Legend: Aeneas settles in Rome afterTrojan War His descendants, Romulus & Remusfound Rome History: 600s BC: Etruscans conquerRome 509 BC: Etruscan king overthrown &republic established
Hills & Rivers Built on 7 steep hills What advantages did the land near Rome offer?Farm Life Live in simple huts of mud or timber What values did Roman farmers share?
Republic lasted 500 years Conflict between patricians & plebeians 450 BC: Constitution written (12 Tables) Three Branches of Government
Executive 2 consuls Commanded army & directed gov’t forone year Power of vetoLegislative Senate: Assemblies:Judicial 8 judges served for one year
Leader with absolute power In times of crisis, could beappointed for a limited time 458 BC: Cincinnatus madedictator Defeated the enemy & returnedpower in one day
By 275 BC: dominate central Italy & Greece How did the Romans treat these conqueredpeople?
Three wars with North African city-state Carthage Starts 264 BC Rome wins all three warsHighlights 2nd: Hannibal invades Rome with elephants 3rd: Rome destroys Carthage and enslaves its people
General, politician, dictator Captures the entire regionof Gaul Advocated reforms to helpthe poor His popularity made othersnervous 44 BC: Senate names himdictator for life Expanded the Senate Created jobs for the poor
Senators fear Caesars growing power March 15, 44 BC: assassinated on the Senate floor What happens after Caesar is killed? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5SzITk82Bs
Adopted son of Julius Caesar 27 BC: Becomes first emperor How did Augustus rule?
“Peace of Rome” Lasted 200 years 2 million square miles 300,000 men in army Public works projects By 100s AD: Empire stretches from Spain toMesopotamia; N. Africa to Britain
Agriculture Most Romans farmersIndustry Manufactured:Trade Land and sea trade routesthroughout Mediterranean What’s not grown is traded for
What is currency? What are the advantage of currency?
Father was the head of the household Women ran household and raised children Could not vote Wealthy boys educated at private schools Girls married at age 14
Who was in the new middle class? 1/3 of population slaves Most did physical labor Slave revolts common, but usually unsuccessful
Believed in hundreds of nature spirits Borrowed the idea of gods in human form from Etruscans Borrowed many specific gods form the Greeks Priests were government officials Emperors worshiped as gods
1 million people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_cities_by_population) What problems existed in the city of Rome?
Large homes in countryside Attended theater and threw dinner parties What foods were served at Roman dinner parties?
Problem: free-flowing human waste Solution: Problem: lack of fresh water Solution: Problem: many Romans dirty Solution:
“Bread and Games” Rome gave free grain to the poor Entertainment at public areas Chariot races at the Circus Maximus Gladiator fights in the Coliseum What did Romans like about these contests?
63 BC: Rome conquersJewish kingdoms inJudea Jewish sacred writingspromise a Messiah What did the Jewsbelieve about thepromised Messiah?
Jewish Born in Bethlehem, grew up in Nazareth Traveling preacher with many followers whobelieved him to be the promised Messiah.
What was Jesus’ message? How did Jesus teach his lessons?
Jesus’ claim of being theMessiah made him athreat to the RomanEmpire. Pontius Pilate, the Romangovernor of Judea,condemned Jesus todeath. Jesus rose from death,proving his divinity.
Church encouraged charity, helping thepoor, equality Gentiles (non-Jews) also convert to Christianity Debate over whether Christians should followJewish law At first, Rome ignores Christianity
Saul converted to Christianity onthe road to Damascus Expert in Jewish law Roman citizen. Why did this help? Took advantage of the PaxRomana to spread Christianity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4ZJxb4uW-E
Gentiles need not follow Jewish law to be Christians Wrote epistles (letters) to churches he foundedthroughout the Mediterranean Paul explained Christian beliefs and encouragedconversion
Arrested by the Romans inJerusalem 60 AD: House arrest inRome for two years Dies in Rome Most influential Christianmissionary