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  • 1. Spain: past andpresentCésar Díaz Caviedes
  • 2. IndexThe threeblockso The country and the StateGeneral informationo The cultureThings you have to knowo Big issues of our timeImportant aspects of actual Spanish society
  • 3. FIRST BLOCK: the Stateo Geography- 504.645 square kilometres- Two spaces: atlantic and mediterraneano Demography- 46.771.600 population- Slowly growing older
  • 4. The form of the Stateo Parliamentary Monarchy- King as the head of the State and the Armyo Autonomical State- Statute of Autonomy- 1978 Spanish Constitution
  • 5. Source:
  • 6. SECOND BLOCK: the cultureo Historyo Spanish diversityo Spain and Europeo Spain and Latinoamericao Spanish dualism?
  • 7. Historyo First alphabet from East Mediterranean societieso Roman impact and legacyo Muslim impacto Coalition of kingdomso Imperial expansion
  • 8. Source:
  • 9. o Building of a liberal state XIX-XXo Conflicts between backward·modern Spaino Civil War 1936·9, Francoism 1939·75 ando Transition 1975·7 and Democracy 1977·now- Political violence (strikes, demostrations, ETA, GRAPO,GAL…)- The role of the king in 1981 coup d’ètat- Disintegration of Francoist state
  • 10. Languageso Spanish is the official language of the stateo Cooficial languages are Catalan, Basque and Galician. Included inpublic administration and educationo Valencian and Aranese, controversial forms of the Catalan language,are also cooficialo Other languages, like Asturianese, have some support from the localauthorities but are not official
  • 11. Spain and Europeo Actual Spain come from an old during european isolation becauseFrancoism since 1939o Joined NATO in 1982o Joined the European Community in 1982 and the Euro in 2003
  • 12. Spain and Latinoamericao Spain has a unique position among the European Communitybecause its special economic and cultural links with LatinamericaSome of the greatest figures of Spanish letters are actually Americans(Borges, Cortázar, García Márquez, Benedetti…)
  • 13. Spanish dualism?o Left·Right (Civil War scars)o Atlantic North·Mediterranean Southo Religious·anticlerical (World Youth Day 2011)o Industrial North·rural South
  • 14. THIRD BLOCK: Big issues of our timeo Crisiso nationalisms·terrorismo Inmigration·emigrationo Europe
  • 15. Crisiso Financial crisis and debto “Cajas” (saving funds)o Construction bubbleo Cuts in public spendingo High unemployment rateo Political scandals (Gürtel, EREs…)o Royal Family scandals (Nóos scandal)o Police brutalityo Decline in living standards, poverty, evictions…(Special BBC report: “The Great Spanish Crash”)
  • 16. Nationalismso The role of language and historyo Basque Country nationalism (PNV), independentism (Bildu) andterrorism (ETA)o Catalan nationalists, CiU and Esquerra Republicanao Galician nationalists, BNGo Spanish nationalism
  • 17. Inmigration·emigrationo In 2011 came 457.650 inmigrants and 507.740 left the countryo 5,7 m. inmigrants in Spain, 12,1 % of population-Romania, Morocco, U.K., Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia…-Chinese growing minortyo Spaniards leaving the country- Specially Europe and Latinamerica
  • 18. Spain and Europeo Europe as the future- European isolationo Europe disenchantment- Cutbacks in social spending
  • 19. Bibliography