2.  Cities grew along the banks of two rivers Isolated culture due to geography Civilization developed with few outside influences Borders: o East: Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Pacific Ocean o West: Taklimakan Desert o North: Gobi Desert o Southwest: Himalayan Mountains Gobi Desert is a cold desert.
3. Two River Systems Flow toward the Pac. Ocean Chang Jiang (Yangtze): central China Huang He (Yellow): northern China North China Plain o Land between the rivers o Rich farmland o Center of Chinese Civilization
4. Varied Climate Like the US West: dry Northeast: cold winters; warm summers Southeast: mild winters; hot, rainy summers What crops are grown in China?
5. Chinese & US Climates:A Comparison
6.  1766 BC: dynasty established Claimed to have the permission of the gods Controlled portion of the North China Plain Made war with nomadic people Treated parents & ancestors with great respect No strong central gov’t; family members ruled distant lands
7. Developing Language Developed pictograph writing; symbols=words Educated person knew 10,000 characters Can learn written Chinese without being able to speak it What is the advantage of a language that you can learn without speaking?
8.  1027 BC: defeated the Shang Rise of the Zhou created a pattern: dynastic cycle Rulers must keep the Mandate of Heaven Distant lands ruled by lords pledged to support the Zhou When lords grew in strength, they began to fight
9.  Powerful gov’t with strict laws will keep order People will only do good if forced to Harsh punishments needed to make people afraid to do wrong
10.  Shang Yang: those who fail to report lawbreakers should be punished Under Legalism, books were burned and those who questioned the gov’t were arrested
11.  Confucius (551-479 BC) Order can be kept if everyone has respect for each other Leaders should serve as good examples Lower members of society should obey those above them Ideas collected in a book: Analects
12.  Each relationship has its own duties and code of conduct Father and son Elder brother and younger brother Husband and wife Friend and friend Ruler and subject What is the nature of these relationships?
13.  Filial piety: treating parents and elders with respect Authority should be respected Confucianism eventually adopted by Chinese rulers Guiding force that shaped Chinese culture
14.  Laozi (500s BC) All humans must find a way (Dao) to live in harmony with nature Questions of right and wrong are pointless “People would be content with their simple, everyday lives, in harmony, and free of desire.” Gov’t should leave people alone
15.  Yin (black): cold, dark, and mysterious Yang (white): warm, bright, and light Both forces complement each other Each changes & evolves
16.  Started by Shi Huangdi Lasted from 221 – 202 BC Unified China after warring-states period Legalistic ruler Conquered neighbors and expanded the empire
17.  Forced nobles to live at capital Built highways and irrigation projects to unite China Began linking existing defensive walls, starting the Great Wall of China Huangdi died in 210 BC Son took over, but was quickly overthrown
18.  202 BC – 220 AD Liu Bang first emperor Lowered taxes and punishments less harsh Created a bureaucracy to help run the government Created a test based on Confucianism for these scholar- officials
19.  Liu Bang died in 195 BC Succeeded by his wife, Empress Lu She ruled on half of their young son, whom she outlived She continued to rule by putting infants on the throne Upon her death in 180 BC, all members of her family were put to death
20.  Wudi ruled from 141-87 BC “Martial Emperor” used war to expand the empire Conquered northern Vietnam and northern Korea Chased nomadic invaders out of northern China Conquered people were encouraged to assimilate
21.  Most people worked as farmers Farmers lived in small villages near their land Rich farmers had oxen to plow their lands South: rice North: wheat Families had personal vegetable gardens Meat and fish were expensive
22.  Centers of trade, education, and government Merchants, government workers, craftspeople Problems of modern cities: crowded, street gangs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VS7pKZJ3zPs
23.  During the Han dynasty, only the Chinese knew how to make silk. Desired luxury item Roads linking China to Eurasian were built to trade silk One of the first global trading networks
24.  Cities sprouted up around the trail. Goods leaving China: silk, paper, jade, pottery Goods coming to China: sesame seeds, oil, metals, precious stones, Central Asian horses
25.  Silk Roads also brought ideas and customs to and from China (cultural diffusion) During the Han dynasty, Buddhist missionaries from India brought Buddhism to China Buddhism gained many followers after the fall of the Han. Why? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vfe-eNq-Qyg
26. Agricultural Improvements Two-bladed plow Wheelbarrow Water Mills o Using water power to grind grain Collar Harness for horses o Allowed horses to pull heavier loads
27. Paper 105 AD Made from old rags, tree bark, and fibers from hemp How did the invention of paper help the Chinese people?
28. Silk For 3,000 years, only the Chinese knew how to make Used to get silver and gold from the west At one time one pound of silk = one pound of gold How much is a pound of gold worth today? $24,522.77