Also referred to as Magic Bullet Theory. Hypodermic Needles
are needles which put things in, most commonly we think
of hypodermic needles being used by drug addicts.
Therefore the Hypodermic Needle Model explains that people watch/read media texts and they believe every part of every media message they are told. They consume it like a drug straight into the brain. It is the effect of BRAINWASHING someone. If the hypodermic needle model is to be believed then audiences are PASSIVE.
This theory fits well into the concept of advertising- if the concepts of “the best product on the market” and “you can’t do without one of these” are reinforced during adverts then people will believe they need them and therefore buy the products.
In 1938 Orson Welles broadcasted a radio adaptation of H.G. Wells’ “War of the Worlds”. The format of the script was so, that except for the introduction the
radio play would read like news flashes interrupting the regular programme.
Unfortunately some people tuned in after the introduction, the radio play was broadcasted as part of a regular series “The Mercury Theatre on the Air” carried by the Columbia Broadcasting System- America’s biggest network.
Out of 6 MILLION listeners to the programme, 1/6 th (1 MILLION) believed it to be a real alien invasion and mass hysteria broke out.
Cantril investigated into the case of mass hysteria and discovered that the difference between that 1/6 th and the rest of the audience was that the 1/6 had not listened to the introductory announcement and therefore had believed all the events they had heard about on the radio.
Articles from the time: http://members.aol.com/jeff1070/wotw.html
The Radio Script: http://members.aol.com/jeff1070/script.html
DON’T BELIEVE EVERYTHING YOU SEE/HEAR IN THE MEDIA!!
2-STEP FLOW MODEL: The 2-step flow model details that there are opinion leaders in society.
Opinion leaders are people who have seen the media text and have been able to make up their own mind about it’s qualities and messages.
These opinion leaders are ACTIVE however except for deciding which opinion leaders to believe the rest of the audience are PASSIVE.
This theory fits the concept of film reviews and film magazines, people who write for magazines such as Sight & Sound or Empire or presenters like Jonathon Ross are highly respected for their opinions. They will decide whether a film is worth seeing and “simplify” the content and qualities of the film, helping PASSIVE people make a decision about whether or not to see it. http://www.mysocialnetwork.net/blog/481/r10/2006-11-14%20Blog%20Posting%2010%20Picture%202.gif