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Mongol Conquests and Empire
1200s - 1300s

Mongol Conquests and Empire
1200s - 1300s
From nomads to world conquerors
The Mongols created the largest landbased empire in human history.
Mongols and
other Central
Asian Nomads
characteristics

• Social Classes – based on abilities
• Women had greater status t...
Quote of the Day
“The greatest happiness is to scatter your
enemy, to see his cities reduced to ashes, to
see those who lo...
According to many perspectives in
different times, the Mongols:
• were destroyers of
civilizations
• were ruthless
uncivil...
Generally speaking, the
Mongols:
•
•
•
•

Had few technological breakthroughs
Spread no new religions
Wrote few books and ...
Conquests
• Under the leadership of
Chinggis Khan, the
combination of Mongol
discipline, technology,
strategy, and ruthles...
THE MONGOL EMPIREs
• Each KHANATE or kingdom then
worked to add territory and tributary
states to the empire which continu...
Conquests
• After Chinggis Khan’s death, the
Mongol Empire was divided in four
parts controlled by 3 sons and a
grandson.
...
IMPACT of the MONGOLS
• Death & Destruction!
•

But then . . . THE MONGOL PEACE
A period of “peace” and stability in many
...
Trade & Infrastructure
Mongol rulers . . .
• protected travel and trade routes in the
Empire
• “caused” people to move to ...
SILK ROADs REVIVED!
• Chinese goods and ideas flowed!
• East and West were more connected
• Plants and crops circulated
“M...
Those dirty Mongols!
•

Spread the use of gunpowder in military uses

•

Destroyed empires, governments, & towns (&
killed...
MARCO . . . POLO

Venetian merchant who traveled and
lived in Mongol territory for 20 years including almost 17 years
work...
MARCO . . . POLO writes about the
Central Asia Nomads
• Write a SOAP analysis in your notebook for Marco
Polo.
– Speaker, ...
MARCO . . . POLO writes about the
Central Asia Nomads
• Marco Polo wrote this account many years after his
trip so his rec...
Mongol Conquests
Mongol Conquests
Mongol Conquests
Mongol Conquests
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Mongol Conquests

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Transcript of "Mongol Conquests"

  1. 1. Mongol Conquests and Empire 1200s - 1300s Mongol Conquests and Empire 1200s - 1300s
  2. 2. From nomads to world conquerors
  3. 3. The Mongols created the largest landbased empire in human history.
  4. 4. Mongols and other Central Asian Nomads characteristics • Social Classes – based on abilities • Women had greater status than in most settled regions. • Leaders were “elected” by the free men of the clan, tribe, or confederation. (Kuriltai-Meeting of all Mongol Chieftains)
  5. 5. Quote of the Day “The greatest happiness is to scatter your enemy, to see his cities reduced to ashes, to see those who love him shrouded in tears, and to carry off his wives and daughters.” Temujin (a.k.a. Chinggis Khan) (a.k.a. Genghis Khan)
  6. 6. According to many perspectives in different times, the Mongols: • were destroyers of civilizations • were ruthless uncivilized barbarians • were evil forces against Christians, Buddhists, Confucians, or Muslims
  7. 7. Generally speaking, the Mongols: • • • • Had few technological breakthroughs Spread no new religions Wrote few books and plays Brought no new crops or agricultural methods • Left few artifacts and buildings • Didn’t hold on to an empire very long
  8. 8. Conquests • Under the leadership of Chinggis Khan, the combination of Mongol discipline, technology, strategy, and ruthlessness helped the Mongols take control of Central Asia, then Northern China. • By Chinggis Khan’s death in 1220s, Mongol armies had moved west into the Islamic lands and Central Europe.
  9. 9. THE MONGOL EMPIREs • Each KHANATE or kingdom then worked to add territory and tributary states to the empire which continued under later Mongol leaders. • Mongol control eventually spread into Western Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and all of China. • The ruling class who survived often continued to control aspects of their territory under the “supervision” of Mongol rulers.
  10. 10. Conquests • After Chinggis Khan’s death, the Mongol Empire was divided in four parts controlled by 3 sons and a grandson. • • • • Khanate of the Golden Horde Ilkanate Djagatai (Chagtai) Khanate of the Great Khan (and Yuan China)
  11. 11. IMPACT of the MONGOLS • Death & Destruction! • But then . . . THE MONGOL PEACE A period of “peace” and stability in many areas of Eurasia led to economic and cultural development (for about 100 years).
  12. 12. Trade & Infrastructure Mongol rulers . . . • protected travel and trade routes in the Empire • “caused” people to move to new places for Mongol government and military posts • ordered construction of roads & BRIDGES, & extended the Grand Canal in China • set up post offices/trading posts
  13. 13. SILK ROADs REVIVED! • Chinese goods and ideas flowed! • East and West were more connected • Plants and crops circulated “Mongol rule allowed an “exchange of food, tools, goods, and ideas [that] was unprecedented.”
  14. 14. Those dirty Mongols! • Spread the use of gunpowder in military uses • Destroyed empires, governments, & towns (& killed millions) • Spread the Bubonic Plague (Black Death) beginning in the 1330s and lasting for several decades. (and Mongol culture didn’t have a major cultural impact on the culture of settled civilizations)
  15. 15. MARCO . . . POLO Venetian merchant who traveled and lived in Mongol territory for 20 years including almost 17 years working for Kublai Khan – the Mongol ruler of China.
  16. 16. MARCO . . . POLO writes about the Central Asia Nomads • Write a SOAP analysis in your notebook for Marco Polo. – Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose – WHAT CAUSED Marco Polo to have the point of view he had on the Mongols? • Analyze similarities between the Mongols and other civilizations and write them in your notebook. For example: Both the Mongols and Arabs were nomadic. • Write the most unusual characteristics of the Mongols as reported by Marco Polo.
  17. 17. MARCO . . . POLO writes about the Central Asia Nomads • Marco Polo wrote this account many years after his trip so his recollections may not be completely accurate after years. He may exaggerate certain elements to make a better story. • The many details that Marco Polo uses in his description show that his point of view is based on a long period of living with and interacting with the Mongols. • Marco Polo’s purpose in telling his story was simply to record the events he remembered for other European elites. This probably caused him be as accurate as possible. He may, however, have focused on things that he thought might impress Europeans who read the journal.
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