dog in Of Mice And Men?•rise in tension•subplots•emotionb) How does this death relate to the novelas a whole?•accidental, vulnerable•foreshadows Lennie’s death
    • Animalsa) How does Steinbeck present animals inOf Mice And Men?•…•…•…b) How does the animal theme relate toAmerican society in the 1930s?•…
    • Animalsa) How does Steinbeck present animals inOf Mice And Men?•wild animals•tame animals•animals as symbols for groups of peopleb) How does the animal theme relate toAmerican society in the 1930s?•weak animals and people struggle to survive
    • Titlea) What is the significance of the title of thenovel?•…•…•…b) How does the title relate to Americansociety in the 1930s?•…
    • Titlea) What is the significance of the title of thenovel?•link to Robbie Burns poem•most of what happens in life is accidental•who are the mice and who are the men?b) How does the title relate to Americansociety in the 1930s?•the small man finds it hard to survive no matterhow hard he works or how deserving he is
    • Slima) How does Steinbeck present thecharacter of Slim in the novel?•…•…•…b) How does the character relate to thenovel as a whole?•…
    • Slima) How does Steinbeck present thecharacter of Slim in the novel?•‘prince’ of the ranch, description•above the traditional hierarchy, role model•sympathetic of George and Lennie, good judgeb) How does the character relate to thenovel as a whole?•Slim’s approval of George and Lennie influencesthe reader
    • Of Mice And MenHow do I answer a question about the writer’s craft?
    • Atmosphere"Evening of a hot day started the little wind tomoving among the leaves. The shade climbedup the hills toward the top. On the sand banksthe rabbits sat as quietly as little grey,sculptured stones.”• What atmosphere is created?• What words help to create this?• Rewrite this extract to create a differentatmosphere
    • Planning - model“a path beaten hard”1. What atmosphere is created? How does theauthor achieve this? (language and structure)2. What could the atmosphere created suggest aboutforthcoming events in the novel?3. How could the atmosphere created symbolisesociety/characters in the novel?4. What predictions could you make aboutsociety/characters based on your evidence?5. What do you think is the most effective part of thisopening and how could it relate to the writer’s intentions?
    • How does the writer create atmosphere in the opening of the novel?The opening of Of Mice and Men offers thereader an atmosphere of tranquillity.Steinbeck appeals to the reader’s senses byusing colour to create a peaceful, idylliclandscape. For example, ‘willows fresh andgreen’ show a brightness of colour whichsuggests summer, a bountiful season in whichhumans and animals alike sit back intranquillity, enjoying the fruits of their labour.Another colour Steinbeck uses to furthersupport this idea of a tranquil summer
    • ‘golden summer foothills’ (with the colour goldsuggesting the warm, peaceful glow of summersunshine) which ‘curve’, suggesting aneffortless journey. Significantly, Steinbeck’s useof verbs is also designed to create anatmosphere of tranquillity: ‘curve’, ‘slippedtwinkling’, ‘sat quietly’ all point to a mood whichis peaceful and unthreatened. The tranquillity ofthe opening however, begins to show somecracks as the two men approach. Immediately,the peace is disturbed and verbs such as‘hurried’ and ‘labored’ seem to indicate the startof a struggle.
    • Steinbeck may be creating this peaceful,tranquil atmosphere, which is then disturbed, tosymbolise the fact that people’s lives anddreams at the time may also have appearedserene and happy, but that actually crackswould appear in them as well. Steinbeck wantedreaders to understand how ‘the best laid plansof mice and men’ often didn’t turn out asexpected; the American Dream of ‘livin’ off thefatta the land’ very often ended in tragedy, withlives broken and relationships lost.
    • Of Mice And MenHow do I answer a question about description of a setting?
    • How is the bunk house presented?1. What is the bunk house like? What language or structural techniques/devices does the writer use?NOTE:• Select short/focused quotations• Build by finding other evidence in support of the same point• Explore connotations of words
    • How is the bunk house presented?2. What could the description of the bunk house suggest about the lives of people in the novel?
    • How is the bunk house presented?3. What do you think is the most effective part of this description and why. How could it relate to the writer’s intentions?
    • How is the bunk house presented?4. How does the description of the bunk house link to the ideas and themes of the novel?
    • What does the bunkhouse tell us about life on the ranches?1. How could the bunk house symbolise wider society in America in the 1930s? Remember to use evidence from the extract and link it to evidence from the rest of the novel.
    • Section B Lit Exam Mark SchemeMark Band 6 – 26-30 marksCandidates demonstrate:6.1 Insightful exploratory interpretation of ideas/themes6.2 Close analysis of detail to support interpretation6.3 Evaluation of the writer’s uses of language and/or structureand/or form and effects on readers6.4 Insightful exploratory response to context(s)6.5 Insightful exploration of a range of telling detail to supportresponse to context(s)Information is presented clearly and accurately. Writing is fluentand focused. Syntax and spelling are used with a high degree ofaccuracy.
    • Section B Lit Exam Mark SchemeMark Band 5 – 21-25 marksCandidates demonstrate:5.1 Exploratory interpretation of ideas/themes5.2 Analytical use of details to support interpretation5.3 Analysis of writer’s uses of language and/or structure and/orform and effects on readers5.4 Exploratory response to context(s)5.5 Exploration of a range of telling detail to support response tocontext(s)Structure and style are used effectively to render meaning clear.Syntax and spelling are used with a high degree of accuracy.
    • Planning for question a)• ‘personal belongings’ = soap, talcum powder, razors, magazines, medicines, vials, combs, neckties• items found in the room = black cast-iron stove, apple box, big square table, boxes […] to sit on, burlap ticking• the room = ‘rectangular’, ‘small, square windows’, ‘whitewashed’, ‘unpainted’, ‘solid door with a wooden latch’• interesting language = ‘the occupants’, ‘little articles’, ‘littered’, the sun threw a bright dust-laden bar through one of the windows’, ‘flies shot like rushing stars’
    • Planning for question b)What does the bunk house suggest about the people who who live there?Pick one physical detail of the bunkhouse and jot down 3 ideas about how it might link to life on the ranch.
    • How is the bunk house presented?A) Steinbeck uses the description of the bunk house to give thereader an understanding of the basic and lonely lives lead by theranch workers. The bunk house itself is described as‘rectangular’, ‘whitewashed’, and ‘unpainted’; these are all wordsindicating that it is not really a home, but just somewhere basicwhere the men can sleep – it’s a place where every man isisolated and lonely, constantly afraid that someone else mightcome to take away his job, status, or few possessions. Themigrant workers don’t own the space and they don’t care aboutmaking it feel homely, which is why there is just an ‘unpainted’floor and the shelves are made from ‘apple boxes’ which wouldhave been found lying around on the ranch. After working in thefields all day, the workers don’t even have the basic comfort ofchairs or comfortable beds, as they sit on ‘boxes’ and sleep on‘burlap ticking’ which is a coarse, cheap mattress covering.
    • Steinbeck might be suggesting here that the lives of these men allrevolve around work, and that their daily lives are empty. The onlyevidence of entertainment are the ‘magazines’ and ‘neckties’which imply that the men try to fill in the gap of not having anormal family life with occasional visits to the ‘cat-house’ (theywash and try to look a little smarter by wearing a ‘necktie’) andcheap magazines (we know that many of the men can’t read, asthey ask Slim to read for them, so these will be mostly picturemagazines). The items found in the bunk house link to the themeof the loneliness of migrant workers during the Great Depression,because these men are clearly living in the bunk housetemporarily and don’t have enough money or sense of ownershipto accumulate possessions: all their possessions fit on an ‘applebox’ nailed to the wall with a few ‘nails’ as hooks, ready to bepacked up and moved when they leave to move on to the next jobor when they are sacked and asked to move on. The ‘small’windows of the bunk house keep out the light, making it a darkplace and highlighting the tragedy of these men’s lives.
    • Generally light is associated with a healthy, happy environment,so this dingy bunk house might be suggesting that happiness isnot part of these men’s lives and that they are trapped into a lifeof just work and no hope by the ‘solid door’ and the ‘woodenlatch’: they are so occupied with trying to reach the impossibledream of living ‘on the fatta the land’ that they have given up anyhope of happiness in every day life. The reader is left with theimpression that chasing a dream is not the solution to findinghappiness, but also an understanding that perhaps these menhad no way out and that life and survival in the world of the bunkhouse was tough.B) This description of the bunk house links to the situation inAmerica in the 1930s, when men were struggling to survive andthe bunk house could be seen as a symbol of the basic lives ofthe poor at the time. The ‘small windows’ could symbolise thelack of light and therefore the lack of a happy future – the lives ofthe men, like their minds, were dark; the ‘burlap ticking’ couldsymbolise that for these migrant workers there was
    • little hope of rest – it was all work, work, work. The ‘boxes’ usedas makeshift furniture could indicate the temporary nature of theirwork – they couldn’t set down roots because they were constantlyon the move, and this meant they could not have long termfriendships or relationships and that society was very divided andpeople were lonely. Having a family was sometimes a distantdream due to lack of money and jobs; and the only way peoplecould survive on a daily basis was to work hard and hope theycould survive being crushed by the Great Depression. Othersaround them were also trying desperately to survive, so only the‘men’ made it, whilst for the ‘mice’ there was little hope. Maybethis is why Steinbeck gives the bunk house a ‘solid door’ and a‘latch’ – to show how the men needed to protect themselves andtheir jobs from the outside world. However, sometimes, eveninside the bunk house the atmosphere was aggressive, as wesee when Lennie says to George later in Chapter Two ‘this ain’tno good place’ and ‘it’s mean here’.
    • Of Mice And Men How does Steinbeck present thetheme of loneliness in chapter 2 of the novel?
    • Loneliness“Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world”Why might it be lonely to work on a ranch?
    • George“They got no family”“They don’t belong no place”“Blow their stake”“They ‘ain’t got nothing to look ahead to”
    • P.E.E.E.EChoose one of the quotes and write a P.E.E.E.E paragraph to show your understanding of how it conveys the theme of loneliness.
    • Of Mice And MenWhy is Slim such an influential figure?
    • “A tall man stood in the doorway he held acrushed Stetson under his arm while hecombed his long, black damp hair straightback. Like the others, he wore blue jeans anda short denim jacket. When he had finishedcombing his hair, he moved into the room,and he moved with a majesty only achievedby royalty and master craftsmen. He was ajerk line skinner, the prince of the ranch,capable of driving ten, sixteen, even twentymules with a single line to the leaders. Hewas capable of killing a fly on the wheeler’sbutt with a bull whip without touching themule.
    • There was a gravity in his manner and a quiet,so profound that all talk stopped when hespoke. His authority was so great that his wordwas taken on any subject, be it politics or love.This was Slim, the jerk line skinner. His hatchetface was ageless. He might have been 35 or50. His ear heard more than was said to himand his slow speech had overtones not ofthought, but of understanding beyond thought.His hands, large and lean, were as delicate intheir action as those of a temple dancer.”
    • SlimWhat immediate impression is created of Slim?
    • Character ProfileBegin to create a character profile for Slim. Use quotes from the text to annotate your profiles.Think about: How others view him Physical appearance Behaviour
    • Of Mice And MenHow does Steinbeck use animal imagery in the novel?
    • Animal imageryIf these people were animals, what would they be and why?
    • What is the effect of the animal imagery in these quotations?“Curley stepped over to Lennie like a terrier”“Lennie covered his face with his huge paws and bleated with terror”“the dirty little rat”“Slim turned to the whimpering Lennie”
    • Using animal imageryIf Slim were to be described as an animal, what would he be?
    • Of Mice And MenHow does Steinbeck present the outcasts in the novel?
    • ThinkWhat do we mean by these expressions?What could they suggest about a societyor people?Survival of the fittestDog eat dogTake no prisoners
    • Candy’s Dog Why did Candy’s dog have to die? Why is this so significant to the development of the plot? How is the dog symbolic? What does this tell us about the ‘outcasts’ of the novel and their fate?
    • Curley’s WifeWhy do you think Curley’s wife treats the other characters like she does when she arrives in the barn?”They left all the weak ones here”
    • Your opinion…To what extent do you feel sympathy towards Curley’s wife?
    • Of Mice And Men How can sound and nature beused to change the dynamics of a narrative?
    • Harsh Sounds and Soft SoundsLook at the following quotes. Identify the use of sound to create a mood. Can you create an opposite effect? E.g. hectic afternoon “lazy afternoon” “wisps of hay” “buzz of flies”Can you explain how you have changed the mood through use of sounds?
    • NatureListen to the opening of Chapter 6What comparisons can you find between the opening of Chapter 6 and the opening of the novel?Why has Steinbeck made these comparisons?
    • ThinkFor you, what is the most powerful indicator of Lennie’s fate and why?
    • Of Mice And MenWas George justified in the killing of Lennie?
    • EuthanasiaEuthanasia is the deliberate killing of a person for the benefit of that person.How can you link this idea to George and Lennie’s situation?
    • THINKWas George justified in his killing of Lennie?
    • Thinking from Different PerspectivesComplete a mind map ensuring you have considered the question from a range of perspectives.
    • Of Mice And Men How can I answer a questionabout a character in the novel?
    • ThemesWhat themes do you think each character represents in the novel?What concerns about society do you think Steinbeck wanted to address with each character?
    • Higher Exam QuestionWhat do you think of the following: George, Lennie,Curley’s wife, Curley, Slim, Candy, Crooks. Thinkabout:The way Steinbeck describes him/her and his/herway of lifeThe importance of what they say and doTheir relationships with other people on the ranchSpecific scenes and evidence from the textHow the writer used them to explore his mainconcerns
    • Exam ResponsePick a character and write your answer to the question in P.E.E.E.E.E.
    • Of Mice And MenHow do we gather ideas toanswer an exam question?
    • Exam Question – 45 minutes(a) How does Steinbeck present therelationship between George and Lennie inOf Mice And Men?(b) How does Steinbeck use this relationshipto convey important ideas about America inthe 1930s?
    • ExtractLennie spoke craftily, “Tell me—like you done before.”“Tell you what?”“About the rabbits.”George snapped, “You ain’t gonna put nothing over on me.”Lennie pleaded, “Come on, George. Tell me. Please, George. Like you donebefore.”“You get a kick outa that, don’t you? Awright, I’ll tell you, and then we’ll eat oursupper . . . .”George’s voice became deeper. He repeated his words rhythmically as thoughhe had said them many times before. “Guys like us, that work on ranches, arethe loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don’t belong no place.They come to a ranch an’ work up a stake and then they go into town and blowtheir stake, and the first thing you know they’re poundin’ their tail on someother ranch. They ain’t got nothing to look ahead to.”Lennie was delighted. “That’s it—that’s it. Now tell how it is with us.”George went on. “With us it ain’t like that. We got a future. We got somebodyto talk to that gives a damn about us. We don’t have to sit-in no bar roomblowin’ in our jack jus’ because we got no place else to go. If them other guysgets in jail they can rot for all anybody gives a damn. But not us.”
    • Lennie broke in. “But not us! An’ why? Because . . . . because I got you to lookafter me, and you got me to look after you, and that’s why.” He laugheddelightedly. “Go on now, George!”“You got it by heart. You can do it yourself.”“No, you. I forget some a’ the things. Tell about how it’s gonna be.”“O.K. Someday—we’re gonna get the jack together and we’re gonna have alittle house and a couple of acres an’ a cow and some pigs and—”“An’ live off the fatta the lan’,” Lennie shouted. “An’ have rabbits. Go on,George! Tell about what we’re gonna have in the garden and about the rabbitsin the cages and about the rain in the winter and the stove, and how thick thecream is on the milk like you can hardly cut it. Tell about that, George.”“Why’n’t you do it yourself? You know all of it.”“No . . . . you tell it. It ain’t the same if I tell it. Go on . . . . George. How I get totend the rabbits.”“Well,” said George, “we’ll have a big vegetable patch and a rabbit hutch andchickens. And when it rains in the winter, we’ll just say the hell with goin’ towork, and we’ll build up a fire in the stove and set around it an’ listen to the raincomin’ down on the roof—Nuts!” He took out his pocket knife. “I ain’t got timefor no more.” He drove his knife through the top of one of the bean cans,sawed out the top and passed the can to Lennie. Then he opened a secondcan. From his side pocket he brought out two spoons and passed one of themto Lennie.
    • George’s mood changes• How does it change?• Why does it change?• Find at least two words that show the mood of the scene changing
    • George has had to tell this story before.• Find three quotes that show this• How does George feel about it?• Why does Steinbeck need to show us that Lennie forgets?
    • Lennie keeps interruptingWhat does this tell us about Lennie’s character?
    • George and Lennie have an “American Dream”What does this mean?Are their dreams realistic?Does Steinbeck give us clues?
    • Character ProfilesBegin to create a character profile for both George and Lennie. Use quotes from the text to annotate your profiles.Think about: How they feel about the world How others view them Physical appearance Behaviour
    • ModelSteinbeck uses contrast in the descriptions of George and Lennie to show that they are a very unlikely pair. For example, when describing their eyes, Steinbeck writes that George has ‘restless eyes’, whereas Lennie has ‘pale eyes’.
    • ModelOn the other hand, a ‘pale’ colour is a colour that is notbright or intense, but gentle and almost feminine.Lennie’s ‘pale’ eyes therefore suggest a personality thatis not strong or defined (the word ‘defined’ is used todefine George’s features, but never Lennie’s). MaybeSteinbeck is trying to represent Lennie as having abland, even gentle personality. Steinbeck is trying toshow how George and Lennie’s relationship is not theresult of two similar or equal people meeting, but is theresult of two opposites finding and needing each otherto survive. Maybe the Great Depression is what broughtthem together, as without their friendship George wouldhave been a lonely itinerant worker and Lennie wouldprobably have been homeless and jobless or sent to amental asylum.
    • How do the details in this passage add to yourunderstanding of Crooks? Model response a)
    • Exam Question – 45 minutesRead the passage on pages 73-74 (‘On oneside… than his face’) and then answer thequestions which follow:(a) How do the details in this passage add toyour understanding of Crooks?(b) How does Steinbeck use the character ofCrooks in the novel as a whole to conveyimportant ideas about America in the 1930s?
    • Indicative content• AO1Details of Crooks’ room such as the tidiness; his possessions; the books; the treatments for his back; the fact he lives in the harness room. Details of what Crooks is like such as working with horses; proud; disabled; educated. Details of what happens to Crooks such as racist treatment; injured by horse; momentarily drawn into dream; talks to Lennie• AO2Writer’s use of language to describe Crooks’ room such as amount of detail to show his accumulated possessions; linking of specific objects with specific qualities of Crooks; significance of copy of California Civil Code; writer’s use of Crooks as representative of how black people were treated• AO4Racism of society; Crooks’ isolation; his association with the horses.
    • Crooks possessed several pairs of shoes, a pair of rubber boots, a bigalarm clock, and a single-barrelled shotgun. And he had books, too; a tattereddictionary and a mauled copy of the California civil code for 1905. There werebattered magazines and a few dirty books on a special shelf over his bunk. Apair of large gold-rimmed spectacles hung from a nail on the wall above hisbed. This room was swept and fairly need, for Crooks was a proud, aloof man.He kept his distance and demanded that other people kept theirs. His bodywas bent over to the left by his crooked spine, and his eyes lay deep in hishead, and because of their depth seemed to glitter with intensity. His leanface was lined with deep, black wrinkles, and he had thin, pain-tightened lipswhich were lighter than his face. It was Saturday night. Through the open door that led into the barn camethe sound of moving horses, of feet stirring, of teeth champing on hay, of therattle of halter chains. In the stable buck’s room a small electric globe threw ameagre yellow light. Crooks sat on his bunk. His shirt was out of his jeans and back. In onehand he held a bottle of liniment, and with the other he rubbed his spine. Nowand then he poured a few drops of the liniment into his pink-palmed hand andreached up under his shirt to rub again. He flexed his muscles against hisback and shivered.
    • Steinbeck uses several details to give us an impression ofCrooks as a fairly intelligent, but isolated character. His intelligence is suggested by the fact that he possesses “atattered dictionary”. This suggests that he is trying to educate himselfin his use of language and possibly extend his vocabulary. The word“tattered” could imply that the dictionary was bought second-hand,linking to his status as a low-paid stablebuck. It could also suggestthat he uses the dictionary often, when reading or writing, giving thereader the impression that Crooks is a fairly intelligent man. The ideaof Crooks using a dictionary and “gold rimmed spectacles” to helphim read links him to the theme of isolation because he is notinvolved in the horseshoe or card games with the other men at theranch. Perhaps Steinbeck was trying to show that you shouldn’tjudge Crooks or any other person by appearance: the men in theranch thought that Crooks was a lowlife, but in fact he was probablymore intelligent than some of them. The reader might sympathisewith Crooks and realise from reading this novel that a man likeCrooks who has low status is not necessarily a lesser man, becausesociety often judges people based on prejudice and ignorance.
    • We also get the impression that Crooks likes to keep hisdistance from the other men as Steinbeck writes that “he kept hisdistance and demanded that other people kept theirs”. This suggeststhat Crooks knows his place on the ranch and is aware of thedangers of entering the world of the white men’s bunkhouse due tothe prejudice against his race. The reader becomes aware of theunfairness of this treatment and would sympathise with Crooks. Onthe other hand, Crooks himself shows possessiveness towards hisown sleeping quarters and “demands” that white people stay away.The word “demanded” (which suggests power) is quite surprisingwhen linked to Crooks who we know has very little power on theranch. The fact that he has been excluded by the men for so longand has been made to live closer to the animals in a room that “ledinto the barn” has turned him into “an aloof man”. Maybe Steinbeckwas making a comment on how loneliness and isolation can affectpeople and turn decent human beings into bitter and twistedindividuals. The reader may feel sad that because of prejudice andextreme hardship, even people like Crooks, who could have hadpromising lives, become cruel to survive.
    • How does Steinbeck use the character of Crooks in the novel as a whole to conveyimportant ideas about America in the 1930s? Model response b)
    • Crooks quotes• ‘…the stable buck’s a nigger.’• ‘Got a crooked back where a horse kicked him.’• ‘The boss gives him hell when he’s mad. But the stable buck don’t give a damn about that.’• ‘He reads a lot. Got books in his room.’• ‘They let the nigger come in that night.’• ‘The door opened quietly and the stable buck put in his head; a lean negro head, lined with pain, the eye patient.’• ‘He’s takin’ em outa nest and handlin’ them. That won’t do them no good.’• “Crooks had reduced himself to nothing. There was no personality, no ego – nothing to arouse either like or dislike. (p. 89)
    • [INTRODUCTION] Steinbeck uses the character ofCrooks to highlight some of the issues that he wasconcerned about in 1930s America, such as racism andinequality of power.[POINT+EVIDENCE] When Crooks first comes into thebunkhouse he is described as a “negro” whose face is“lined with pain”. [EXPLAIN] The “pain” that lines his facecould be the result of exclusion and loneliness, or it couldbe physical because of his back injury – either way, this aman who lives with suffering. [EFFECT] This evokessympathy in the reader, [WRITER’S IDEAS ANDTHEMES] which is possibly what Steinbeck wanted toachieve as he tried, with this novel, to highlight thedifficulties of being discriminated against.
    • [POINT+EVIDENCE] The fact that his eyes aredescribed as “patient” suggests that he has had to putup with this treatment to survive [CONTEXT] and that in1930s America, a black person like him would have hadno choice but to accept his situation. [EXPLAIN] Thislinks to the part of the novel where Curley’s wife comes tohis room and when told to leave, establishes her powerover him so he is reduced “to nothing”. The treatment ofCrooks at this point illustrates why he has had to be“patient” and “aloof” – to avoid confrontation with thosemore powerful than him.
    • How does the writer usedetails in this passage to present Candy? Model response a)
    • Exam Question – 45 minutesRead the passage on pages 73-74 (‘The oldman came slowly … take him right.’) and thenanswer the questions which follow:(a) How do the details in this passage add toyour understanding of Crooks?(b) How does Steinbeck use the character ofCrooks in the novel as a whole to conveyimportant ideas about America in the 1930s?
    • Indicative content• AO1Details of Candy’s behaviour such as the fact that he was ‘reassured’ and ‘spoke more confidently’; the fact he ‘felt safe now’; the fact that Candy is called ‘the swamper’ and ‘the old man’; the fact that he has an ‘ancient dog’ who gets up ‘painfully’ and ‘follows’ him.AO2Writer’s use of hyphens and ellipsis to indicate Candy’s hesitation; writer’s use of language to name Candy such as ‘the old man, ‘the swamper’; writer’s use of language to describe the dog, which could mirror Candy’s own situation• AO4Candy’s loneliness and need to talk; his lack of status as an old man
    • The old man was reassured. He had drawn a derogatory statement from George.He felt safe now, and he spoke more confidently. ‘Wait’ll you see Curley’s wife.’George cut the cards again and put out a solitaire lay, slowly and deliberately.‘Purty?’ he asked casually.‘Yeah. Purty ... but ––’George studied his cards. ‘But what?’‘Well – she got the eye.’‘Yeah? Married two weeks and got the eye? Maybe that’s why Curley’s pants is full ofants.’‘I seen her give Slim the eye. Slim’s a jerkline skinner. Hell of a nice fella. Slim don’tneed to wear no high-heeled boots on a grain team. I seen her give Slim the eye.Curley never seen it. An’ I seen her give Carlson the eye.’George pretended a lack of interest. ‘Looks like we was gonna have fun.’The swamper stood up from his box. ‘Know what I think?’ George did not answer.‘Well, I think Curley’s married ... a tart.’‘He ain’t the first,’ said George. ‘There’s plenty done that.’The old man moved toward the door, and his ancient dog lifted his head and peeredabout, and then got painfully to his feet to follow. ‘I gotta be settin’ out the wash basinsfor the guys. The teams’ll be in before long. You guys gonna buck barley?’‘Yeah.’‘You won’t tell Curley nothing I said?’‘Hell no.’‘Well, you look her over, mister. You see if she ain’t a tart.’ He stepped out the doorinto the brilliant sunshine.
    • How does the writer use details in this passage to present Candy?[INTRODUCTION] In the passage, the writer presents Candy as an‘old swamper’ full of fear.[POINT+EVIDENCE] At the very start of the passage, Steinbecktells the reader that ‘the old man was reassured’ by the fact thatGeorge let him speak about his feelings about Curley’s wife.[EFFECT] The reader therefore realises straight away that Candy,[EXPLAIN] because of his age (and the fact he is no longer a goodworker), lives a life of fear and feels more confident (‘reassured’) whenhe realises that George is not going to harm him. [WRITER’SIDEAS+THEMES] Steinbeck may want to show readers howdifficult life was for the old or disabled or generally weak insociety and [EFFECT] readers would realise how unfair thistreatment was because Candy is actually a likeable character andit is easy to feel compassion for the pain and loneliness he findshimself in.
    • Your turn: Question b)How do the other characters treat Candyin the novel and what does this show youabout the society in which he lives?
    • PEE• Point• Evidence (For example,…)• Explain meaning of evidence• Close analysis of how language or structure are used in evidence• Explore how reader/audience will react to the evidence• Link evidence to writer’s ideas + themes• Link evidence to social/historical context
    • In the novel, other characters treat Candy in an aggressiveand unsympathetic way, although some seem tounderstand his feelings as a ‘weak’ old man.[Point] Carlson is quite dismissive of the old man’semotions when tells Candy he’s going to kill his dog andsays, [Evidence] “I’ll put the gun right there” [Explain]because he is not thinking about Candy’s real concerns(losing a dog he loves dearly) and instead focuses on themethod he will use to kill him. [Language] The use of theword ‘gun’ links to the context, as guns were used tomaintain status and power in a man-eat-man world, makingit very hard for weaker characters like Candy (old anddisabled) to have their voices heard; this particular gun willalso get used to kill another weak character in the novel,Lennie, who like the dog, is not able to fend for himself.
    • By saying ‘right here’ Carlson is showing Candy the exact spotwhere he plans to shoot the dog which would have felt veryreal and aggressive to Candy as he would not have been ableto argue against a man with a gun. [Effect] This would makethe reader feel sorry for Candy who ‘looks around unhappily’maybe hoping for a friend to step in and help him out.[Writer’s ideas] Steinbeck was very aware of the suffering ofthe old and the weak in society and with his novels, tried toshow readers how in a society overcome with hardship andpoverty, they were poorly treated and suffered a lot ofdiscrimination. [Context] In a time such as 1930s America,when people were struggling financially and worried abouttheir own survival, the weak, the old and the disabled weresimply left to fend for themselves unless they found a goodfriend to look after them (much like Candy and his dog, orGeorge and Lennie).
    • Of Mice And MenWhat does a C grade response look like?
    • C Grade EssayTo what extent do you consider Of Mice and Men to be a tragic novel?
    • I regard Of Mice And Men as a tragic novelbecause its main themes are loneliness anddeath.Lennie comes across as being tragicbecause he doesn’t understand his ownactions and the actions of others and sodepends on George to tell him what to do.For example, Steinbeck writes that “Lenniewas looking helplessly to George forinstruction”; the adverb ‘helplessly’ meansthat Lennie cannot help himself, but needsGeorge to help him. This shows him as tragicbecause he is a grown man completely
    • Steinbeck might have wanted to show that acharacter who couldn’t look after himself in thispost-Great Depression world where only thefittest survived, would most probably be left todie; it is only because of his friendship withGeorge that Lennie has survived as long as hehas. Maybe Steinbeck wanted to also point outthe importance of friendship in people’s lives ina world where Governments did not help theweakest. Readers today would feel that Lenniejust needed support and did not deserve to die;they would feel that Lennie’s situation wastragic and Steinbeck probably hoped that by
    • writing this novel, his contemporaries wouldalso start to understand the tragedy of mentallydisabled people.Another way that Steinbeck creates a tragicnovel is by stressing the loneliness of most ofthe characters. The character of Slim seemsshocked that two migrant workers like Georgeand Lennie travel together. He says ‘ain’t manyguys travel around together’ which is tragicbecause it highlights how common it was thatmigrant workers travelled alone. Othercharacters linked to migrant workers are alsolonely. For example, Curley’s wife is
    • forever looking for someone to talk to becauseshe says ‘I get lonely’. This shows that it is notonly male migrant workers without possessionswho got lonely, but also their families, becausethrough their difficult lives, these men couldbecome obsessive like Curley, and didn’t makegood husbands. The reader feels the tragedyof Curley’s wife when Steinbeck writes that ‘herbody was thrown forward’; this shows that sheis desperate for attention and craves it like aspoilt child. The reader realises that, becauseshe is a childlike character, she is really quitenaïve and doesn’t have the experience to
    • understand that her behaviour can only lead totragedy.Even though he has more possessions thanmost of the others, Crooks is also a tragiccharacter because he doesn’t have anybody totalk to and isn’t even allowed to share thebunkhouse with the other men because he isblack. Also, he has a hunched back and has‘pain-tightened lips’. This shows he has to keephis pain to himself as he is not allowed tospeak to the other men and has to suffer insilence. His tragedy is that he is so used to thisloneliness that he pushes other
    • people away if they do try to get to know him, andso he has become a very bitter man.Steinbeck makes the novel seem tragic bydescribing pain and suffering, which often lead todeath. For example, Candy’s dog was suffering‘stiffly’. This means he was so old that he washardly capable of moving without pain, and whenhe is put down, this causes more suffering toCandy because he has lost his only companionand is now just as lonely as any other travellingman. Steinbeck describes Candy’s feeling bywriting that ‘Candy lay rigidly’. This has a tragiceffect because he is described similarly to his
    • before he was put down, and this might suggest to the reader that sooner or later Candy too may be ‘put down’ or pushed aside by society because he is too old to survive.Finally, perhaps the most tragic moment in the novel is Lennie’s death. This is foreshadowed by other deaths such as the death of the mouse; the death of the puppy; and finally the death of Curley’s wife when Lennie panics and his ‘fingers closed on her hair’
    • him and he has to pay for his mistake with hislife. This is the climax of the novel and thebiggest tragedy of them all because a readertoday would immediately see that he neededhelp, not a death sentence.In conclusion, Steinbeck tries to show tragiclives in his novel, by offering readers an insightinto people’s lives at the time of the GreatDepression. The reader feels that Steinbecksympathised with all the characters and triesshow with this novel how they were all ‘mice’ ina world where only the fittest men could reallysurvive. This is the tragedy of the novel.
    • Of Mice And MenWhat does an A grade response look like?
    • A Grade EssayHow are animals presented in Of Mice And Men?
    • In Steinbeck’s great novella (short novel) thereare many methods of literary techniques usedlike the use of themes or descriptive languageto make the novel more interesting however themost outlined and unique technique used bySteinbeck is the use of animal imagery; he usesanimals in ‘Of Mice And Men’ to outline hismain ideas and to create a more interesting plotto the novel.The first use of animal imagery appears fairlyearly on in the story; the technique is
    • used to describe the main character calledLennie, they compare Lennie to a ‘bear’ thisinstantly tells us that Lennie is very strong, bigand quite aggressive, however it also shows usthat he would only attack when he has to, orwould attack without any intention becauseresearch proves that bears wouldn’t harmanything unless they are harmed. Thereforethe word ‘bear’ also reflects Lennie’spersonality, showing that he may lose controlat times.
    • this time, it was Candy’s dog who was used topresent how older people are treated; the dogwas said to ‘have no teeth – stinks’ this is clearsigns of the dog growing old as he is growingold Carlson feels that, ‘Why’nt you shoot him?’this means that because the dog is growing oldand is no longer any use he doesn’t deserve tolive, this may also be reflecting Candy that theyare soon going to get rid of him because he isalso old and useless; this links with the historiccontext at the time when the book was written,the elderly go no respect it was the survival ofthe fittest men.
    • Therefore the animal in this incident was usedto represent and symbolise how the elderly aretreated.Early on in the story, animals were used toalmost show the inevitable; almost helping usforsee the story; this was used as a deliberatetechnique ‘Heron labored up and pounded’whilst the ‘rabbits hurried noiselessly for cover’the heron may be used to represent thestronger and wiser men in the ranch with biggerposition, whilst the
    • rabbit is used to represent Lennie, who isn’t asclever as the rest. I believe this shows an earlysign of the vulnerability of Lennie, it shows thathe may be as strong as a ‘bear’ but is asvulnerable as a ‘rabbit’ and would be takendown quite easily. It is similar to the end of thepoem because Lennie is again ‘hurryingnoiselessly for cover’ but he dies instead.Therefore in this case animals were used toforetell the story and to prove that Lennie isvulnerable.Another sign of danger was presented
    • through the use of animals however thistime it was more closer to Lennie’s death,‘the beak swallowed the little snake’ beforethis incident the snake ‘glided smoothly’ thiswas to create a false sense of securitybefore the snake actually got killed. SimilarlyI believe that it reflects the story of Lennie’slife as he lived each day showing us a falsesense of security but then also got killedquite tragically. This again foretells us thestory, showing us that danger is slowlyapproaching. I think that Steinbeck uses
    • animal imagery to make the story inevitable,and makes it more interesting to interpret.Therefore at this stage animals were used toagain foretell the story and to show us thatdanger is getting closer and is soon going tohit towards Lennie, again presenting hisvulnerability.Overall, I believe that Steinbeck has usedanimals very successfully as he uses it for arange of reasons; he firstly utilises it todescribe to us Lennie’s personality and howhe is strong like a ‘bear’ and then to
    • represent the elderly people in that time,and lastly to represent how danger isapproaching closer to Lenny and to showhis vulnerability.