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  1. 1. BTEC MEDIAAdvertisement Production for Television
  2. 2. Types of ads: Narrative ads These use a story of some sort to engage the audienceNarratives can be LINEAR or NON-LINEAR. We mightsee techniques like flash backs, flash-forwards, multiplepoints of view and so on. Usually, the narratives in ads are very simple.There are some THEORIES we can use to talkabout narratives
  3. 3. Narrative Theories• THREE ACT STRUCTURE -SETUP, CONFRONTATION, RESOLUTION• BINARY OPPOSITION - Narratives rely on CONFLICT• ENIGMA CODE - Narratives rely on setting and answering questions• PROPP’S THEORY - Narratives must have a hero, a villain, a damsel in distress.
  4. 4. Example Good things come to those who waitGuinness ad, 2001, directed by Jonathan Glazer Is there ENIGMA in this narrative? (Barthes) Is there a HERO? (Propps) Is there OPPOSITION? (Levi Strauss)
  5. 5. Non-narrativeAds that rely on things other than story. They can be quite EXPRESSIONISTIC or even SURREAL. Example: Cadbury’s ad 2007, directed by Juan Cabrol
  6. 6. Talking headsThe use of people to talk directly to camera (‘direct address’) Example: Mac vs PC
  7. 7. Codes andConventions:The Rules What do we expect to see in an ad? Example: Pringles ad dir. Lawrence Bridges Heavy editing: ramping: bright palette: low angle shots: ‘positive’ iconography: upbeat visual and aural tempo: ambient and foleysound: pack shot: flattering lighting: graphics Is this ‘typical’?
  8. 8. Techniques Example: Pringles ad dir. Lawrence BridgesDENOTATION and CONNOTATION STAR APPEAL EMOTIONAL APPEAL LINE OF APPEAL L’Oreal Ad Dir. Jake Nava
  9. 9. • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Example: Thai Life Insurance
  10. 10. Characteristics of Product What ‘personality’ is given to the product? What characteristics are associated with it? 1.Mac vs PC 2.Ladbrokes 3.Whopper Virgins… …and the website… …and the controversy.
  11. 11. Regulation: The Law Advertisers often court controversy, so obviously there are laws and regulations which they must follow. In the UK, there are two main bodies who enforce the law. The ASA is the professional bodymade up of people from the industry. OFCOM is the government’s organisation who decide the laws. Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) Office of Communications (OFCOM)
  12. 12. ASA Code - SummaryThe BCAP Code (Broadcast Code of Advertising and Production) Sections: 01 Compliance 02 Recognition of advertising 03 Misleading advertising 04 Harm and offence 05 Children 06 Privacy 07 Political and controversial matters 08 Distance selling 09 Environmental claims
  13. 13. BCAP Code Example: 05 Children The actual ‘rules’ are here Example: 06 Privacy And the rulesRemember, the ads YOU make must pass the BCAP code!
  14. 14. Banned AdsMazuma Mobile… and the story Ladbrokes… and the storyYves Saint Laurent… and the story For merit or distinction… find your own examples!
  15. 15. AudiencesWHO are the audience? Advertisers need to know as much about their TARGET AUDIENCE as possible if they are going to accurately ‘reach’ them. We can divide audiences by age, gender, race, income, attitude, location, behaviour, expectations…BMW ad – who is it for? How do you know? What about this Mini ad?
  16. 16. DemographicsClassifying people according to job and income Top management, bankers, A lawyers, doctors and other professionals Middle management, B teachers, many creatives eg graphic designers etc Aldi C1 Office supervisors, junior managers, nurses, specialist Marks and Spencers clerical staff etc Skilled workers, Rolex C2 tradespersons (white collar) Semi-skilled and unskilled D manual workers (blue collar) Unemployed, students, E pensioners, casual workers
  17. 17. Psychographics Classifying people according to their attitude or psychological profile Blue de Chanel Woman’s World Cup Save the Children
  18. 18. GeodemographicsClassifying people according to where they live What would you advertise in TST? In Central? In Sai Kung? London mapped by crime, income, property price etc…
  19. 19. Audience Research HOW do we find out about the audience?There are many ways to conduct research. All of these can be divided into two types: QUALITATIVE and QUANTITATIVE
  20. 20. Quantitative ResearchThis is research which generates precise, numerical data. How much do you earn? What sex are you? How many films did you watch last year? This data is usually presented in the form of charts, graphs and so on.
  21. 21. Quantitative Research Methods of Quantitative Research Questionnaires – CLOSED questions with exact answers SurveysDesk research – find out about companies, costs etc
  22. 22. Qualitative ResearchThis is research which finds out about opinions, feelings, ideas etc. Do you like Mac or PC? Why? What’s your favourite colour? Which of these two ads do you like? This data can be presented as charts and graphs but sometimes we need to use transcripts and summaries of what was said.
  23. 23. Qualitative Research Methods of Qualitative Research Questionnaires with OPEN questions Interviews Video responses Focus groups Test screenings Log Books Observations
  24. 24. The Golden Rule TRIANGULATE YOUR RESEARCH All forms of research have strengths and weaknesses. You must do BOTH qualitative andquantitative research and you should aim to have THREE forms as a minimum.So – do a questionnaire, a focus group AND a test screening.
  25. 25. Audience TheoryWHAT do the audience want? Intro to Audience theory
  26. 26. Hypodermic NeedleThere is a direct flow of information between the media institution and the (passive) audience. Lombard Direct
  27. 27. Two Step Flow Media messages are targeted at OPINION LEADERS. The general population follow their leadMalcolm Gladwell’s ‘Law of the Few’:20% of the people do 80% of the work Best Buy ad – music by Skrillex
  28. 28. Uses and GratificationsThe audience receive pleasures from the text or use it for some purpose. The usual purposes are DIVERSION (this is fun!) SURVEILLANCE (this teaches me about the world) PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS (my friends are watching this) PERSONAL IDENTITY (this helps me express and learn about myself)
  29. 29. Uses and Gratifications Can we use Uses and Nolan’s CheddarGratifications to explainthe appeal of these ads? Nike - DIVERSION - SURVEILLANCE - PERSONAL IDENTITY Barnardo’s- PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Old Spice