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# Waves

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### Waves

1. 1. Waves in Action
2. 2. WAVES
3. 3. <ul><li>link to waves in water sphere </li></ul>
4. 4. <ul><li>Recall…… ENERGY is the ability to push something and make it move </li></ul>
5. 5. <ul><li>ENERGY can be transferred in two ways… </li></ul>
6. 6. <ul><li>Transferring some matter </li></ul>
7. 7. <ul><li>Using a WAVE </li></ul>
8. 9. Types of Wave <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>need a medium </li></ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Siesmic </li></ul><ul><li>Slinky </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic </li></ul><ul><li>don’t need a medium </li></ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>X ray </li></ul>
9. 10. Waves travel in two different ways.
10. 11. Transverse waves are when the displacement is at right angles to the direction of the wave… Longitudinal waves are when the displacement is parallel to the direction of the wave…
11. 12. wave machine
12. 13. <ul><li>Wave Types </li></ul>
13. 14. Water Waves
14. 15. Some definitions… Amplitude (A) Wavelength (  ) distance from equilibrium to crest this is the distance between two corresponding points (crest to crest) Displacement (x) distance from equilibrium to to any point x A A Crest Trough
15. 16. <ul><li>Period- </li></ul><ul><li>this is the time for one wave to pass a point. It is measured in seconds (s) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency – </li></ul><ul><li>this is how many waves pass a point every second. It is measured in Hertz (Hz) </li></ul>
16. 17. If 20 waves pass you in one minute, what is the period of the wave? 20 waves = 60 s 1 wave =3 s T= 3s Calculate the frequency of the wave.
17. 20. Wave Equation λ
18. 21. <ul><li>Nb speed isn’t frequency…………… </li></ul><ul><li>Stringwave </li></ul><ul><li>The frequency of a wave is the number of waves passing in one second. </li></ul><ul><li>(or the number of times a part of the wave wiggles in one second) </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of a wave is the distance it travels in one second </li></ul>
19. 22. Sound waves <ul><li>Data Studio Sound Simulator </li></ul>link to phet sound
20. 23. How does ultrasound work? Ultrasonic waves are partly reflected at the boundary as they pass from one medium to another. The time taken for these reflections can be used to measure the depth of the reflecting surface. This information is used to build up a picture of the object. Ultrasound is the region of sound above 20,000Hz – it can’t be heard by humans. It can be used in pre-natal scanning:
21. 24. Other uses of ultrasound 1) Echo sounding The ultrasound is reflected from the sea floor. 2) Breaking down kidney stones Ultrasonic waves break kidney stones into much smaller pieces 3) Cleaning (including teeth) Ultrasound causes dirt to vibrate off without damaging the object
22. 25. SOUND Sound is produced by things vibrating. Sound travels in longitudinal waves through the air (or other medium)
23. 26. You can hear sound in the range of approximately 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz .
24. 27. <ul><li>We hear high frequency waves as high pitch </li></ul><ul><li>We hear large amplitude waves as loud </li></ul><ul><li>phet sound </li></ul>
25. 28. compression rarefaction wavelength
26. 29. Drawing a Sound Wave <ul><li>Sound can be analysed by an oscilloscope or a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>It draws a graph of the wave. </li></ul><ul><li>link to data studio </li></ul>
27. 30. pressure position This is a snapshot of the whole wave at one time
28. 31. pressure time This is a movie of the pressure at one place microphone
29. 33. DataStudio (2)
30. 34. High frequency Low frequency
31. 35. Electromagnetic Waves <ul><li>EM waves </li></ul>
32. 38. Reflection Pulses fixed end
33. 39. Reflection of Pulses free end
34. 40. Refraction of Pulses fast to slow
35. 41. Refraction of Pulses slow to fast
36. 42. Wave Reflection
37. 43. Reflection of Waves
38. 51. Refraction
39. 53. DEEP SHALLOW SHALLOW DEEP
40. 55. Gradual Wave Refraction
41. 56. Interference
42. 57. <ul><li>adding pulses </li></ul>K:PHYSICSPOWER POINT & VIDEOS1 Light & WavesSound
43. 58. <ul><li>link to refraction of pulses </li></ul>
44. 59. Diffraction When waves pass through a narrow gap they spread out or……… Diffract . The amount of diffraction depends on the size of the gap compared with the size of the wavelength Link to Diffraction animation The smaller the gap, the more diffraction The bigger the wavelength, the more diffraction
45. 62. Why can you pick up radio signals better than TV? TV waves are high frequency, short wavelength.
46. 63. Radio waves are low frequency, long wavelength. Long wavelengths diffract more
47. 64. Wave Interference
48. 65. link to ripple tank <ul><li>ripple tank + path diff </li></ul>
49. 66. Interference of Light When light shines through a double slit interference occurs:
50. 67. <ul><li>Explanation </li></ul>
51. 68. in phase This produces a big wave (constructive interference) when the path difference is the waves arrive
52. 69. when the path difference is the waves arrive out of phase This produces no wave (destructive interference)
53. 70. <ul><li>We will look at interference of sound waves </li></ul><ul><li>LINK TO phet sound </li></ul><ul><li>Recall the definition of path difference . </li></ul><ul><li>Recall the definition of constructive interference and destructive interference . </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what causes the loud and quiet spots. </li></ul>
54. 71. This is what you see in the ripple tank <ul><li>K:PHYSICSPOWER POINT & VIDEOS1 Light & WavesSoundwave-interference </li></ul>
55. 72. And this is why…. http:// www.schulphysik.de/suren/Applets.html
56. 73. <ul><li>(extension) </li></ul>Young’s Equation
57. 74. <ul><li>link to desuren wave animation </li></ul>x λ θ L d
58. 75. <ul><li>link to young's expt </li></ul>
59. 76. <ul><li>Link to factors affecting Interference </li></ul>