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Lecture # 1

  1. 1. MUTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGIESTeacher:Razia Nisar Noorani03/17/12 1
  2. 2. LECTURE 1 Introduction, History, Terminologies and Applications03/17/12 2
  3. 3. Introduction to MultimediaFirst consider what constitutes media. Some examples of mediaare: Ỗ Animation Ỗ Sound Ỗ Graphics Ỗ Text Ỗ Video Ỗ Photography03/17/12 3
  4. 4. Technologies Hardware Software Storage Bandwidth Devices Formats and compressions03/17/12 4
  5. 5. Introduction to MultimediaMultimedia involves the combination of two or more media types toeffectively create a sequence of events that will communicate an ideausually with both sound and visual support. Typically, multimediaproductions are developed and controlled by computer.The enabling force behind multimedia isdigital technology. Multimedia todayrepresents the convergence of digitalcontrol and digital media - the PC as thedigital control system and the digital mediabeing todays most advanced forms ofaudio and video storage and transmission. 03/17/12 5
  6. 6. Introduction to Multimedia Multimedia = "Multiple" + "media"  combination of text, image, computer graphics, animation, sound, and video.  Inveractive Multimedia - allow user to control each media  Multimedia is the field concerned with the computer- controlled integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and moving images (Video), animation, audio, and any other media where every type of information can be represented, stored, transmitted and processed digitally.03/17/12 6
  7. 7. Introduction to Multimedia System What is a multimedia system? A multimedia system supports the integrated storage, transmission and representation of the discrete media types text, graphics and image and the continuous media types audio and video on a digital computer. Text, .... Digitalize Speech, Audio Playback Animation (Still Image) Video Interactive03/17/12 7
  8. 8. History of Multimedia SystemsNewspaper were perhaps the first mass communicationmedium to employ Multimedia, they used mostly text,graphics, and images.In 1895, Gugliemo Marconi sent his first wireless radiotransmission at Pontecchio, Italy. A few years later (in1901) he detected radio waves beamed across theAtlantic. Initially invented for telegraph, radio is now amajor medium for audio broadcasting.Television was the new media for the 20th century. Itbrings the video and has since changed the world ofmass communications.03/17/12 8
  9. 9. Some of the important events in relation to Multimedia in Computing include:1969 - Nelson & Van Dam hypertext editor at Brown Birth of The Internet1971 - Email1976 - Architecture Machine Group proposal to DARPA: Multiple Media1983 - Backer: Electronic Book1985 - Negroponte, Wiesner: opened MIT Media Lab1989 - Tim Berners-Lee proposed the World Wide Web to CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research)1990 - K. Hooper Woolsey, Apple Multimedia Lab, 100 people, educ.1991 - Apple Multimedia Lab: Visual Almanac, Classroom MM Kiosk1994 - Jim Clark and Marc Andreesen: Netscape1995 - JAVA for platform-independent application development. Duke is the first applet.1996 - Microsoft, Internet Explorer. 03/17/12 9
  10. 10. What is HyperText and HyperMedia?Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts. The term was inventedby Ted Nelson around 1965. Hypertext is therefore usually non-linear (asindicated below).03/17/12 10
  11. 11. Definition of HypermediaHypermedia can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, andespecially the continuous media - sound and video. Apparently,Ted Nelson was also the first to use this term. The World Wide Web (WWW) is the best example of hypermedia applications03/17/12 11
  12. 12. Characteristics of a Multimedia System A Multimedia system has four basic characteristics:Ỗ Multimedia systems must be computer controlled.Ỗ Multimedia systems are integrated.Ỗ The information they handle must be represented digitally.Ỗ The interface to the final presentation of media is usually interactive 03/17/12 12
  13. 13. Challenges for Multimedia Systems Multimedia systems may have to render a variety of media at the same instant -- a distinction from normal applications. There is a temporal relationship between many forms of media (e.g. Video and Audio) There 2 are forms of problems hereSequencing within the media :Playing frames in correct order/time frame in videoSynchronizationinter-media scheduling (e.g. Video and Audio). Lip synchronizationis clearly important for humans to watch playback of video andaudio and even animation and audio.03/17/12 13
  14. 14. The key issues multimedia systemsỖ How to represent and store temporal information?Ỗ How to strictly maintain the temporal relationships on play back/retrieval?Ỗ What process are involved in the above?Ỗ Data has to represented digitally so many initial source of data needs to be digitise -- translated from analog source to digital representation. They will involve scanning (graphics, still images), sampling (audio/video) although digital cameras now exist for direct scene to digital capture of images and video.Ỗ The data is large several Mb easily for audio and video – therefore storage, transfer (bandwidth) and processing overheads are high. Data compression techniques very common.03/17/12 14
  15. 15. Desirable Features for a Multimedia System Given the above challenges the following feature a desirable (if not a prerequisite) for a Multimedia System:Very High Processing PowerNeeded to deal with large data processing and real time delivery ofmedia. Special hardware commonplace.Multimedia Capable File SystemNeeded to deliver real-time media -- e.g. Video/Audio Streaming.Special Hardware/Software needed e.g RAID technology.Data Representations/File Formats that support multimediaData representations/file formats should be easy to handle yet allow forcompression/decompression in real-time.03/17/12 15
  16. 16. Efficient and High I/OInput and output to the file subsystem needs to be efficient and fast. Needsto allow for real-time recording as well as playback of data. e.g. Direct to Diskrecording systems.Special Operating SystemTo allow access to file system and process data efficiently and quickly.Needs to support direct transfers to disk, real-time scheduling, fast interruptprocessing, I/O streaming etc.Storage and MemoryLarge storage units (of the order of 50 -100 Gb or more) and large memory(50 -100 Mb or more). Large Caches also required and frequently of Level 2and 3 hierarchy for efficient management.Network SupportClient-server systems common as distributed systems common.Software ToolsUser friendly tools needed to handle media, design and develop applications,deliver media. 03/17/12 16
  17. 17. Components of a Multimedia SystemCapture devicesVideo Camera, Video Recorder, Audio Microphone, Keyboards, mice, graphicstablets, 3D input devices, tactile sensors, VR devices. Digitising/SamplingHardwareStorage DevicesHard disks, CD-ROMs, Jaz/Zip drives, DVD, etcCommunication NetworksEthernet, Token Ring, FDDI, ATM, Intranets, Internets.Computer SystemsMultimedia Desktop machines, Workstations, MPEG/VIDEO/DSP HardwareDisplay DevicesCD-quality speakers, HDTV,SVGA, Hi-Resolution monitors, Color printers etc.03/17/12 17
  18. 18. ApplicationsỖ World Wide WebỖ Hypermedia coursewareỖ Video conferencingỖ Video-on-demandỖ Interactive TVỖ GroupwareỖ Home shoppingỖ GamesỖ Virtual realityỖ Digital video editing and production systemsỖ Multimedia Database systems03/17/12 18
  19. 19. Ỗ Business ReferenceEncyclopedias, census data, yellowpages, atlases and street directories areexamples of CD reference titles. In manycases they are electronic versions ofreference books. The challenge for thedeveloper is to make it easy for the userto find the desired information and toeffectively use other multimedia elementssuch as sound, video and animationỖ EducationMultimedia has the ability toaccommodate different learning stylesand can present material in a non linearmanner. It is motivating, it can be highlyinteractive, it can provide feedback andevaluate skills. 03/17/12 19
  20. 20. Ỗ TrainingEvery company has a need to train itsemployees on a wide range of subjects frompersonnel policy to equipment maintenance.A number of companies are now trainingemployees using multimedia enhancedtraining materials. Sometimes this is donewith off the shelf multimedia titles but manycompanies are producing their own in-housemultimedia training products. The Boeingcompany, for instance, has an entire trainingdivision dedicated to developing multimediatitles that instruct mechanics and pilots onnew aircraft systems. 03/17/12 20
  21. 21. Ỗ EntertainmentDrawing the line between education andentertainment in multimedia can bealmost impossible, hence the termedutainment. Multimedia can makelearning entertaining.But multimedia also has a purelyentertainment side. Anything thatspossible in sound and images ispossible on a multimedia CD. 03/17/12 21
  22. 22. Ỗ BusinessAs businesses have the need tocommunicate with the outside world,multimedia processes offer a wide varietyof options for business presentations,marketing and sales. Multimedia can beused at trade shows or to produceelectronic catalogues. The marketing ofnew products can be greatly enhanced byusing multimedia, these products can bemarketed in a manner that will providemore detailed and stimulating informationthan printed media.Auto manufacturers like Nissan provideinteractive test drives of new vehicles onthe web or on CD. Macromedia nowpresent their annual report, visionstatement and product overview in print,on the Internet, and in CD ROM form. 03/17/12 22
  23. 23. Ỗ PresentationsThousands of multimedia presentations are made in thebusiness world every day. Company CEOs give theirannual report to a meeting of stockholders. Sales repspitch their product line to a group of potential customers.A conference keynote speaker tells an audience aboutindustry trends. From an electronic slide show to aninteractive video display multimedia can enhance apresentation.Multimedia provides the presenter with the tools to attractand focus the audiences attention, reinforce key conceptsand enliven the presentation.The following software programs progress from basicpresentation to complete authoring capabilities:Microsoft PowerPointAdobe PremiereMacromedia DirectorMacromedia AuthorwareAsymmetrix ToolBook03/17/12 23
  24. 24. Ỗ Interactive GamesMultimedia means interaction, and tomany interactive entertainment meansgames. Game developers were thepioneers in the use of multimedia and stillprovide the most innovative andinteractive applications of multimedia.In order to attract, engage, captivate andchallenge the user multimedia providesthe fast action, vivid colours, 3Danimations and elaborate sound effectsthat are essential to entertainment. It canalso provide the rewards, recognition andsense of accomplishment that are oftenpart of entertainment titles.Many games have moved from the physical (hand/eye coordination) to themental (solving the mystery, overcoming evil, outwitting the opponent). Mystis just one of many such very successful multimedia games. It effectively usesexploration as a way for the player to experience the mysteries of the island. 03/17/12 24
  25. 25. Trends in MultimediaWorld Wide WebHypermedia systems embrace nearly all multimedia technologiesand application areas. Ever increasing popularity.MBoneMulticast Backbone: Equivalent of conventional TV and Radio on theInternet.Enabling TechnologiesDeveloping at a rapid rate to support ever increasing need for Multimedia.Carrier, Switching, Protocol, Application, Coding/Compression, Database,Processing, and System Integration Technologies at the forefront of this. 03/17/12 25
  26. 26. Questions?03/17/12 26