Emotions
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  • Prepared by Krista D. Forrest, Ph.D. \nThese slides © 2002 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.\n\nTo print the slides in black and white using the original template (“Comet”), check the “pure black and white” box in the print dialog.\n
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  • Figure 9.8 from:\nKassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.\nSource:\nAronoff, J., Woike, B. A., & Hyman, L. M. (1992). Which are the stimuli in facial dislpays of anger and happiness? Configurational bases of emotion recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1050-1066.\n
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  • Figure 9.5 from:\nKassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.\nSource:\n
  • Figure 9.6 from:\nKassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.\nSource:\n
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  • Figure 9.11 from:\nKassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.\nSource:\nSchachter, S. (1964). The interaction of cognitive and physiological determinants of emotional state. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 49-80. New York: Academic Press.\n
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Transcript

  • 1. Emotion Chapter 11 ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 2. Emotion Defining Emotion. Elements of Emotion 1: The Body. Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind. Elements of Emotion 3: The Culture. Putting the Elements together: Emotion and Gender. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 3. Emotion A state of arousal involving facial and body changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 4. Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Primary and secondary emotions. The face of emotion. The brain and emotion. Hormones and emotion. Detecting emotions, Does the body lie? ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 5. Elements of Emotion 1: The Body Primary emotions  Emotions considered to be universal and biologically based. They generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt. Secondary emotion  Emotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures. Three biological areas of emotion are  facial expressions,  brain regions and circuits, and  autonomic nervous system. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 6. Universal Expressions of Emotion Facial expressions for primary emotions are universal. Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them. Facial feedback.  Process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed. Infants are able to read parental expressions. Facial expression can generate same expressions in others, creating mood contagion. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 7. The Face of Anger Anger is universally recognized by geometric patterns on the face In each pair, the left form seems angrier than the right form ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 8. Facial Expressions in Social Context  Across and within cultures, agreement often varies on which emotion a particular facial expression is revealing.  People don’t usually express their emotion in facial expressions unless others are around.  Facial expressions convey different meanings depending on their circumstances.  People often use facial expressions to lie about their feelings as well as to express them. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 9. The Brain and Emotion The amygdala.  Responsible for assessing threat.  Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality to process fear. Left prefrontal cortex  Involved in motivation to approach others.  Damage to this area results in loss of joy. Right prefrontal cortex  Involved in withdrawal and escape.  Damage to the area results in excessive mania and euphoria. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 10. Hormones and Emotion When experiencing an intense emotion, 2 hormones are released.  Epinephrine  Norepinephrine Results in increased alertness and arousal. At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 11. The Autonomic Nervous System ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 12. Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie?  Polygraph testing relies on autonomic nervous system arousal.  Typical measures:  Galvanic Skin Response  Pulse, blood pressure  Breathing  Fidgeting ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 13. Polygraph Tests ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 14. Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 15. Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. Test is inadmissible in most courts. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 16. Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. Test is inadmissible in most courts. It is illegal to use for most job screening. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 17. Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. Test is inadmissible in most courts. It is illegal to use for most job screening. Many government agencies continue to use for screening. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 18. Elements of Emotion 2: The Mind  How thoughts create emotions.  The two factor theory of emotion.  Attributions and emotions. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 19. Two-factor Theory of Emotion Physiological arousal  Sweaty palms  Increased heart rate  rapid breathing Cognitive Label  Attribute source of arousal to a cause To have an emotion, both factors are required ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 20. Attributions and Emotions Perceptions and attributions are involved in emotions. How one reacts to an event depends on how he or she explains it.  For example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medal. Philosophy of life is also influential. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 21. Elements of Emotion 3: TheCulture Culture and emotional variation. The rules of emotional regulation.  Display rules.  Body language.  Emotion work. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 22. Culture and Emotional Variation Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted about. Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures.  Ex. Schadenfreude Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem universal to others.  Tahitian and sadness Differences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 23. The Rules of Emotional Regulation Display Rules  When, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelched. Body Language  The nonverbal signals of body movement, posture and gaze that people constantly express. Emotion Work.  Acting out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 24. Putting it all together: Emotionand Gender Physiology and intensity. Sensitivity to other people’s emotions. Cognitions. Expressiveness.  Factors which affect expressiveness. Emotion work. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 25.  Physiology and intensity  Women recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do men.  Men experience experience emotional events more intensely than do women.  Conflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 26. Possible reasons for differencesin physiology and intensity. Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive than females. Men are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts which maintains anger. Women are more likely to ruminate which maintains depression. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 27. Sensitivity to Other People’s Emotions  Factors which influence one’s ability to “read” emotional signals:  The sex of the sender and receiver.  How well the sender and receiver know each other.  How expressive the sender is.  Who has the power.  Stereotypes and expectations. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 28. Cognitions. Men and women appear to differ in the types of every day events that provoke their anger. Women become angry over issues related to their partners disregard. Men become angry over damage to property or problems with strangers. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 29. Expressiveness In North America women:  Smile more than men.  Gaze at listeners more.  Have more emotionally expressive faces.  Use more expressive body movements.  Touch others more.  Acknowledge weakness and emotions more. Compare to women, men only express anger to strangers more. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 30. Factors Influencing EmotionalExpressiveness Gender roles. Cultural norms. The specific situation. ©1999 Prentice Hall
  • 31. Emotion Work and Gender. Women work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happy. Men work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotional. Why?  Gender roles and status. ©1999 Prentice Hall