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  1. 1. Federalism
  2. 2. Unitary system3 point clue A political system2 point clue Most governments in the world use this system.1 point clue Decision making originates at the top, and is channeled downward.
  3. 3. “Necessary & proper” clause3 point clue Clause found in Article 1 Section 8.2 point clue Congress can pass all laws to carry out enumerated powers1 point clue Also called the Elastic clause, this gives the government the ability to claim more powers than are specifically spelled out in the Constitution.
  4. 4. McCulloch v. Maryland3 point clue Supreme Court case that dealt with the refusal to pay tax2 point clue Conclusion: Chartering national bank was “necessary and proper”1 point clue More than the ruling that the states could not tax the federal government, the main constitutional issue that came out of this case was that the necessary and proper clause were interpreted broadly...giving the federal government more power.
  5. 5. Mandate3 point clue Rules/orders2 point clue Imposed on states; must follow1 point clue Rules followed as conditions for obtaining federal grants or requirements that states pay costs of certain nationally defined programs. Can also be unfunded.
  6. 6. Implied Powers3 point clue John Marshall invoked this in McCulloch v. Maryland2 point clue Exists because it was impossible for the founders to define all the duties and ways the federal government should be used.1 point clue A power authorized by the constitution that is not directly stated.
  7. 7. 10th Amendment3 point clue Congress uses the elastic clause to counter this.2 point clue According to this, the united states government only has the power to regulate matters that are specifically given to it by the constitution.1 point clue States Rights Amendment saying powers not granted to the national government are reserved to the states.
  8. 8. Marble Cake Federalism3 point clue FDR’s New deal policies started this type of federalism.2 point clue A federal drinking age at 21 is a good example of this.1 point clue In this example of federalism national, state, and local powers are mixed in a cooperative collective way, rather than in equal layers.
  9. 9. Reserved Powers3 point clue Includes education and police protection.2 point clue Powers ensured by the tenth amendment.1 point clue These powers refer to the powers not specifically granted to the federal government, which are saved for the states.
  10. 10. Revenue Sharing3 point clue This type of fiscal federalism lost support under Ronald Reagan.2 point clue It was replaced with block grants in small amounts.1 point clue When the federal government shares a certain percent of its revenue with the state and city governments.
  11. 11. Conditions of Aid3 point clue Federal Rules2 point clue For example if a state doesn’t have a no texting while driving law highway funds may be withheld.1 point clue The ‘conditions’ that states have to meet in order to receive federal grants.
  12. 12. Confederation3 point clue Form of govt. the US was under 1776- 17872 point clue Under the Articles of Confederation1 point clue System of govt. when power is held by independent states or local govts.
  13. 13. Layer Cake Federalism3 point clue This was how federalism originally worked, before the Great Depression.2 point clue System of “no interactions” and an “autonomous relationship” between national and state governments.1 point clue Also known as dual federalism, this is the opposite of marble cake federalism.
  14. 14. Gibbons v. Ogden3 point clue A supreme court case where a monopoly was challenged.2 point clue The Supremacy clause was used to strike down a New Jersey Law1 point clue The broad definition of commerce gave more power to the federal government.
  15. 15. Block Grant3 point clue Form of fiscal federalism, reduced under Reagan and Bush administrations2 point clue Welfare reform is example, implemented during Clinton’s admin.1 point clue Money from the national government for programs in certain general areas that the states can use at their discretion.