Sm 1.8 mesopotamia

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Sm 1.8 mesopotamia

  1. 1. S U M M I T A C A D E M Y C H A R T E R S C H O O L Mr. Stephan Bridging the GAP … Reaching New HEIGHTS Name: ______________________________ Period: ______ Do Now . . . The Neolithic Revolution also changed the way people lived. In place of scattered hunting communities, the farmers lived in villages. Near groups of villages, small towns grew up, and later cities too. Thus the Neolithic Revolution made civilization itself possible. (The Ancient Near East) Within the villages, towns and cities, it was possible for people to specialize in the sort of work they could do best. Many stopped producing food at all, making instead tools and other goods that farmers needed, and for which they gave them food in exchange. This process of exchange led to trade and traders, and the growth of trade made it possible for people to specialize even more. . . . Source: D. M. Knox, The Neolithic Revolution, Greenhaven Press 1. Explain the changes that occurred, resulting in what we know today as the “Neolithic Revolution.” __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Using at least one quote from the passage above, describe why these changes became known as “revolution.” __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How did job specialization help to cause the creation of civilizations? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. 2. S U M M I T A C A D E M Y C H A R T E R S C H O O L Mr. Stephan Bridging the GAP … Reaching New HEIGHTS Ancient Civilizations of Mesopotamia The Neolithic Revolution, which occurred around 10,000 B.C.E. was a time in which humans learned how to plant crops and domesticate (tame) animals. Instead of living in small groups of hunters and gatherers as they had in the past, humans began to form permanent settlements that relied on agriculture. The land between the Tigris and EuphratesRivers, known as Mesopotamia, was the location of one of the world’s first civilizations. Mesopotamia was an advantageous location for humans to settle because of the fertile soil that was provided by the annual (yearly) floods of both the Tigris and Euphrates. The soil was so good for farming that the region between the rivers was known as the Fertile Crescent. Around 3500 B.C.E., a group known as the Sumerians arrived in Mesopotamia and began to form permanent farming villages. By 3000 B.C.E., these villages had grown into city-states that were surrounded by fields of barley and wheat. As the Sumerian civilization grew in size, it needed to evolve in order to meet the needs of its people. One of the biggest problems for Sumerians was the unpredictable floods that threatened crops each year. In order to cope with the question of when to plant crops, Sumerians dug irrigation ditches that provided the necessary water to their fields. The irrigation ditches worked so well that Sumerians were able to produce a surplus of food, which allowed their population to grow. Digging the irrigation system was an enormous publics works project that required supervision by the government. To address this problem, Sumerians created a complex, but organized government system for each city-state. The Sumerian government was originally (first) led by priests, who were responsible for the relationship between Sumerians and their many gods. The priests conducted business and managed their citizens from a pyramid-shaped temple in the middle of the city-state known as a ziggurat. The ziggurat acted as both a place of worship and city hall. The Sumerians worshipped many different gods that were seen as the spirits of various elements of Sumerian culture. A religion that worships more than one god is called polytheistic. When Sumerians experienced poor harvests, they blamed the priest for not maintaining a proper relationship with the gods and a new priest was chosen. Because the Fertile Crescent was an open plain with few natural resources, Sumerians had to trade some of their surplus grain to obtain (get) certain goods like wood and metal. With their newly acquired materials, Sumerians built walls around the city-states in order to protect them from invasion. Unfortunately, the walls failed to stop invaders and the Sumerians were often at war. During wars, the city-states were led by military commanders who eventually became permanent leaders. These military leaders then passed on their power to their children. A city-state that came under the power of a series of rulers from one family was called a dynasty. The Sumerian society was divided into a class structure that provided the necessary organization for cultural advancements. Priests and kings had the most power, while wealthy merchants ranked second. Most Sumerians worked in the fields to produce enough food for the population. At the lowest level of the social hierarchy (ranking) were the slaves, who could only hope to one day work their way to freedom. Sumerians were responsible for a number of influential inventions including the wheel, sail, plow, arch, column, and a mathematical system that used both algebra and geometry. Most importantly, the Sumerians developed a writing system known as cuneiform. Using cuneiform, Sumerians were able to keep a written record of city planning, flood patterns, crop surplus, maps and even scientific investigations. Later, a leader known as King
  3. 3. S U M M I T A C A D E M Y C H A R T E R S C H O O L Mr. Stephan Bridging the GAP … Reaching New HEIGHTS Hammurabi would use cuneiform to record Hammurabi’s Code, which would shape legal systems for future civilizations. Directions: Answer the following questions in proper Social Studies format. 1. Describe the importance of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia. Use at least one quote to support your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Explain why Sumer can be categorized as a civilization. Identify at least three elements of Sumerian society to support your answer. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Identify two technological advancements developed by the Sumerians and using a quote for evidence, explain how these technological advancements improved life in Sumer.____________________________________________________________________________________ ______ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________
  4. 4. S U M M I T A C A D E M Y C H A R T E R S C H O O L Mr. Stephan Bridging the GAP … Reaching New HEIGHTS Name: ______________________________ Period: ______ Directions: Answer the questions below using proper Social Studies format. 1. Why was the Fertile Crescent the ideal location for the beginning of civilization? Provide at least two examples to support your answer. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Using at least three vocabulary words that you learned today, describe why Sumer is considered the first civilization._____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ __________ 3. Which development in Mesopotamia do you think is most important? Defend your answer with information from today’s lesson. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Name: ______________________________ Period: ______ Directions: Answer the questions below using proper Social Studies format. 1. Why was the Fertile Crescent the ideal location for the beginning of civilization? Provide at least two examples to support your answer. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Using at least three vocabulary words that you learned today, describe why Sumer is considered the first civilization._____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ __________ 3. Which development in Mesopotamia do you think is most important? Defend your answer with information from today’s lesson. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________
  5. 5. S U M M I T A C A D E M Y C H A R T E R S C H O O L Mr. Stephan Bridging the GAP … Reaching New HEIGHTS

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