The Picture of Dorian Gray - Revision


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  • Full speech is on next slide if students need a recap whilst thinking.
  • This expresses the main point of Oscar Wilde’s aesthetic philosophy. In short, the epigrams praise beauty and repudiate the notion that art serves a moral purpose.
  • Why would Wilde have used a Shakespearean sonnet to influence his work?
  • The Picture of Dorian Gray - Revision

    1. 1. Thursday 9th January 2014 Learning objectives: •To know the Assessment Objectives and Criteria for this unit. •To know Oscar Wilde’s biography. •To understand the historical context (AO4)
    2. 2. The Exam
    3. 3. There are two sections • One section deals with the poetry. This is a selection of work by W.B. Yeats. • One section deals with the novel. This is ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’ by Oscar Wilde. • You will not be allowed a copy of the text in the exam so it is important that you set up a quotation bank to use in your revision.
    4. 4. Example Quotation Bank Page Quote and character Theme
    5. 5. Unpicking the Assessment Objectives • AO1: • AO3: • AO4: • Look at your AO sheet – what must you do to achieve the best possible mark?
    6. 6. The Picture of Dorian Gray - Oscar Wilde
    7. 7. Oscar Wilde: Biography • Oscar Wilde was born Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde, on October 16, 1854. His father was a noted surgeon; his mother a flamboyant journalist and poet. • In 1871, Oscar was awarded the Royal School Scholarship to attend Trinity College in Dublin. • In 1874, Oscar crowned his successes at Trinity with two final achievements - he won the college's Berkeley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship scholarship to Magdalen College in Oxford.
    8. 8. • After graduation, Wilde moved to London to live with his friend Frank Miles, a popular high society portrait painter. • He mixed with elite London artists and artistes like James Whistler (painter), Sarah Bernhardt and Ellen Terry (actresses) and Lily Langtry (actress and mistress of the Prince of Wales). • In 1881, Wilde published his first collection of poetry. “Poems” received mixed reviews by critics.
    9. 9. • In December 1881, Wilde sailed for New York to travel across the United States and deliver a series of lectures on aesthetics. More about this later in the unit. • The four-month tour lasted for nearly a year, with over 140 lectures given in 260 days.
    10. 10. • In between lectures he made time to meet with Henry Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes and Walt Whitman (American authors and poets). • He also arranged for his play, “Vera”, to be staged in New York the following year. No- one in London would put it on.
    11. 11. • In 1888, he published his first successful book – for children – which was a collection of short stories (The Happy Prince and Other Stories). • In 1891, he published A Picture of Dorian Gray after it has appeared in a literary magazine, Lippincott’s, in an early version. • Between 1892 and 1895, he wrote a number of extremely successful plays, all social comedies: Lady Windermere’s Fan, A Woman of No Importance, An Ideal Husband and The Importance of Being Ernest.
    12. 12. Marriage and Children • On May 29, 1884, Oscar married Constance Lloyd who was four years younger. • Well-read, spoke several European languages and had an outspoken, independent mind (rejected corsets!) • Wilde and Constance had two sons in quick succession, Cyril in 1885 and Vyvyan in 1886.
    13. 13. Notoriety • He was known as a flamboyant, outspoken man. • In 1887 he worked as editor of a magazine, Woman’s World, dropping the society gossip column and including articles of female emancipation, women’s colleges and Shakespeare. • He was homosexual at a time when it was illegal to be homosexual, and, in 1895, he spent two years in prison (with hard labour) for his ‘crime’.
    14. 14. End of his life • After being released from prison, he went to France and wandered Europe in failing health and without funds. • In 1898 he wrote his most celebrated poem, The Ballad of Reading Gaol, under the pseudonym C33 (his prisoner number). • In 1900, he died in Paris from cerebral meningitis; he is buried in Pere Lachaise in Paris alongside the French literary elite.
    15. 15. Learn more about Wilde’s life • Oscar Wilde by Richard Canning (Hesperus Press Brief Lives, 2008) • Oscar Wilde by Richard Ellmann (Penguin, 1990) • Film Wilde with Stephen Fry as Oscar.
    16. 16. The Victorian Age The Victorian era is so called because it covered the period of Queen Victoria’s reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
    17. 17. A time when Britain was ‘great’ • Vast empire • Medical breakthroughs (cholera, small pox, tuberculosis, typhoid...) • Scientific inventions (steam ships, steam trains, spinning mills, bridges, radio transmissions, photography, electricity....) • The Industrial Revolution • The Great Exhibition
    18. 18. Placing ‘Dorian’ in its time. • Published in 1891 and set in London of the time; often viewed as part of the Gothic tradition. • Darwin’s On the Origin of the Species published 1859. • Krafft-Ebing’s Psychopathia Sexualis published 1886. • Law outlawing homosexual acts (‘Blackmailers’ Charter’) passed in 1885. • Jack the Ripper at work 1888...
    19. 19. Other 19th -century writers of interest to us FRANKENSTEIN BY MARY SHELLEY (1818) • A young scientist, Victor Frankenstein, in trying to find the secret of life, creates a monster that he immediately hates and tries to destroy. In order to keep his supernatural use of science a secret and keep his good name, he tells no-one what he has done. The monster, driven mad by his creator’s hatred and rejection, kills anyone Victor is close to and eventually, Victor himself. Themes: Appearances and reality; supernatural v. science • Eight feet tall and hideously ugly, the monster is rejected by society. However, it’s not just his looks that repel people but also the unnatural manner of his creation, which involves the secretive animation of a mix of stolen body parts and strange chemicals. He is a product not of collaborative scientific effort but of dark, supernatural workings. Victor himself is a kind of monster: ordinary on the outside, he may be the true “monster” inside - selfish and hypocritical, he is eventually consumed by an obsessive hatred of his creation.
    20. 20. Other 19th -century writers of interest to us • The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by R. L. Stevenson (1886) • In order to live the dissolute life he wants to without losing his impeccable reputation, scientist Dr Henry Jekyll finds a way to separate the good and bad sides to his personality, creating a creature he calls Mr Hyde. At first, he leads a successful double life but, the more he uses Hyde, the stronger his alter ego becomes until Hyde starts to take over... • Themes: hypocrisy of society, appearance v reality, science v supernatural, London life • Stevenson wanted to hold a mirror up to Victorian society to show how hypocritical they were, wearing ‘masks’ of respectability when they were in fact immoral.
    21. 21. Other 19th -century writers of interest to us DRACULA BY BRAM STOKER (1897) • Jonathan Harker, an English lawyer, travels to Transylvania to close a real estate deal with a man called Dracula, who is in fact a vampire. He sets in motion a train of events that bring Dracula and his group of female vampires to England; Harker, Harker’s girlfriend Mina, and a vampire expert, Van Helsing, manage to send the vampires back to Transylvania and kill them. • Theme: How evil can flourish in the modern world (England) • Though Stoker begins his novel in a ruined castle — a traditional Gothic setting — he soon moves the action to Victorian London, where the advancements of modernity are largely responsible for the ease with which the count preys upon English society. Only Van Helsing - whose understanding of modern medical techniques is tempered with open-mindedness about ancient legends and non- Western folk remedies - comes close to understanding what is going on.
    22. 22. Victorian hypocrisy exposed! What are we faced with in the 19th century? An age where woman was sacred; and where you could buy a 13-year-old girl for a few pounds - a few shillings, if you only wanted her for an hour or two. Where more churches were built than in the whole previous history of the country; and where one in 60 houses in London was a brothel (the modern ratio would be nearer one in 6,000). Where the sanctity of marriage (and chastity before marriage) was proclaimed from every pulpit, in every newspaper editorial and public utterance; and where never – or hardly ever – have so many great public figures, from the future king down, led scandalous private lives. Where the female body had never been so hidden from view; and where every sculptor was judged by his ability to carve naked women. Where there is not a single novel, play or poem of literary distinction that ever goes beyond the sensuality of a kiss...and where the output of pornography has never been exceeded. Extract from The French Lieutenant’s Woman by John Fowles
    23. 23. Victorian England: ‘fallen’ women and the poor • On the surface, Victorian England seemed very strict and moral. Under the surface, it was a corrupt society. Drug taking (mainly opium), violent crime, prostitution, adultery and pornography all went on but were hidden, leading to hypocrisy and double standards. • Although some people profited from the Industrial Revolution and there was more movement from working class to middle class, there was massive poverty and a huge divide between the aristocratic rich and the poor underclass. But the rich did little to help the poor – they had no interest in changing the status quo. • Another double standard: it was usually accepted or even expected that men had sex outside marriage but women who did this were called ‘fallen women’ and considered ‘ruined’. They were often shunned by polite society, banished from their families, or worse, left without support, money or connections. Ruined women never fared well... Images of a ‘fallen woman’ The two paintings on the following slides, entitled Past and Present by Augustus Egg (1858), tell a story of a woman who has been unfaithful to her husband, with disastrous consequences for herself and her family.
    24. 24. Understanding Victorian Prisons • Victorians were worried about the rising crime rate: offences went up from about 5,000 per year in 1800 to about 20,000 per year in 1840. • They were firm believers in punishment for criminals, but faced a problem: what should the punishment be?
    25. 25. Out with the Old • There were prisons, but they were mostly small, old and badly-run. • Common punishments included transportation - sending the offender to America, Australia or (Tasmania) • Execution - hundreds of offences carried the death penalty.
    26. 26. In with the New • By the 1830s people were having doubts about these punishments. • The answer was prison: lots of new prisons were built and old ones extended. • Victorians believed that prison should be a harsh punishment so as to deter people from committing crimes. • Once inside, prisoners were made to face up to their own faults. They were kept in silence and made to do hard, boring work such as walking a treadwheel or picking oakum (separating strands of rope).
    27. 27. Prisoners on a treadwheel at Pentonville Prison 1895
    28. 28. Prisoner at hard labour in cell at Wormwood Scrubs Prison.
    29. 29. The Hard Line • Hard labour. • Hard fare: a deliberately monotonous diet, with exactly the same food on the same day each week. • Hard board: wooden board beds replaced the hammocks that prisoners had slept on before.
    30. 30. Discuss • Bearing in mind what you know about Wilde and his personality, how do you think he would fare under Victorian prison conditions?
    31. 31. Plenary • Write down three things you have learnt today. • Write down two things you would like more information on. • Write one thing you could use to meet A04 in the exam.
    32. 32. Thursday 9th January 2014 Learning objectives: •To empathise with Wilde’s dilemma with regard to his sexual orientation. •To be able to explain aesthetics.
    33. 33. HOMEWORK – FOR TOMORROW • You should have read The Preface and Chapter 1 of ‘Dorian’. • If you don’t have a copy, you should buy/borrow one as soon as possible. • The Norton Critical Edition is good (although huge) because it includes contextual and critical extras.
    34. 34. Watch the following clip – listen carefully. Love that dare not speak its name • Remember that this speech is taken from actual court records. • What is the ‘love’ that Wilde is speaking of?
    35. 35. "The love that dare not speak its name" in this century is such a great affection of an elder for a younger man as there was between David and Jonathan, such as Plato made the very basis of his philosophy, and such as you find in the sonnets of Michelangelo and Shakespeare. It is that deep spiritual affection that is as pure as it is perfect. It dictates and pervades great works of art, like those of Shakespeare and Michelangelo, and those two letters of mine, such as they are. It is in this century misunderstood, so much misunderstood that it may be described as "the love that dare not speak its name," and on that account of it I am placed where I am now. It is beautiful, it is fine, it is the noblest form of affection. There is nothing unnatural about it. It is intellectual, and it repeatedly exists between an older and a younger man, when the older man has intellect, and the younger man has all the joy, hope and glamour of life before him. That it should be so, the world does not understand. The world mocks at it, and sometimes puts one in the pillory for it."
    36. 36. • In the summer of 1891, Wilde met Lord Alfred 'Bosie' Douglas, the third son of the Marquis of Queensberry. • They became lovers until Wilde sued Bosie's father for libel as the Marquis had accused him of sodomy. He later withdrew his case. • Since writing ‘Dorian Gray’, Wilde had committed himself to an underworld of boy prostitutes. It was chiefly for these encounters that he was later arrested for “gross indecency" under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, a term meaning homosexual acts not amounting to buggery. • He was convicted and sentenced to two years hard labour. • Constance took the children to Switzerland and reverted to an old family name, “Holland.”
    37. 37. • Upon his release, Wilde and Bosie reunited briefly, but Wilde spent most of the last three years of his life wandering Europe, staying with friends and living in cheap hotels. • He was unable to rekindle his creative fires and Wilde died on November 30, 1900.
    38. 38. • Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy which deals with the nature of beauty, art and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. • It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgements of sentiment and taste. • The word aesthetic is derived from the Greek aisthetikos, meaning "esthetic, sensitive, sentient", which in turn was derived from aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, feel, sense“. • In your handout, you have further information on aesthetics. Imagine that you had to explain it to a Year 9 student. • How would you word it? Write at least a paragraph underneath the definitions you have just written. Aesthetics
    39. 39. Art – your definition
    40. 40. Britannica Online • Defines art as "the use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments, or experiences that can be shared with others."
    41. 41. Is this art?
    42. 42. What is the value of art? Include in your consideration other branches of the arts, like literature and music.
    43. 43. The Picture of Dorian Gray • Wilde’s first and only novel. Published in 1891. • Themes: – The purpose of art : aestheticism – Sin and redemption – Hedonism – Love, marriage and friendship – The supremacy of youth and beauty – The superficial nature of society – Hypocrisy – Appearance versus reality – Influence/manipulation – Based on revelations about evil in humanity, the pleasures of evil and the destructiveness of evil.
    44. 44. The Preface • Discuss, bearing in mind the work we have done on aestheticism: • “ We can forgive a man for making a useful thing as long as he does not admire it. The only excuse for making a useless thing is that one admires it intensely.”
    45. 45. You should have read the Preface and Chapter 1. • What are the main events? • Can you see any themes emerging? • What do we learn about characters? • Why do you think the above are important? In groups of three, pick three quotes that you think are important. Consider what they tell us about character, theme or context. Take one quote each and memorise it; it mustn’t be too short. We will be playing “Quotation Pong”!
    46. 46. Plenary: Quotation Pong • Like ping-pong, but with quotations in place of a ball. • One person starts; if he/she hesitates or forgets the quotation, the next person takes over – and so on until you’ve all given your quotations. • Perfect recitation earns a prize. • Very short quotations will not be accepted!
    47. 47. Quotation Bank Add quotations from the Preface and Chapter 1 to your Quotation Bank. From the Preface: “ We can forgive a man for making a useful thing as long as he does not admire it. The only excuse for making a useless thing is that one admires it intensely.”
    48. 48. In pairs • Discuss this quotation focusing on what it tells us about author and context: • “I like persons better than principles, and I like persons with no principles better than anything else in the world.” (Lord Henry, Chapter 1). • One of you must be ready to feed back ideas in three minutes.
    49. 49. Change pairs. Consider what themes are apparent in this quotation. “Those who are faithful know only the trivial side of love: it is the faithless who know love’s tragedies.”
    50. 50. Comparison • “He is all my art to me now” (Chapter 1) SONNET 78 - Shakespeare So oft have I invoked thee for my Muse And found such fair assistance in my verse As every alien pen hath got my use And under thee their poesy disperse. Thine eyes that taught the dumb on high to sing And heavy ignorance aloft to fly Have added feathers to the learned's wing And given grace a double majesty. Yet be most proud of that which I compile, Whose influence is thine and born of thee: In others' works thou dost but mend the style, And arts with thy sweet graces graced be; But thou art all my art and dost advance As high as learning my rude ignorance.
    51. 51. Homework • Read Chapter 2. • Consider the effect of narrative voice – be prepared to feed back.
    52. 52. Plenary • Add the quotations we have discussed today to your Quotation Bank; make sure you add where in the book they appear. • Write down the quotation you memorised on a piece of paper. Add whether you think it relates to theme, character or context. • Make it into a paper airplane. • Send it across the room to someone else. • If you haven’t already got that quotation in your Bank, add it now.
    53. 53. Tuesday 14th January 2014 Learning Objective: To be able to discuss the characterisation, themes and use of narrative voice in Chapter 2. Read Chapter 3 for Friday’s lesson!
    54. 54. Starter: Discuss “All the candour of youth was there, as well as all youth’s passionate purity.”
    55. 55. Tasks 1. As a class, read from “Dorian Gray stepped up on the dais, the air of a young Greek martyr…”(p17) through to “How fascinating the lad was” (p19). What do we learn about Lord Henry? (characterisation) 2. The supremacy of youth and beauty (theme) is demonstrated in Lord Henry’s opinion (p21). Individually, choose one quotation which you feel represents this theme and write it on your post-it note and stick them around the room on the walls. 3. Once everyone has done this, you must go and read other people’s quotations. Pick the one you feel most represents this theme and copy it down. Be prepared to explain why. 4. How does Wilde foreshadow (device) what is to come in this chapter?
    56. 56. Narrative Voice • On the next slide, there is an extract of a journal article. Read this and we will discuss to what extent you agree with Molino. • Find textual evidence to verify your opinion.
    57. 57. Narrator/Voice in The Picture of Dorian Gray: A Question of Consistency, Control and Perspective Michael R. Molino (Journal of Irish Literature, vol.20 : no.3 1991) The narrator in Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray holds a significant position in the novel. As what is traditionally called an omniscient or limited omniscient narrator, he or she acts as the primary mediator between the characters, the action, and the setting of the novel and the reader of the novel, what Gérard Genette calls ‘focalization.’ However, the narrator is often more than just a camera lens through which the surrounding events are recording at times. In fact, the narrator seems to have the power to enter a character's heart and mind in order to perceive and analyse the motivation, intent, and significance of that character's words, thoughts, and deeds. Because of the narrator's perspective and apparent powers of perception, the reader is often inclined to listen with believing intensity to the words of the narrator, to give his or her words, perspectives, and analysis credence. The narrator, then, is freed from the restraints of consciousness and able to weave the narrative in any way he or she sees fit. Perhaps this power is given too freely by the reader, allowing the narrator to control the text and dictate its interpretation.
    58. 58. Response to article • Find a quotation in Chapter 2 that shows ‘the narrator seems to have the power to enter a character's heart and mind’. • In what ways is the narrator directing the reader in their interpretation? • Can you find a quotation that shows the narrator manipulating us? • Do you agree with Molino’s view on the narrator in ‘Dorian’?
    59. 59. Plenary • Add the quotations we have discussed today to your Quotation Bank; make sure you add where in the book they appear. • Check with the person next to you that they don’t have anything different; if they do, copy down their quotation; discuss why they have picked it out.
    60. 60. Friday 17th January 2014 Learning objectives: • To understand how characterisation reflects context in Chapter 3.
    61. 61. Homework • Read Chapter 4 for next Thursday. • Consider the portrayal of relationships in this chapter – • Lord Henry and his wife • Dorian and Sybil • Dorian and Henry.
    62. 62. Your learning objectives focus on two of the examination Assessment Objectives • AO2: demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in literary texts • AO4: demonstrate understanding of the significance and influence of the contexts in which literary texts are written and received.
    63. 63. Introduction: Imagine… • You hear of a new student starting in your class. You can find out two things about them. What would they be? 1) 2)
    64. 64. Focus on context • “What sort of boy is he? If he is like his mother he must be a very good looking chap.” • Who is speaking to whom? At what point in the conversation? • How far does this response match yours from the previous slide? • Contextually, has anything changed between then and now in what we think is important to know about someone?
    65. 65. Focus on context • Get into pairs or threes. • Each pair/group will be given a quotation and a question. Discuss an answer to the question, remembering the focus is context (social, historical, cultural). • On a mini-whiteboard, write down your response to the question. You have 10 minutes. • Be prepared to feedback to the rest of the class. CHALLENGE QUESTION (applicable to all quotations) • What does this tell us about the superficial nature of society at the time? (theme)
    66. 66. Feedback ‘Margaret Devereux...made all the men frantic by running away with a penniless young fellow; a mere nobody.’ ‘The thing was hushed up but, egad, Kelso ate his chop alone at the club for some time afterwards.’ ‘They are pork-packers, I suppose?’ ‘I hope so, Uncle George, for Dartmoor’s sake. I am told that pork-packing is the most lucrative profession in America...’ ‘Tell your Aunt Agatha...not to bother me any more with her charity appeals. I am sick of them. Why, the good woman thinks that I have nothing to do but to write cheques for her silly fads.’ When your quotation appears, come to the front with your quotation sheet and whiteboard. Let the class know what your question was then share your responses.
    67. 67. Review • We have focused on context. But do the quotations add anything to our knowledge of the characters? • Add these quotations to your Bank.
    68. 68. Thursday 23rd January 2014 Learning objectives: • To be able to discuss the significance of language in a specific extract. FOCUS ON CHAPTER 3
    69. 69. Starter DORIAN GRAY • Is the name a metaphor? • Gray / grey? • Dorian? Dorian comes from Greek – the Dorians were one of the four main Greek ethnic groups during ancient times. The word is said to mean ‘gift’.
    70. 70. Chapter 3: Focus on language • Get into groups of four. • Working together, go through the extract on the sheet, where Henry is extolling Dorian’s beauty. • Highlight Wilde’s use of language for effect, including devices. • Add comments on their effect (why they work, what Wilde is saying through their use). 20 minutes
    71. 71. Focus on language: a devices duel! • On the following slides, I have divided up most of the extract into sections. In the first two sections, I have helped you by highlighting some interesting quotations; last section, you’re on your own! • Taking turns, a member of each group will come up to the board and highlight a device in that section, saying what the effect is. • The rest of the class should update their own copy of the extract with any extra devices. • The winner of each section is the group that lasts longest in finding devices. • Overall winners decided at end! Lollies for prizes.
    72. 72. So that was the story of Dorian Gray's parentage. Crudely as it had been told to him, it had yet stirred him by its suggestion of a strange, almost modern romance. A beautiful woman risking everything for a mad passion. A few wild weeks of happiness cut short by a hideous, treacherous crime. Months of voiceless agony, and then a child born in pain. The mother snatched away by death, the boy left to solitude and the tyranny of an old and loveless man. Yes; it was an interesting background. It posed the lad, made him more perfect, as it were. Behind every exquisite thing that existed, there was something tragic. Worlds had to be in travail, that the meanest flower might blow.
    73. 73. . . . And how charming he had been at dinner the night before, as with startled eyes and lips parted in frightened pleasure he had sat opposite to him at the club, the red candleshades staining to a richer rose the wakening wonder of his face. Talking to him was like playing upon an exquisite violin. He answered to every touch and thrill of the bow. . . . There was something terribly enthralling in the exercise of influence. No other activity was like it. To project one's soul into some gracious form, and let it tarry there for a moment; to hear one's own intellectual views echoed back to one with all the added music of passion and youth; to convey one's temperament into another as though it were a subtle fluid or a strange perfume: there was a real joy in that--perhaps the most satisfying joy left to us in an age so limited and vulgar as our own, an age grossly carnal in its pleasures, and grossly common in its aims....
    74. 74. He was a marvellous type, too, this lad, whom by so curious a chance he had met in Basil's studio, or could be fashioned into a marvellous type, at any rate. Grace was his, and the white purity of boyhood, and beauty such as old Greek marbles kept for us. There was nothing that one could not do with him. He could be made a Titan or a toy. What a pity it was that such beauty was destined to fade! . . . And Basil? From a psychological point of view, how interesting he was! The new manner in art, the fresh mode of looking at life, suggested so strangely by the merely visible presence of one who was unconscious of it all; the silent spirit that dwelt in dim woodland, and walked unseen in open field, suddenly showing herself, Dryadlike and not afraid, because in his soul who sought for her there had been wakened that wonderful vision to which alone are wonderful things revealed; the mere shapes and patterns of things becoming, as it were, refined, and gaining a kind of symbolical value, as though they were themselves patterns of some other and more perfect form whose shadow they made real: how strange it all was!
    75. 75. Plenary Look at your annotated extract. Through his use of language, what is Wilde trying to convey:  about Dorian?  about Henry?  about beauty? Your learning objectives were: 1. 2. To be able to discuss the significance of language in a specific extract. In your books, put a tick by the learning objective if you feel you have met it.
    76. 76. Thursday 23rd January 2014 Learning Objective: • To explore the representation of love and relationships in Chapter 4. “Never marry a woman with straw coloured hair, Dorian…”
    77. 77. Introduction: Chapter 4 • What happens in this chapter? • What new characters are we introduced to? • Are any of the major themes significantly developed in this chapter?
    78. 78. Task 1: In groups of 3 Pick one quotation each from the following and write your quotation in your glossary, trying to memorise it: • ‘My dear boy, no woman is a genius. Women are a decorative sex. They never have anything to say, but they say it charmingly. Women represent the triumph of matter over mind, just as men represent the triumph of mind over morals.’ Henry speaking. (theme) • ‘You know how a voice can stir one. Your voice and the voice of Sibyl Vane are two things that I shall never forget.’(device/language) • ‘You, who know all the secrets of life, tell me how to charm Sibyl Vane to love me! I want to make Romeo jealous, I want the dead lovers of the world to hear our laughter, and grow sad. I want a breath of our passion to stir their dust into consciousness, to wake their ashes into pain. My God, Harry, how I worship her!’ (theme and character)
    79. 79. • Individually, think about how the quotation you have chosen would be spoken (tone of voice, speed, intonation). • Consider facial expression and body language. • In your group, each of you in turn act out your quotation, putting intonation and gesture etc into your enactment. • Discuss why you decided to enact it in the way you did. Any volunteers to act it out in front of the class?
    80. 80. Task 2: Focus on character From your quotation: • What do we learn about the character? (characterisation) In Chapter 4 as a whole, how are the relationships between the following portrayed? • Lord Henry and his wife • Dorian and Sybil • Dorian and Henry - how has Dorian changed in his attitude towards Henry? Write three short paragraphs outlining your ideas.
    81. 81. Create a ‘before and after’ picture to show the change in Dorian towards Lord Henry. Add annotations to explain how he has changed. • Start with Chapter 2, when Dorian is drawn but disturbed by Lord Henry’s attitude to life. What is he like at this stage? • Go on to Chapter 4, where a change has taken place in Dorian – he seems different now.
    82. 82. Plenary • Swap with someone else. • Discuss your pictures. • Do you agree with each other?
    83. 83. Monday 27th January 2014 Learning Objectives: • To know what romanticism is. • To be familiar with some romantic writing.
    84. 84. The Romantics • An artistic and philosophical movement beginning in 1798 (the year of the first edition of Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge) and went on into the second half of the 19th century. • As well as Wordsworth and Coleridge, other famous Romantic writers and poets are William Blake, Sir Walter Scott, John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley (married to Mary), Goethe (Germany), Rousseau (France) and Walt Whitman (America).
    85. 85. The Romantics believed.... • freedom of the individual and the value of individual experience. This could sometimes lead to excess and social ostracism. • the power of the imagination, which was seen as the supreme faculty of the mind. • the power of nature, rather than religion, particularly when it comes to easing human suffering. Nature itself was looked upon as a work of art.
    86. 86. They had a strong interest in... • Mythology • Folklore and medieval texts (including ancient legends) • Shakespeare • Another Elizabethan writer called Spenser, who wrote the first published version of the legend of King Arthur (‘The Faerie Queene’).
    87. 87. Find out more about the Romantics • /melani/cs6/rom.html • • • v=XV_q45Otdic
    88. 88. Romantic poetry • Read the two poems on the sheet, the first by John Keats, the second by William Wordsworth. • Both are written in the Romantic tradition. • Consider what is there that shows they are part of this tradition (use your Romantics cribsheet to help you).
    89. 89. Endymion, Book I by John Keats A thing of beauty is a joy for ever: Its loveliness increases; it will never Pass into nothingness; but still will keep A bower quiet for us, and a sleep Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing. Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing A flowery band to bind us to the earth, Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth Of noble natures, of the gloomy days, Of all the unhealthy and o'er-darkened ways Made for our searching: yes, in spite of all, Some shape of beauty moves away the pall From our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon, Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon For simple sheep; and such are daffodils With the green world they live in; and clear rills That for themselves a cooling covert make 'Gainst the hot season; the mid forest brake, Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms: And such too is the grandeur of the dooms We have imagined for the mighty dead; All lovely tales that we have heard or read: An endless fountain of immortal drink, Pouring unto us from the heaven's brink
    90. 90. THE DAFFODILS by William Wordsworth I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the Milky Way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay: Ten thousand saw I at a glance, Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. The waves beside them danced, but they Out-did the sparkling waves in glee: A Poet could not but be gay, In such a jocund company: I gazed—and gazed—but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought: For oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude; And then my heart with pleasure fills,
    91. 91. Oscar Wilde was influenced by the Romantics. • Look again at Keats’ poem from Endymion. Highlight words, phrases or lines that remind you of Wilde’s ideas and language in A Portrait of Dorian Gray. • Write a paragraph in response to the statement at the top of this slide in light of what you know about the Romantics.
    92. 92. Plenary • Swap paragraphs with someone in the class. • Read each other’s paragraphs and then discuss similarities and differences. • Copy down anything from your partner’s paragraph that you didn’t think of. • Feedback to the class.
    93. 93. Tuesday 28th January 2014 Learning objective: To be able to analyse character and theme development in the novel up to Chapter 4.
    94. 94. HOMEWORK • Read chapter 5 for Friday 31st .
    95. 95. Written response (50 mins) Comment on the way the theme of love and friendship has been developed so far in the novel. Include: • The friendship between Basil and Dorian • The way Henry intervenes in the relationship • Dorian’s changing relationship with Henry • Their attitudes towards love.
    96. 96. Plenary Choose your best point development and read it out.
    97. 97. Friday 31st January 2014 Learning objectives: To know the significance of Chapter 5 with regard to theme and character development.
    98. 98. HOMEWORK • Read Chapters 6 and 7 for Thursday 6th .
    99. 99. Starter: focus on context First lines of chapter: ‘“Mother, mother, I am so happy!” whispered the girl, burying her face in the lap of the faded, tired-looking woman who, with back turned to the shrill intrusive light, was sitting in the one armchair that their dingy sitting- room contained.’ • Why did Wilde start the chapter this way? • What words tell us we are in a different social setting to the milieu Wilde has offered us so far? • How does this description contrast with descriptions of Dorian and Henry’s world? Use the pictures on the next slide to help you form opinions.
    100. 100. Upper class Comfortable working class Poor lower class
    101. 101. Focus on character THE VANES SIBYL MRS VANE JAMES Old before her time ‘faded, tired- looking’ Add 3 things you have learnt about each character; back up your ideas with a quotation each time.
    102. 102. Focus on character • Get into pairs and share what you have found. • Add to your own thinking map anything new that your partner has on their map. • Let’s feedback.
    103. 103. Focus on character THE VANES SIBYL MRS VANE JAMES Old before her time ‘faded, tired- looking’
    104. 104. Focus on theme: appearance and reality In your pairs, make notes on in what way(s): • Sibyl is not living in ‘reality’. • Mrs Vane is not living in reality. • Mrs Vane tries to keep up appearances. • James presents ‘realism’. • James doesn’t present ‘realism’.
    105. 105. Focus on language • Read again from the start of the chapter to where it says, ‘Mother did you love my father as I love Prince Charming?’ • Find three interesting uses of language (including devices) and comment on why they are effective.
    106. 106. Plenary Focus on Dorian: • What is the significance of Sibyl calling him ‘Prince Charming’? • What does it signify that Dorian can ride past Sibyl in his carriage without noticing her?
    107. 107. Thursday 6th February 2014 Learning objectives: 1.To understand how the theme of appearance and reality is advanced in Chapter 7. 2.To evaluate how Wilde introduces the supernatural into the narrative.
    108. 108. HOMEWORK • Read Chapter 8 and 9 for Monday 10th . • Consider how each man (Henry and Dorian) exhibits – cruelty – selfishness How much are these traits a result of their class and gender?
    109. 109. Chapter 6 • How is your knowledge of the three characters developed in this chapter? • Dorian • Henry • Basil
    110. 110. Chapter 7: close focus Look at the section that begins ‘When the second act was over...’ to ‘What more do you want?’ • What does this section show about the three men’s attitudes towards women? Discuss in pairs (3 mins) • Write down one quotation for each character in your Quotation Bank. New Term: ‘Separate Spheres’ A 19th -century doctrine on appropriate activities for the sexes. Men went out into the world for work and exchange of ideas; women stayed at home, providing a soft centre for constancy, stability and spirituality.
    111. 111. ‘I have grown sick of shadows’ An allusion to a poem called ‘The Lady of Shalott’ by Alfred, Lord Tennyson. red_lord_tennyson.shtml?pty_vid=2 When Lancelot sees her dead body, he says, ‘She has a lovely face’. How does Tennyson’s story and Lancelot’s comment tie in with Dorian Gray?
    112. 112. Chapter 7: Introduction of the supernatural When Dorian gets home from the theatre, Wilde introduces the idea that the portrait has changed slowly – the reader keeps going back to the portrait with Dorian. • Compile an eight-window storyboard following Dorian’s journey from disbelief to realisation, from where it says ‘as he was turning the handle of the door....’ to the end of the chapter. Add a quotation at the bottom of each window, explaining your picture.
    113. 113. Plenary How does this chapter advance the theme of appearance versus reality... ...through Dorian? ...through Sibyl? Write one idea on the Post-it note and give it to me as you leave – it’s your exit ticket!
    114. 114. Monday 10th February 2014 Learning objectives: 1.To have developed my understanding of the relationships between Dorian and Henry, and Dorian and Basil.
    115. 115. Chapter 8 • In this chapter, how does Henry and Dorian exhibit: • cruelty • selfishness How much are these traits a result of their class and gender? Discuss the above.
    116. 116. Chapter 9 • This is a companion chapter to Chapter 8. • In the previous chapter, the reader was presented with Henry’s view of Sibyl’s suicide and his chance to influence Dorian; here, we are presented with Basil’s. • In small groups, discuss the differences in the two relationships (Dorian/Henry, Dorian/Basil). 3 mins
    117. 117. Review • What are the differences between the two relationships? DORIAN AND HENRY DORIAN AND BASIL
    118. 118. Different sides of Dorian Work in pairs, discussing the quotation you have been given. What does your quotation show about Dorian? Find an adjective to sum up the personality trait it most exhibits. ‘I was a school boy when you knew me. I am a man now.’ ‘Don’t talk about horrid subjects. If one doesn’t talk about a thing, it has never happened.’ ‘Stop, Basil! I won’t hear it! You must not tell me about things.’ ‘If you had come in yesterday at a particular moment – about half-past five, perhaps, or a quarter to six – you would have found me in tears. ‘Old brocades, green bronzes, lacquer-work, carved ivories, exquisite surroundings, luxury, pomp, there is much to be got from all these.’ Bearing in mind the other quotations, can you comment on this one?
    119. 119. Tuesday 11th February 2014 Learning objectives: 1.To have developed my understanding of Dorian and Basil. 2.To know what the allusions are in Chapter 9.
    120. 120. HOMEWORK FOR FRIDAY • Read Chapters 10 and 11. • Consider in chapter 10: – The significance of the locked, disregarded playroom/schoolroom – Dorian’s growing paranoia – The effect of Henry’s book on Dorian. • In Chapter 11, note: – any references to Dorian’s appearance – Any references to changes in the portrait – Any references to his suspect reputation – His changing interests – His ‘heroes’.
    121. 121. Literary allusions: Faustus • The foundation for all stories about selling your soul to the devil. Best known English version by Christopher Marlowe, writing at about the same time as Shakespeare. • Dr Faustus
    122. 122. Discuss • How is the story of Dr Faustus relevant to Dorian Gray?
    123. 123. Historical allusions: Emperor Hadrian and Antinous ‘Crowned with heavy lotus- blossoms you had sat on the prow of Adrian’s barge, gazing across the green turbid Nile.’ (Basil) The Emperor had a young lover, Antinous, known for his great beauty. He died when he fell into the Nile while travelling in the Emperor’s barge (AD132). The death was mysterious: it could have been an accident but it could equally have been murder or suicide – suicide because he was aware that he was getting older, would lose his beauty and then also his power. Hadrian mourned him for eight years, falling into a depression he could not pull himself out of. In what ways is Dorian like Antinous?
    124. 124. Mythological allusions: Adonis and Narcissus • Narcissus is the son of the river god Cephissus and the nymph Liriope. Tiresias, the seer, told his parents that the child "would live to an old age if it did not look at itself." Many nymphs and girls fell in love with him but he rejected them. The goddess Nemesis heard the rejected girls prayers for vengeance and arranged for Narcissus to fall in love with his own reflection. He stayed watching his reflection and let himself die. When Adonis was born, Aphrodite was so moved by his beauty that she sheltered him and entrusted him to Persephone. She was also taken by his beauty and refused to give him back. The dispute between the two goddesses was settled by Zeus who decided that Adonis was to spend one- third of every year with each goddess and the last third wherever he chose. He always chose to spend two-thirds of the year with Aphrodite. This went on till his death, where he was fatally wounded by a wild boar, said to be caused by either Artemis or Aphrodite's lover, Ares, who was jealous of Adonis. Links to Dorian?
    125. 125. Close-text focus Look at the section where Basil tells his ‘secret’ from ‘I see you did....’ to ‘you are made to be worshipped.’ • Make a list of repeated words. Why are they significant? • Highlight personal pronouns. What do you notice? • Basil’s speech is a confession of love. Pick out words and phrases that show he is talking about love rather than artistic obsession.
    126. 126. Basil’s confession In Wilde’s original manuscript, he included two lines which he later went on to delete. In the original: Basil asked if there is something in the picture that has ‘filled you perhaps with a sense of shame?’ He also said, ‘I have worshipped you with far more romance of feeling than a man should ever give to a friend’. Why do you think that Wilde deleted these two lines? In the speech as it stands, how obvious do you think the homosexual sub-text is? Try to consider the question from both a modern and Victorian standpoint.
    127. 127. Good Angel/Bad Angel Role play: In groups of three, •One person is Dorian •One person is Good Angel (Basil) •One person is Bad Angel (Henry) Talk to him about Sybil.
    128. 128. Plenary • How does Basil’s speech develop the theme of art and reality? • How does Basil compare/differ from Sybil with regard to this theme?
    129. 129. Friday 14th February 2014 Learning objectives: To be able to read a text for meaning.
    130. 130. HOMEWORK FOR 1ST LESSON BACK • Read Chapters 12-16.
    131. 131. Chapter 10 • Discuss: • The significance of the locked, disregarded playroom/schoolroom • Dorian’s growing paranoia • The effect of Henry’s book on Dorian.
    132. 132. Chapter 11: For years.... • What does this opening phrase signify to the reader? • What is this chapter going to be about? Writer’s dilemma: How to keep the reader interested once Dorian has ‘sold his soul’ (lack of suspense thereafter)? Redemption/Repentance Retribution/Revenge (Comeuppance)
    133. 133. Chapter 11 You should have looked for: • Any references to Dorian’s appearance • Any references to changes in the portrait • Any references to his suspect reputation • His changing interests • His ‘heroes’. Let’s look at what you found.
    134. 134. Contrast appearances: Dorian and the portrait DORIAN THE PORTRAIT Focus on Chapter 11
    135. 135. His suspicious reputation: find quotations What makes people disbelieve the rumours about him? What does this tell us about the society he is part of? Focus on Chapter 11
    136. 136. His interests over the years... Find seven pastimes that have taken up his time and interest. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Focus on Chapter 11
    137. 137. At the end of the chapter, Dorian lists his ‘heroes’ from the past. Find three historical figures and outline what they did to get on Dorian’s wish list. HISTORICAL FIGURE WHAT THEY DID 1. 2. 3.
    138. 138. Close-text focus: find the paragraph that starts ‘Yet these whispered scandals only increased....’ down to ‘...multiply our personalities.’ (Just before Dorian starts going through his family portraits, looking for sinners.) This paragraph is interesting when considering narrative voice. • Who is talking here? • Who is saying, ‘I think not’? • Comment on the first sentence of the next paragraph: ‘Such, at any rate, was Dorian Gray’s opinion’. Focus on Chapter 11
    139. 139. Plenary: final lines ‘Dorian had been poisoned by a book. There were moments when he looked on evil simply as a mode through which he could realise his conception of the beautiful.’o In your books, write down one comment responding to this quotation and focusing on either theme, character or language. o Swap books with the person next to you and discuss your comments. o Feedback your partner’s thoughts to the class.
    140. 140. Chapters 12, 13 and 14 Learning objective: To be able to recognise the significance of Chapters 12, 13 and 14 in Dorian’s psychological development. We will read these chapters without stopping, as they form one unit of action which we will discuss at the end of Chapter 14.
    141. 141. Unpacking Chs 12-14 Chapter 12 – Discussion Make notes/annotate as we go along. 1. In what ways is the fog (described at the beginning of the chapter) being used figuratively and symbolically? 2. Find at least one quotation which shows Basil as ‘good angel’ or the voice of Dorian’s (non-existent) conscience. 3. Find quotations which show Dorian has lost respect for Basil and wants him to suffer. 4. Analyse the short sentence: ‘Don’t touch me!”, uttered by Dorian near the end of the chapter.
    142. 142. Unpacking Chapter 12-14 Chapter 13 ‘Each of us has Heaven and Hell in him, Basil.’ Allusions: Dr Faustus: ‘This is hell, nor am I out of it’ (Mephistopheles speaking) Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’ (Book II, lines 254-5): ‘The mind is its own place, and in itself / Can make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven’. (Satan speaking) ‘Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’ by R. L. Stevenson: ‘All human beings are commingled out of good and evil’. (Dr Jekyll speaking in his confession.)
    143. 143. Unpacking Chapters 12-14 Chapter 13 • Work in pairs. • You have been given an extract from the chapter. • Analyse it closely, looking for development of theme, language/imagery and character. • You have been given a prompt question to get you started. Don’t just answer this question, though – there is a lot more to be unpacked from each extract.
    144. 144. What is there about the setting and the language that sets this extract firmly in the gothic genre? He passed out of the room and began the ascent, Basil Hallward following close behind. They walked softly, as men do instinctively at night. The lamp cast fantastic shadows on the wall and staircase. A rising wind made some of the windows rattle. When they reached the top landing, Dorian set the lamp down on the floor, and taking out the key, turned it in the lock. "You insist on knowing, Basil?" he asked in a low voice. "Yes." "I am delighted," he answered, smiling. Then he added, somewhat harshly, "You are the one man in the world who is entitled to know everything about me. You have had more to do with my life than you think"; and, taking up the lamp, he opened the door and went in. A cold current of air passed them, and the light shot up for a moment in a flame of murky orange. He shuddered. "Shut the door behind you," he whispered, as he placed the lamp on the table. Hallward glanced round him with a puzzled expression. The room looked as if it had not been lived in for years. A faded Flemish tapestry, a curtained picture, an old Italian cassone, and an almost empty book- case--that was all that it seemed to contain, besides a chair and a table. As Dorian Gray was lighting a half-burned candle that was standing on the mantelshelf, he saw that the whole place was covered with dust and that the carpet was in holes. A mouse ran scuffling behind the wainscoting. There was a damp odour of mildew. "So you think that it is only God who sees the soul, Basil? Draw that curtain back, and you will see mine." The voice that spoke was cold and cruel. "You are mad, Dorian, or playing a part," muttered Hallward, frowning. "You won't? Then I must do it myself," said the young man, and he tore the curtain from its rod and flung it on the ground. An exclamation of horror broke from the painter's lips as he saw in the dim light the hideous face on the canvas grinning at him.
    145. 145. How much is Dorian Gray a spectator or an actor in this extract? It was some foul parody, some infamous ignoble satire. He had never done that. Still, it was his own picture. He knew it, and he felt as if his blood had changed in a moment from fire to sluggish ice. His own picture! What did it mean? Why had it altered? He turned and looked at Dorian Gray with the eyes of a sick man. His mouth twitched, and his parched tongue seemed unable to articulate. He passed his hand across his forehead. It was dank with clammy sweat. The young man was leaning against the mantelshelf, watching him with that strange expression that one sees on the faces of those who are absorbed in a play when some great artist is acting. There was neither real sorrow in it nor real joy. There was simply the passion of the spectator, with perhaps a flicker of triumph in his eyes. He had taken the flower out of his coat, and was smelling it, or pretending to do so. "What does this mean?" cried Hallward, at last. His own voice sounded shrill and curious in his ears. "Years ago, when I was a boy," said Dorian Gray, crushing the flower in his hand, "you met me, flattered me, and taught me to be vain of my good looks. One day you introduced me to a friend of yours, who explained to me the wonder of youth, and you finished a portrait of me that revealed to me the wonder of beauty. In a mad moment that, even now, I don't know whether I regret or not, I made a wish, perhaps you would call it a prayer...."
    146. 146. What words and phrases make this extract particularly gruesome and violent? Dorian Gray glanced at the picture, and suddenly an uncontrollable feeling of hatred for Basil Hallward came over him, as though it had been suggested to him by the image on the canvas, whispered into his ear by those grinning lips. The mad passions of a hunted animal stirred within him, and he loathed the man who was seated at the table, more than in his whole life he had ever loathed anything. He glanced wildly around. Something glimmered on the top of the painted chest that faced him. His eye fell on it. He knew what it was. It was a knife that he had brought up, some days before, to cut a piece of cord, and had forgotten to take away with him. He moved slowly towards it, passing Hallward as he did so. As soon as he got behind him, he seized it and turned round. Hallward stirred in his chair as if he was going to rise. He rushed at him and dug the knife into the great vein that is behind the ear, crushing the man's head down on the table and stabbing again and again. There was a stifled groan and the horrible sound of someone choking with blood. Three times the outstretched arms shot up convulsively, waving grotesque, stiff-fingered hands in the air. He stabbed him twice more, but the man did not move. Something began to trickle on the floor. He waited for a moment, still pressing the head down. Then he threw the knife on the table, and listened. He could hear nothing, but the drip, drip on the threadbare carpet. He opened the door and went out on the landing. The house was absolutely quiet. For a few seconds he stood bending over the balustrade and peering down into the black seething well of darkness. Then he took out the key and returned to the room, locking himself in. The thing was still seated in the chair, straining over the table with bowed head, and humped back, and long fantastic arms.
    147. 147. Why has Wilde written such a detailed description of the London street at this point? How quickly it had all been done! He felt strangely calm, and walking over to the window, opened it and stepped out on the balcony. The wind had blown the fog away, and the sky was like a monstrous peacock's tail, starred with myriads of golden eyes. He looked down and saw the policeman going his rounds and flashing the long beam of his lantern on the doors of the silent houses. The crimson spot of a prowling hansom gleamed at the corner and then vanished. A woman in a fluttering shawl was creeping slowly by the railings, staggering as she went. Now and then she stopped and peered back. Once, she began to sing in a hoarse voice. The policeman strolled over and said something to her. She stumbled away, laughing. A bitter blast swept across the square. The gas-lamps flickered and became blue, and the leafless trees shook their black iron branches to and fro. He shivered and went back, closing the window behind him. Having reached the door, he turned the key and opened it. He did not even glance at the murdered man. He felt that the secret of the whole thing was not to realize the situation. The friend who had painted the fatal portrait to which all his misery had been due had gone out of his life. That was enough. Then he remembered the lamp. It was a rather curious one of Moorish workmanship, made of dull silver inlaid with arabesques of burnished steel, and studded with coarse turquoises. Perhaps it might be missed by his servant, and questions would be asked. He hesitated for a moment, then he turned back and took it from the table. He could not help seeing the dead thing. How still it was! How horribly white the long hands looked! It was like a dreadful wax image. Having locked the door behind him, he crept quietly downstairs. The woodwork creaked and seemed to cry out as if in pain. He stopped several times and waited. No: everything was still. It was merely the sound of his own footsteps.
    148. 148. Time ticking on... Be a detective and work out what happened when across Chapters 12-14. TIME EVENT 9th Nov 11pm 10th Nov, between 1-1.40am 2.10am About 2.30am Morning, 9am About 10.30am About 11am 1.10pm Between 7– 7.30pm
    149. 149. Time ticking on.... Chapter 14: Dorian Gray is preoccupied with time at this point in the narrative. • How does Wilde make this clear to the reader? • Why is Dorian preoccupied with time? • How does Dorian take his mind off his troubles? • Why doesn’t this work?
    150. 150. Chapter 14: Time This extract (where Dorian is waiting for Campbell to arrive) is packed full of figurative devices – I have highlighted them in red so you can see for yourselves. Your task is to choose at least four of the devices, name them and analyse their effect. Every second he kept glancing at the clock. As the minutes went by he became horribly agitated. At last he got up and began to pace up and down the room, looking like a beautiful caged thing. He took long stealthy strides. His hands were curiously cold. The suspense became unbearable. Time seemed to him to be crawling with feet of lead, while he by monstrous winds was being swept towards the jagged edge of some black cleft of precipice. He knew what was waiting for him there; saw it, indeed, and, shuddering, crushed with dank hands his burning lids as though he would have robbed the very brain of sight and driven the eyeballs back into their cave. It was useless. The brain had its own food on which it battened, and the imagination, made grotesque by terror, twisted and distorted as a living thing by pain, danced like some foul puppet on a stand and grinned through moving masks. Then, suddenly, time stopped for him. Yes: that blind, slow-breathing thing crawled no more, and horrible thoughts, time being dead, raced nimbly on in front, and dragged a hideous future from its grave, and showed it to him. He stared at it. Its very horror made him stone.
    151. 151. Chapter 14: Time This extract (where Dorian is waiting for Campbell to arrive) is packed full of figurative devices – I have highlighted them in red so you can see for yourselves. Your task is to choose at least four of the devices, name them and analyse their effect. Every second he kept glancing at the clock. As the minutes went by he became horribly agitated. At last he got up and began to pace up and down the room, looking like a beautiful caged thing. He took long stealthy strides. His hands were curiously cold. The suspense became unbearable. Time seemed to him to be crawling with feet of lead, while he by monstrous winds was being swept towards the jagged edge of some black cleft of precipice. He knew what was waiting for him there; saw it, indeed, and, shuddering, crushed with dank hands his burning lids as though he would have robbed the very brain of sight and driven the eyeballs back into their cave. It was useless. The brain had its own food on which it battened, and the imagination, made grotesque by terror, twisted and distorted as a living thing by pain, danced like some foul puppet on a stand and grinned through moving masks. Then, suddenly, time stopped for him. Yes: that blind, slow-breathing thing crawled no more, and horrible thoughts, time being dead, raced nimbly on in front, and dragged a hideous future from its grave, and showed it to him. He stared at it. Its very horror made him stone. What emotion(s) is Dorian experiencing (perhaps for the first time)?
    152. 152. Allusions Consider: What other famous murderer from literature talks about time, the imagination and the brain in similar terms? BIG CLUE: he, too, kills his best friend. What are the differences between Macbeth’s response to murder and Dorian’s?
    153. 153. What are the differences between Macbeth’s response to murder and Dorian’s? So...who is more evil? Just to be really clear about this.... Dorian Gray is more evil than Macbeth who was ‘in blood /Stepped in so far’. WHY?
    154. 154. Plenary What’s odd about this extract? ‘A groan broke from Campbell's lips and he shivered all over. The ticking of the clock on the mantelpiece seemed to him to be dividing time into separate atoms of agony, each of which was too terrible to be borne. He felt as if an iron ring was being slowly tightened round his forehead, as if the disgrace with which he was threatened had already come upon him. The hand upon his shoulder weighed like a hand of lead. It was intolerable. It seemed to crush him.’ Change of narrative perspective Its tone and use of devices is very similar to the previous extract we looked at except this time, we are in Alan Campbell’s head. • Why has Wilde changed narrative perspective at this point?
    155. 155. The Picture of Dorian Gray Chapter 15 The Picture of Dorian Gray Chapter 15 To examine Dorian’s enjoyment of ‘the terrible pleasures of a double life’ To examine Dorian’s enjoyment of ‘the terrible pleasures of a double life’
    156. 156. Let’s read Chapter 15. • As we read, think about the reasons Wilde included this chapter. • Why did Wilde include this chapter?
    157. 157. StructureStructure • Re-read the final two paragraphs of Chapter 14 and the first paragraph of Chapter 15. • What do you notice about the language used by Wilde? • How does he describe the state of Dorian’s mind?
    158. 158. Context and WomenContext and Women • How are the women represented in this chapter compared to the men? • Examine the character of Lady Narborough. How does Wilde use language effectively to convey her strength and wit? • Find quotes to support your opinion.
    159. 159. The Changing Face of DorianThe Changing Face of Dorian • Find quotes that support a negative depiction of Dorian in this chapter:
    160. 160. Dorian’s State of MindDorian’s State of Mind • Write a paragraph describing Dorian’s state of mind in Chapters 14 and 15. • How does Wilde use language to convey Dorian’s enjoyment of ‘the terrible pleasures of a double life’?
    161. 161. PlenaryPlenary ‘He hesitated for some moments, with a strangely immobile smile upon his face. Then shivering, thought the atmosphere in the room was terribly hot, he drew himself to the clock. And glanced at the clock. It was twenty minutes to twelve.’ What does the constant references to time symbolise?
    162. 162. The Picture of Dorian Gray Chapter 16 The Picture of Dorian Gray Chapter 16 To examine elements of the Gothic in Chapter 16 To examine elements of the Gothic in Chapter 16
    163. 163. Let’s read Chapter 16 As we read, look out for: • Gothic features in the description of setting • Christian religious references • What Dorian’s journey to the East End symbolises • Who the new characters he interacts with symbolise.
    164. 164. Revise what are the key features of the Gothic genre? Revise what are the key features of the Gothic genre?
    165. 165. Gothic features in the setting
    166. 166. Religious references Both Dorian and James Vane talk about forgiveness. What is the difference between them?
    167. 167. Symbolism • What does the journey into the East End symbolise? • Who do the new characters symbolise? ‘He could see the strange bottle-necked kilns with their orange fan-like tongues of fire’ ‘a young man with smooth yellow hair’ ‘Prince Charming made me what I am!’
    168. 168. Individual Task • Pick one paragraph from Chapter 16 that you feel has a lot of interesting language and/or imagery in it. • Quickly highlight and annotate it in your book. • Now, pick a partner to work with. Tell each other what paragraph you have chosen but don’t let them see your annotations. • Read, highlight and annotate the paragraph given to you by your partner. • Compare the two paragraphs – did your partner pick out different examples of language? Did you agree on interpretations? • Feedback to the class.
    169. 169. Key QuoteKey Quote • Dorian stated to Basil that ‘each of us has Heaven and Hell in him’. • Write a paragraph analysing how successful Wilde is in depicting both Heaven and Hell in this chapter. Find quotes to support your opinion – Try to find Biblical references – You can also contrast the setting with Basil’s Eden-like garden in Chapter 2)
    170. 170. Plenary • In what ways are Chapter 15 and Chapter 16 companion chapters? How do these chapters develop the theme of appearance and reality?
    171. 171. Chapter 17 Learning objective: 1.To be able to read a text for meaning. 2.To assess the role of female characters in the story.
    172. 172. Let’s read Chapter 17 • This chapter takes place at Selby Royal, Dorian’s country manor. He has invited a party of people to stay. • Much of the chapter appears like one of Wilde’s own social comedies – The Importance of Being Ernest or An Ideal Husband - where there is a lot of repartee and banter between the sexes, some of it sexually loaded. • Like Chapter 15, when we met the intelligent and witty Lady Narborough, we now meet the intelligent and witty Duchess of Monmouth. • As we read, consider how Wilde has presented women in this book and whether we can gauge his attitude towards them from his presentation of them here.
    173. 173. Task: Wilde’s presentation of women • Write a paragraph outlining your ideas on how Wilde has presented his female characters through the story. • Is there a difference between women of different social classes? • Does he seem sympathetic towards their situation and lack of power? • Find quotations to support your response.
    174. 174. Plenary: feedback • Let’s discuss your ideas. • Lolly sticks decide who feeds back!
    175. 175. Chapter 18 Learning objective: 1.To be able to read a text for meaning. 2.To understand Dorian’s state of mind at this point in the story.
    176. 176. Let’s read Chapter 18 In one of his plays, ‘A Woman of No Importance’, Wilde defined hunting as ‘the unspeakable in full pursuit of the uneatable.’ Wilde did not support hunting. In this chapter: • Who voices Wilde’s views on hunting? • Why do you think this character feels this way? • How does Wilde make it clear that he feels those who hunt are ‘unspeakable’? • What are Lord Henry’s views? • Why do you think he feels that way?
    177. 177. Discussion: Hunting • Who voices Wilde’s views on hunting? • Why do you think this character feels this way? • How does Wilde make it clear that he feels those who hunt are ‘unspeakable’? • What are Lord Henry’s views? • Why do you think he feels that way?
    178. 178. Task 1: close-focus analysis ‘If it had been merely an illusion, how terrible it was to think that conscience could raise such fearful phantoms, and give them visible form, and make them move before one! What sort of life would his be if, day and night, shadows of his crime were to peer at him from silent corners, to mock him from secret places, to whisper in his ear as he sat at the feast, to wake him with icy fingers as he lay asleep!’ Analyse this extract with reference to its allusions to ‘Macbeth’.
    179. 179. Plenary There are clear elements of melodrama in this chapter: • The humble sailor avenging his sister’s death. • Dorian’s wild ride to Home Farm. ....but it doesn’t end as it should: James Vane does not avenge Sibyl, he does not kill Dorian. He is killed. WHY?
    180. 180. Chapters 19 and 20 Learning objectives: • To understand how the relationship between Dorian and Henry has changed. • To be able to assess the effectiveness of the book’s ending.
    181. 181. We are going to read Chapters 19 and 20 in one go. First, let’s discuss an interesting fact: • Wilde added the four chapters we have just read to the 1891 version; they did not exist before. Originally, the story went straight from Chapter 14 (where Alan Campbell disposes of the body) to Chapter 19 (where Dorian appears to have turned over a new leaf). • Why do you think Wilde added these chapters? • What do they contribute to the story?
    182. 182. Chapter 19 Consider the following as we read: 1. In what ways is this chapter a companion to Chapter 2 – when Henry meets Dorian for the first time? 2. How has Henry changed over the years? 3. How has the relationship between them changed? 4. Does Henry really know Dorian at all? Chapter 20 Consider the following as we read: 5. How do the people on the street reflect different aspects of Dorian’s life? 6. What three vices does Dorian realise he is guilty of in his actions towards Hetty Merton? 7. What is the significance of the mirror, and Dorian’s actions in destroying it? 8. Does the ending explain why James Vane’s death was necessary?Now we’ve read the chapters, I will give you each one of these questions. Write a short paragraph outlining your thoughts. 10 minutes
    183. 183. Feedback time! Each person will read out their answer, we will discuss it and you should take notes or add annotations. 1. In what ways is this chapter a companion to Chapter 2 – when Henry meets Dorian for the first time? 2. How has Henry changed over the years? 3. How has the relationship between them changed? 4. Does Henry really know Dorian at all? 5. How do the people on the street reflect different aspects of Dorian’s life? 6. What three vices does Dorian realise he is guilty of in his actions towards Hetty Merton? 7. What is the significance of the mirror, and Dorian’s actions in destroying it? 8. Does the ending explain why James Vane’s death was necessary?
    184. 184. Close-text focus But this murder - was it to dog him all his life? Was he always to be burdened by his past? Was he really to confess? Never. There was only one bit of evidence left against him. The picture itself - that was evidence. He would destroy it. Why had he kept it so long? Once it had given him pleasure to watch it changing and growing old. Of late he had felt no such pleasure. It had kept him awake at night. When he had been away, he had been filled with terror lest other eyes should look upon it. It had brought melancholy across his passions. Its mere memory had marred many moments of joy. It had been like conscience to him. Yes, it had been conscience. He would destroy it. He looked round and saw the knife that had stabbed Basil Hallward. He had cleaned it many times, till there was no stain left upon it. It was bright, and glistened. As it had killed the painter, so it would kill the painter's work, and all that that meant. It would kill the past, and when that was dead, he would be free. It would kill this monstrous soul-life, and without its hideous warnings, he would be at peace. He seized the thing, and stabbed the picture with it. Why so many rhetorical questions? Significance of short sentence? What is the effect of the repeated ‘m’ sound here? Why has the indefinite article been dropped here? What could this be an allusion to? Why is it significant here? Significance of repetition?
    185. 185. ‘It would kill this monstrous soul-life’ What is Dorian talking about when he says this? Henry and Dorian have a discussion about the soul in the previous chapter. • What is Henry’s view? • What is Dorian’s view? • Why then has Dorian made a fatal error when he stabs the portrait? The critic Keith Womack dubbed Dorian’s action at the end ‘anti-epiphany’*. He doesn’t have a moment of revelation at the end (epiphany); he has a moment of fatal lack of clarity. As a result he kills himself by destroying his soul. * From an essay called ‘Reading the ethics of the soul and late Victorian Gothic in The Picture of Dorian Gray’, found in Victorian Gothic by Ruth Robbins and Julian Wolfreys (Palgrave, 2000).
    186. 186. HOMEWORK Over the holidays: • Re-read the book, using your notes to add annotations in margins. • Update your quotation bank to ensure you have significant quotations from all chapters. • Write a review of the book, considering plot, character development and use of language.
    187. 187. Plenary • In the original manuscript, these chapters were one chapter. • Why do you think Wilde decided to split them up in the 1891 version? Finally.... Did you enjoy this book?