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6GEO2 Unit 2 Geographical Investigations –
Student Guide: Crowded Coasts – Part 1
CONTENTS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Overview
Requirements of the specification
What are crowded coasts?
Investigating crowded ...
1. Overview
• Unit 2 has four components, but you
are only required to study two of
these.
• In the 75 minute exam you ans...
UNIT 2 – Assessment overview and structure
• Normally the first part of
each question starts with
a data stimulus element....
What makes the coast so attractive?
The factors opposite show why the
coastal zone has always attracted
settlers and been ...
Growth in the southern USA
Coastal counties
occupy 17% of USA
land area, yet are
home to and 53% of
population.
There are ...
Different types of coast

Retirement
Coasts
Examples
include:
Parts of
Norfolk,
Cornwall,
plus UK
south coast,
Florida

Re...
1. Competition for coasts
Coasts attract a
wide range of users –
this can bring
challenges and
opportunities for
managers ...
A number of physical and
human factors shape the
coastline.
An exam question could
ask you to identify the
physical and hu...
2. Coping with the pressure
Coastal developments create
patterns resulting from the
competition for space. This
can lead t...
A pressurised coastal system….

•
•
•
•

•

Tossa de Mar, Spain
Increasingly crowded as tourist
market changes.
No longer ...
3. Increasing risks
You should be aware of the risks
posed by the growing incidence of
coastal hazards – and potentially
t...
Coastal change…..

Coastlines have always changed and
responded to physical and human
processes. What is now of particular...
You could link the hazard risk equation from Unit 1 to assess your
chosen coast or coasts
HAZARDS
Frequency and
magnitude ...
4. Coastal
management
You should be aware that there
are a range of coastal
management and defence
strategies. What are th...
Example – Newbiggin, N.E England
Context – (1) coastal mining subsidence
leading to beach scour, (2) sea level rise is
an ...
Plan details 2007-8
Removal of some sea wall
to improve beach access
and appearance

500,000 tonnes beach
nourishment

Off...
Now see part 2 for the Fieldwork and Research
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Crowded coasts edexcel guide - part 1

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Transcript of "Crowded coasts edexcel guide - part 1"

  1. 1. 6GEO2 Unit 2 Geographical Investigations – Student Guide: Crowded Coasts – Part 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Overview Requirements of the specification What are crowded coasts? Investigating crowded coasts In Part 2 Ideas for fieldwork Research on crowded coasts Making it work for the exam Click on the information icon Click on the home button to jump to that section. to return to this contents page
  3. 3. 1. Overview • Unit 2 has four components, but you are only required to study two of these. • In the 75 minute exam you answer one question based on your two chosen topic areas. This means there is no choice. • This exam is designed to test both knowledge and understanding of geographical concepts as well as geographical skills. • Fieldwork, research and the enquiry process lie at the heart of this exam. • The most important ways of ensuring the highest possible grades in this module is (i) being able to focus on the question set, (ii) to be able to use resources effectively, and (iii) to get your fieldwork in a form that works for the exam. UNIT 2: The Paired Options –you only study one in each pair! The ‘Physical’ Pair 1. Extreme Weather 2. Crowded Coasts The ‘Human’ Pair 1. Unequal Spaces 2. Rebranding
  4. 4. UNIT 2 – Assessment overview and structure • Normally the first part of each question starts with a data stimulus element. • The fieldwork and research elements are related directly to work you have carried out during a field trip AND may involve questions about how you processed, interpreted etc what you found. • The remaining question is more management and issues based. Here case study knowledge will be required. •The data stimulus in unlikely to be the 15 mark question •Data stimulus with an analysis element is possible
  5. 5. What makes the coast so attractive? The factors opposite show why the coastal zone has always attracted settlers and been favoured by developers. European countries built great ports to receive goods from their colonies abroad (e.g. The port of Hong Kong). Of the factors opposite, which do you think is the most important and why? How might this vary from place to place and time to time? Global - Quick coasts facts • 3 billion people live within 100km of the coast • Coastal population densities are typically 80 people / km2 – 50% more than non coastal areas; they rise to 1000+ in the Nile and Ganges deltas. • Migration is a key component of growth
  6. 6. Growth in the southern USA Coastal counties occupy 17% of USA land area, yet are home to and 53% of population. There are a number of growth hotspots including Florida, Georgia, Texas and California 1500 new houses approved each day in all coastal counties combined. 400% population growth since 1980 in some Florida counties The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has focused ideas of coastal pressure – the impacts on fishing + ecosystems will likely be enormous
  7. 7. Different types of coast Retirement Coasts Examples include: Parts of Norfolk, Cornwall, plus UK south coast, Florida Resourcerich Coasts Examples include: South-east Asia shrimp industry, Nile and Niger Delta Many coasts are multi-purpose, with an overlap of different types of activity occurring in adjacent locations or at the same places. Tourism coasts Examples include: (almost all coasts), but specifically any coastal counties of southern England, Costa Blanca Industrial coasts Examples include: Rotterdam, south East UK, Pearl River Delta, coastal cities of China, including Hong Kong Other types of coasts may exist, e.g. The ‘Golf Coast’, the ‘Eco-coast’, the ‘Activity Coast’. Coasts may be developed for a number of reasons – they can be classified into a number of different types – there are some examples opposite. What other types of coast are there and where might they be found?
  8. 8. 1. Competition for coasts Coasts attract a wide range of users – this can bring challenges and opportunities for managers of coastal areas. Conservation of areas is becoming increasingly complex, especially when weighed up against the economic arguments of industry and tourism. Who might be the different coastal stakeholders?
  9. 9. A number of physical and human factors shape the coastline. An exam question could ask you to identify the physical and human factors from a resource, e.g. GIS map / satellite image Factors that shape the coastline Physical factors, e.g. sand dunes, mudflats, estuary, sand banks, woodland , river Human factors, e.g. roads, agriculture / farming. Settlement, bridge
  10. 10. 2. Coping with the pressure Coastal developments create patterns resulting from the competition for space. This can lead to pressure on coastal environments. The sea and shoreline can distort the patterns of land use.
  11. 11. A pressurised coastal system…. • • • • • Tossa de Mar, Spain Increasingly crowded as tourist market changes. No longer fully ‘coastal’. Potential conflicts between old and new, residents and visitors, development versus conservation. A big issue is the future of such places with demands for water especially during the summer tourist season.
  12. 12. 3. Increasing risks You should be aware of the risks posed by the growing incidence of coastal hazards – and potentially their social, economic and environmental impacts •Context links back to Unit 1 in terms of climate change •Rising sea levels; increased storm activity + coastal flood risk •Importance of ‘one off’ events such as 1953, tsunami and hurricanes •Touch on issues such as isostatic change for the UK •There is a fieldwork choice (‘coastal retreat or flood risk’); in many cases both can easily be covered. The Fal estuary in Cornwall; areas vulnerable to sea level rise
  13. 13. Coastal change….. Coastlines have always changed and responded to physical and human processes. What is now of particular concern is rates of change and numbers of vulnerable people Climate change and rapid coastalisation are big threats globally. In the UK large amounts of money are being spend to try to manage threat and reduce risk.
  14. 14. You could link the hazard risk equation from Unit 1 to assess your chosen coast or coasts HAZARDS Frequency and magnitude of events such as storm surges Risk = VULNERABILITY A brief contrast might be useful; physical and human factors both important CAPACITY: present resources and ability to prepared for the future Risk The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions. Hazard A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Vulnerability The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. Capacity A combination of all the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.
  15. 15. 4. Coastal management You should be aware that there are a range of coastal management and defence strategies. What are their advantages and disadvantages? - Hold the line (hard and soft approaches) - Strategic retreat - Do Nothing - Advance the line Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and SMPs (Shoreline Management Plans) and ideas that should be researched.
  16. 16. Example – Newbiggin, N.E England Context – (1) coastal mining subsidence leading to beach scour, (2) sea level rise is an increasing risk. Also, the town itself has suffered from mining job losses and relative isolation within SE Northumberland An ambitious £10million plan to improve the beach and promenade area through a replenishment scheme
  17. 17. Plan details 2007-8 Removal of some sea wall to improve beach access and appearance 500,000 tonnes beach nourishment Offshore breakwater to maintain beach and reduce wave energy; built from concrete tetrapods Landscaping works around the town to improve image
  18. 18. Now see part 2 for the Fieldwork and Research
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