Communism Spread in the 20th century• Starting in the 19th century, groups affiliated with communism gained power throughout regions of the world.• Russia, China, Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba eventually become communist.• (Similar to the spread of democracy in the 18th century – American, French, LA revolutions.)
Cold War begins• 1. In WWII, the Soviet army drove the Germans back across Eastern Europe. Other Allies raced to beat the Soviet Army to Berlin.• 2. USSR occupied several countries along its western border and considered them a necessary buffer or wall of protection from the west.• 3. Stalin installed Communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia.• 4. Early in 1946 Stalin declared that communism & capitalism could not exist in the same world. War between the U.S. & U.S.S.R. seemed certain.
COLD WAR 1945-1990s
What was the Cold War? A period of diplomatic hostility between theCommunist Nations and anti-Communist nations (and their allies) USSRUSA
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”• - Winston Churchill March 5, 1946
THE U.S. RESPONSE1948 - The Truman Doctrine • A promise made by the US to provide military & economic support to countries that rejected communism • This policy of stopping the spread of communism was call the “containment” policy
The Marshall Plan •A U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII.•Provided food, machines,and other materials toEuropean nations to helpstabilize Europe.
The Marshall Plan•Which country received the most aid from the United States?•Why would those nations receive the most aid?
The Marshall PlanEvaluate the two photos. What significant changes have occurred in the second photo?
SOVIET RESPONSE BERLIN BLOCKADE 1948- Soviets closed all road and rail links to Berlin. The Western allies began a massive airlift to feed the West Berliners.
How did they fight the Cold War?• Threaten each other with – military build up, new technology, & global influence – NATO (US) & Warsaw Pact (USSR) were the two main military alliances• Use Propaganda – create hatred and paranoia of the other side• Send economic aid to weaker nations to spread influence and gain allies• Support allied nations in conflicts to protect interests or agitate the other side (sponsor
COMMUNIST CHINA 1949 Mao and the Communists founded the People’s Republic of China (not recognized by the US)
KOREAN WAR 1950 - 1953 After World War II Korea was divided, along the 38th parallel, into North Korea, occupied Soviet forces and South Korea occupied by American forces. North Korean forces, seeking to unify the country under communist rule invaded the south in 1950. Commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, UN forces prevented a northern takeover of South Korea. An Armistice was signed in 1953.
1959 - CUBAN REVOLUTION In 1959 Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba. He nationalized businesses and executed opponents, transforming Cuba into a Communist state. He threatened to spread Communism to other Latin American countries.BAY OF PIGS INVASION 1961 In 1961, U.S.-trained and supported Cuban exiles who invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. They were defeated.
Berlin Wall 1961 • The East German Government built a dividing wall in Berlin to separate East and West Berlin. • It became a symbol of the Cold War.
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1962 In 1962 the United States discovered that Cuba was secretly building bases to install Soviet missiles with nuclear warheads. After President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba and threatened and invasion, Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles for a pledge that the U.S. would not invade Cuba.
VIETNAM WAR 1954- 1975 When the French withdrew from Indochina in 1954, Vietnam was divided. Ho Chi Minh Founded Communist North Vietnam, while South Vietnam established ties to the West. Communists known as Vietcong began a guerrilla war in South Vietnam with North Vietnamese support. The U.S. entered the conflict to resist communism. Although the U.S. had superior technology, and used 500,000 soldiers it could not defeat the North Vietnamese (and its aid from USSR). In 1973 U.S. troops withdrew under the Paris Peace Accords. In 1975 the South fell to the North.
Soviets War in Afghanistan 1979-1979, the Soviets invaded In Afghanistan to support the communist government against the Taliban rebels. The U.S. supported the Taliban with advisors and weapons.
ARMS RACEThe United States developed the Atomic Bomb during WWII.Soviet scientists developed one in 1949.For 40 years the superpowers spent huge amounts of money todevelop more & more powerful weapons. This raised thetensions between the two countries. It also raised the fearsamong many people that the superpowers might becomeinvolved in a conflict that would destroy the world.
Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What? HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WARHEAD STOCKPILES -- 1945-1995NOTE: Totals are estimates. Lists include strategic and non-strategic warheads, as wellas warheads awaiting dismantling 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995UNITED STATES 6 3,057 31,265 26,675 22,941 14,766SOVIET UNION 0 200 6,129 19,443 39,197 27,000BRITAIN 0 10 310 350 300 300FRANCE 0 0 32 188 360 485CHINA 0 0 5 185 425 425Source: National Resources Defense Council
SPACE RACE The super powers also competed in space.In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, a satellite, into orbit around theEarth.Soon after the United States established NASA. The race was on.In 1958 the U.S. launched its own first satellite. In 1961, the Soviets sent thefirst man into space.In 1969 the U.S. was the first nation to put a man on the moon. Both theSoviets and Americans explored the use of satellites for military purposes.
Who won the Cold War? The U.S.A.!Beginning in the late 1980s, the Soviet Union began to fall apart. Its satellites and republics became independent. A “new” government took control of Russia
Why did the U.S. win? The Soviet Union’s economy suffered as the government spent money to keep up with the U.S. (especially military spending) while the domestic economy failed. Lack of freedom & opportunities within the Soviet Union and Soviet controlled nations created a mood for change. Many groups in the USSR pushed for change as independence movements gained momentum in the satellite nations.