Introduction• Feast Day of Our Lady of Guadalupe: December 12• Apparition occurred in 1531, ten years after the seizure of Mexico City.• The narration about the apparition of Our Lady to Juan Diego are contained in a document called Nican Mopohua (which means Here is stated…or Here is told) or Huei Tlamauitzoltica, written in Nahuatl, the Aztec language.
Nican Mopohua • It was written around the middle of the sixteenth century by an Indian scholar named Antonio Valeriano. • Unfortunately, the original work has not been found. • A copy was first published in Nahuatl by Luis Lasso de la Vega in 1649.
Mexico City before 1531 • Mexico City is ruled by the Aztecs • Human sacrifices are done • Cannibalism is apparent • The mightiest god was Quetzelcoatl, the feathered or stoneSource: http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=38740 serpent • They have a great Mother God called Tonantzin
Story of the Apparition• First Apparition: Saturday, December 9, 1531• On his way to the church in Mexico – Tlatilolco, while walking near the little hill called Tepeyac, he heard singing like the song of many precious birds• When the singing suddenly stopped, he heard someone calling him, “Juanito, Dearest Juan Diego”
Our Lady’s Words• “Know, know for sure, my dearest and youngest son, that I am the perfect ever virgin holy Mary, Mother of the One Great God of truth who gives us life…I want very much that they build my sacred little house • here…” Source: http://users.polisci.wisc.edu/LA260/guadalupe.htm
Second Apparition: end of day (Saturday, December 9, 1531)• Juan Diego begs our Lady to have one of the nobles or one who is held in esteem to deliver the message.• Our Lady told him “Listen, my youngest and dearest son, know for sure that I have no lack of servants or messengers to whom I can give the task of carrying my breath, my word…; but it is very necessary that you, personally, go and plead, that my wish, my will, become a reality…”
Third Apparition: Sunday, December 10, 1531• He went to Tlattilolco to go to mass and see the bishop.• The bishop still did not believe him and told Juan Diego that a sign was necessary to believe that Our Lady is sending him.• Juan Diego told the bishop to think about the sign and Juan Diego will ask the Virgin for it.
• As soon as he was dismissed, the bishop asked some of his staff to follow him.• The Virgin said “That’s fine, my dear son, you will come back here tomorrow so that you may take the bishop the sign he has asked you for…So, go now. I will be waiting here for you tomorrow. “ Source: http://foros.catholic.net/viewtopic.php?t=37052
Monday, December 11• Juan Diego did not return because when he arrived at his house, he found his uncle, Juan Bernardino, to be very ill.• He went to find the healer but it was too late; he was very ill.• His uncle asked him to call a priest so he can confess and to get him ready for death.
Fourth Apparition: Tuesday, Dec. 12After Juan Diego explainedthe sickness of hisuncle, the Lady said“Listen. Put it into yourheart, my youngest anddearest son, that the thingthat frightened you, thething that afflicted you isnothing. Do not let itdisturb you…” • Source: http://www.bestcatholic.com/guadalupe.shtml
Am I not here, I, who am your mother?“Are you not under my shadowand protection? Am I not thesource of your joy? Are you notin the hollow of my mantle, inthe crossing of my arms? Doyou need something more? Donot let your uncle’s illnesspressure you with grief, becausehe will not die of it now, you maybe certain that he is already Source: http://foros.catholic.net/viewtopic.php?t=37052well.”
At the bishop’s houseAfter retelling the bishophis encounter with theVirgin and the sign thatthe Virgin gave him, JuanDiego held out his tilmaand as the flowers fall tothe floor, the image of theVirgin appeared in thetilma. Source: http://www.followthissite.com/guadalupe.php
Miracles• Conversion of the Aztecs• By 1539, eight million Aztecs have converted• Total eradication of human sacrifices• Countless stories of healing and ending of plagues and floods through the intercession of Our Lady• The miraculous preservation of the sacred image from destruction
The tilma (ayate)• Made from maguey cactus• The tilma is supposed to last for 15 years only but it is still in perfect condition after 481 years.• Preserved from destruction when nitric acid was accidentally spilled in 1791.• Survived bomb explosion Source: http://gomexico.about.com/od/fooddrink/ss/mezcal_process.htm on November 14, 1921.
The Bent CrossSource: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/mexico/mexico-city-basilica-guadalupe
The Image • Image of the Virgin with Jesus still in her womb • The ribbon symbolizes maternity for Spaniards but virginity for the indigenous • No animal, plant or chemical matches the paint • Image on the eye shows the people seen by the Virgin when Juan Diego laid the tilma
The Name “Guadalupe”• Guadalupe is an Arabic word meaning “river of love”• When the Virgin appeared to Juan Diego’s uncle Juan Bernardino and ask her for her name, his uncle heard the word coatlaxopueh (pronounced as quatlasupe) meaning “the one who steps or crushes the serpent”.
Reference:Johnston, Francis. The Wonders of Guadalupe. Rockford, IL: Tan Book and Publishers, 1981.Nican Mopohua (Text in English). Available onhttp://ndclmurray.weebly.com/uploads/3/1/6/2/3162790/nican_mopohua_english.pdfNican Mopohua (Text in Spanish). Available onhttp://www.virgendeguadalupe.mx/acontecimiento-guadalupano/relato-apariciones#espa%C3%B1olOur Lady of Guadalupe. http://www.sancta.org/