What do you know about World War I and World War II?In your notebooks, brainstorm what you know about• Causes:• Sides of the war:• Who won:• Why the winners won:• Results:• You have 5 minutes . . .GO!
The Great War / World War I / The War to end all wars
World War II – “Theaters” inEurope, the Pacific, N. Africa, etc.
Remember :These wars resulted in economic & social changes
Remember: British soldiers from India inWars have political WWI= Indian Independence? results, too. (For example . . . ) Some governments gained power as they controlled the war effort. Some governments African-American tank corps in WWII= fell at the end of the war. Civil Rights Movement?
Remember: Warhas a significantimpact on civilians, economies, and governments.
World Wars Compared An overview
The Great War / World War I 1914-1918 U.S. was directly involved: 1917-1918
World War II1937 to 1945 in Asia 1939 to 1945 in Europe and Africa U.S. was directlyinvolved: 1941-1945
World War I - overview• Global conflict between the “Central Powers” and the “Allies.”• The first global modern war.
World War I - overview• Central Powers: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire• Allies: France, Russia, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, Belgium (and later the U.S.) and others The Western Front
World War II - overview• Global conflict between the “Axis Powers” and the “Allies.” Most extensive of all wars.
World War II - overview• Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, and Italy• Allies: France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, the U.S. and others
World Wars Compared CAUSES
Causes of World War I(interpretations anyone?)
The Environment for the Great War was created by• ALLIANCESIn order to balance power and “protect” themselves, the nations of Europe had joined in military alliances with other nations.
War was in the air?• NATIONALISMPatriotism and loyalty were on the rise among many groups in Europe.
• MILITARISMIndustrialized nations were building up their militaries.(Germany was especially aggressive.)
• INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONNations now had the technology to mass produce war material in mass quantities.
• IMPERIALISM caused tension, too.
There were of course many other contributing factors to the outbreak of WWI, for example:List of Events: 1870-1871: Franco-Prussian War 1899-1900: Boer War 1900: German Navy Law 1905-6:First Moroccan Crisis 1908: Daily Telegraph article 1908-9:Bosnian Crisis 1911:Agadir Affair (Second Moroccan Crisis) 1912: First Balkan War 1913: Second Balkan War These are examples of conflicts and increased tensions between major European powers prior to the outbreak of the First World War.
Game on!• Assassination of Archduke of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist .• Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government and prepared for invasion.
Game on!• Germany assured Austria-Hungary of full assistance in a war.• Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.• Russia declared war on Austria- Hungary.• Germany declared war on Russia and France.
• The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia and the other Allies in hopes of regaining land it had lost.• Germany moved troops into Belgium to invade France. Belgians resisted.
• Belgium and Great Britain declared war on Germany and the other Central Powers.• AUGUST, 1914 – The Great War began!
WWI - “A Family Feud”Central Powers: • Wilhelm II, Nicholas• Wilhelm II - the II, and George V were Kaiser of Germany COUSINS• Franz Joseph - the • Albert was their Emperor of Austria- SECOND COUSIN Hungary • Franz Joseph was their GREAT UNCLE ALSO:Allies: • Alexandra, Nicholas• Nicholas II - the Tsar II’s wife, was a cousin of Russia of Wilhelm II, George• George V - King of V, and her husband England Nicholas II.• Albert - King of • She was a German Belgium princess.
“The War (WWI) was decided in thefirst twenty days of fighting, and allthat happened afterwards consistedin battles which, however formidableand devastating, were but desperateand vain appeals against the decisionof Fate.”Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965), Britishstatesman, writer. Preface to E. L. Spears,Liaison 1914 (1930).
• In 1917, Russia withdrew because of revolution/civil war in Russia• The U.S. joined the Allies because of the “Rape of Belgium,” German unrestricted submarine warfare, & the Zimmerman telegram.
World War II(same song, second verse?)
Environment for WAR:• Global Economic Depression – the most severe and widespread economic crisis of history took place in the 1930s.
The Environment for World War II was created by:• Resentment about the Treaty of Versailles – in the peace treaty that ended WWI, Germany was severely punished, and Italy & Japan didn’t gain the territory they thought they deserved.
Environment for WAR:• Economic problems allowed leaders with radical ideas to gain a following in Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, and elsewhere.
Environment for WAR:• German, Japanese, Italian, (& Soviet Russia) militarism, nationalism, and desire for territory led to aggression.
Aggressors March!• Germans moved into the Rhineland, annexed Austria, and part of Czechoslovakia.
The Japanese invaded China fromManchuria and then French Indochina
Britain, France, and the U.S. did NOTwant war again (for economic, political,social reasons).
World leaders and World Opinionincluded ideas that . . .• Germany was wronged in the Treaty of Versailles. Germans should be united.• Hitler was better than Stalin. Maybe they’ll destroy each other?• Some thought, “It’s a European problem / Asian problem”.• War is being pushed by capitalists who want to make money.
And then war came to them . . .• Japan invaded China in force in 1937.• Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939.• Nazi Germany and Italy invaded France and everywhere else they could.• Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 and everywhere else they could.
World Wars Compared WARFARE
BOTH WARS• Conflicts with huge costs and global results.• New weapons & technology• TOTAL WAR – entire Nation-states mobilized their people and resources to win the war. (attacks on civilians, use of media and propaganda, conscription, government control of economy)
In BOTH WARS,Propaganda was usedby all governments tosecure support for the wars.
World War I - Warfare• Trench warfare• Stalemate along the Western Front• War of attrition
World War I - Warfare• Chemical Weapons – mustard gas and chlorine gas
World War II Warfare• Fast moving air, sea, and land tactics• Surprise attack and covert communications & operations
World War II Warfare• Truly global approach to offensive operations
World War II Warfare• Amphibious warfare (D-Day and Island Hopping)
World War II Warfare• More new weapons – including the atomic bomb
World War II Warfare• No surrender in Pacific & Soviet Union
World War II Warfare• Is the Holocaust a RESULT of WWII?
World Wars Compared RESULTS
Results of Both Wars• Chaos and destruction – lives, property, economies, & governments
1914• “Losers” lost territory and colonies• Maps redrawn
• Changed political structures – New governments took power – Expanded power of government
• Changed societies – Women gained power – African-Americans pushed for changes
• International organizations – League of Nations, UN• New powers emerged – the U.S. in both wars, Japan after WWI, Soviet Union after WWII
• New technology and inventions
Western European superiority was questioned• Independence movements grew in European-held colonies – India, SE Asia, and Africa
Results of WWI• 1918 Influenza Pandemic• Chemical Weapons were outlawed.
Results of WWI• Losers were punished more severely (reparations)• Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and German Empire fell.• The Great Depression?
Results of WWI• Russian Revolution and Civil War
Results of WWII• Trials for War Crimes• Migration of people
Results of WWII• U.S. prosperity & power
Results of WWII – The Cold War Division of the world into U.S. and its allies against the U.S.S.R. and its allies.
Results of WWII • Tension remained between Japan and China • Continued Arms race – nuclear weapons