Types of cameraDSLR (Digital Single Lens Reﬂex)Excellent image qualityChangeable lensBig sensorCheap(ish)Hackable!Not designed for ﬁlmingLacks certain features Canon EOS 7DJelly effectPoor sound recordingCan overheat
Types of cameraCamcorderCan be very cheapIncreasingly powerfulDesigned for ﬁlmingSimple to operateLens usually ﬁxedCan be quite limited Panasonic HDC TM900
Types of cameraFilm CameraVery high resolutionFilm ‘look’Prices range fromvery cheap to veryexpensive Panaﬂex Gold IIVery inconvenientBecoming obsolete
Types of cameraRED EpicVery high resolution (4k lines ofresolution - Full HD is 720 or1080)Proprietary formatsA bit expensive (over HKD150,000)
LensesPrime - doesn’t move What difference does the lensTelefoto make? Zoom - Can change focal lengthWide angle - Very shortfocal lengthMacro - For extreme close-up workFisheye More here
Lenses Focal lengthThe focal length of a lens determines its angle of view, and thus alsohow much the subject will be magniﬁed for a given photographicposition. Wide angle lenses have short focal lengths, while telephotolenses have longer corresponding focal lengths. A common rule of thumb for estimating how fast the exposure needs to be for a given focal length is the one over focal length rule. This states that for a 35 mm camera, the exposure time needs to be at least as fast as one over the focal length in seconds. In other words, when using a 200 mm focal length on a 35 mm camera, the exposure time needs to be at least 1/200 seconds — otherwise blurring may be hard to avoid.
Exposure We can think of EXPOSURE asbeing the result of three elements which work together. Learn more here
Shutter speed / frame rateCommonly confused, but not the same thingFrame rate - Fps.Usually 24, 30 or 48 for videoShutter speed - how long the frame is open for This makes it very simple!
ISOBack in the old days of ﬁlm, each roll would have an ASA or ISOrating, which meant how fast or how sensitive to light it was.Digital cameras work on the same principle, but this time, replaceﬁlm with the image sensor. ISO is the sensitivity level, so an ISOof 100 is relatively slow, and an ISO of 400 and above isconsidered fast.You would use a “slow” ISO when there is a lot of light so theimage sensor is less sensitive, and a “fast” ISO when there is lesslight and it is diﬃcult to get a decent exposure withoutintroducing camera shake into your images.
ApertureThink of aperture like the pupil in your eye.Aperture is a measure of how much light is letinto the camera through the lens. Like yourpupil, the lens can open up (widen its aperture)to let more light in, or close down (narrow itsaperture) to let less light in. Aperture ismeasured in f/ stops and aﬀects depth of ﬁeld.Using a wide aperture (small f/ stop) willproduce an image with a blurred backgroundand sharp foreground, or area of focus, and asmall aperture (large f/ stop) will produce animage with sharpness across more of the image.This will be explained further when we discussdepth of ﬁeld. The lens on the left is stopped down to f/22 (letting in the least amount of light), in the middle is f/8, and on the right, f/2.8. (Credit: CBSi) Apertures are listed in terms of f-numbers, which quantitatively describe relative light- gathering area . Note that larger aperture openings are deﬁned to have lower f-numbers (o4en very confusing). These two terms are o4en mistakenly interchanged; the rest of this tutorial refers to lenses in terms of their aperture size. Lenses with larger apertures are also described as being “faster,” because for a given ISO speed, the shutter speed can be made faster for the same exposure. Additionally, a smaller aperture means that objects can be in focus over a wider range of distance, a concept also termed the depth of ﬁeld.