Ask students to come up with a definition first! In 1983 the BPS published their code of conduct for Psychologists
Anagram remembering the ethics
Ask students to jot down what they think respect, competence, responsibility and integrity refer to with regards to research with human participants. Ethical Issues
After the ad break skip to 13.30 Feedback list from class Assess list whilst going through the 5 ethical guidelines Examples from clip: Filming Signing the consent form – red light hard to see, doesn ’ t explain the right to withdraw and the experiment Deception Using animals Using money - but against (i.e. if they do not do the risk behaviour) Adheres to: consent form – not informed Debriefs Protection of participant?
Brainstorm on board first!
Use Milgram as an example to show how this is very difficult Benefits for society Costs were weighed up by gaining presumptive consent – only 3% believed might go as far as 450V
Use to check answers or give to weaker students straightaway to jog memory Ethical Issues
Ethics - Describe 5ethical guidelines for using human participants-Evaluate ethical issues in human and animal research Mr Oakes
What are ethics?Ethics is that which is deemed acceptable inhuman behaviour in pursuit of certain goals oraims. It is not simply a question of right, butof balance between the interests of theparticipant and the scientific value of theresearch. TAKEN FROM: http://www.bps.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/code_of _ethics_and_conduct.pdf `Does the end justify the means?`
Basicallyethics is all about what you can and can’t do with participantsCan Do, Can’t Do With Participants
1. RESPECT2. COMPETENCE3. RESPONSIBILITY4. INTEGRITY The guidelines are very extensive View them at: http://www.bps.org.uk/what- we-do/ethics-standards/ethics-standards
List any potential ethical issues Does Derren Brown break any? 13.30 - Which ethical issues does he adhere to? http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=MDwe_PNrACI&has_verified=1
CONSENT Participants should give informed consent. In studies involving children, informed parental consent should be obtained. Payment should not be used to induce risk taking behaviour. Special safeguarding procedures are necessary with subjects with limitations in communication or understanding or where unable to give real consent.
DECEPTION. Intentional deception over the purpose of the investigation should be avoided where possible. There must be strong medical or scientific justification for any deception. Appropriate consultation with disinterested colleagues or ethics committees must precede the investigation if it involves deception.
DEBRIEFING Participants should be fully debriefed. Participants experience should be discussed to assess any negative effects. Debriefing should be in the form of active intervention before leaving the research setting.
RIGHT TO WITHDRAW Subjects should be aware of the right to withdraw at any time. This may be done retrospectively by refusing permission for their data to be used.
COMPETENCE. The research must have the relevant qualifications and ability to carry out the study: Know the ethical guidelines Adhere to safe practice Know where and how to store the data Seek advice in areas not confident in Understand the implications of the study
Around the room are 5 scenariosIdentify which ethical guidelines have beenbroken and suggest how these experimentscould be improved.
Why a consideration of ethics arenecessary even in schools! An elementary school class started a class project to make a planter to take home to their parents. They wanted to have a plant that was easy to care for, so they decided to use cactus. The students were given greenware pottery planters in the shape of a clown which they painted with glaze. The clown planters were professionally fired at a class outing so they could see the process. The children all had a good time. They planted the cactus seeds in the finished planters and they grew nicely but unfortunately the children were not allowed to take them home. The cactus plants were removed and a small ivy put in their place. Then the children were then allowed to take them home.
General Advantages of havingEthical guidelines PROTECTION – of participants, society’s morals & psychology discipline. - ensure people taking part in psychological research are NOT at great risk of distress or any other traumatic experience - giving participants rights, such as informed consent, right to withdraw, means participants are more likely to agree to take part - used to be called ‘subjects’ – implies no power or respect – right to withdraw guideline strengthened and agreed to be called participants
General Disadvantages of Ethicalguidelines RESTRICT STUDIES To ensure findings are valid & useful Research method often make it hard to obey the guidelines with out influencing the results - Natural observations – can not gain informed consent, give right to withdraw or debrief them
Ethical Dilemma Psychologists must weigh up the costs against the benefits. They must ask; “What are the costs to the participants versus the benefits of understanding that can be gained from the results?”
C………………. D………………………. R…………… to w………………….. D…………………………………….. P…………………………… C……………………. All participants should be b………….. before a study and thoroughly d…………………………afterwards