‘Of Mice and Men’
English Literature Exam
Exploring Modern Texts (Section B)
Lesson One:
To understand the term ‘context’ ...
Of Mice and Men
• Section B: Exploring Cultures.
• You will be reading for meaning as well as
exploring:
• Ideas, themes a...
Assessment Objectives
• AO1: respond to texts critically and imaginatively;
select and evaluate relevant textual detail to...
Assessment Objectives
• AO2: explain how language, structure and form contribute
to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes...
Assessment Objectives
• AO3 is not listed here as it relates to
comparing texts.
• YOU DO NOT HAVE TO COMPARE OF MICE
AND ...
Assessment Objectives
• AO4: relate texts to their social, cultural and historical
contexts; explain how texts have been i...
Starter
What we will be learning about the novel:
Context
Theme (s)
Characters
Language
Plot
Structure
Messages/morals
In ...
How much can you remember about Of Mice and
Men?
1. In pairs, write five sentences that summarise the
plot of the story.
2...
John Steinbeck
• Around the room, in various places are numerous
factual and fictional statements about John
Steinbeck. (T...
Your exercise book:
Most
important
(Relevant)
Least
important
(irrelevant)
L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and
apply ...
Go!
• Only write the statements that you think are
important about the life and times of
Steinbeck (roughly about 8 statem...
1) Of Mice and Men is based on much of Steinbeck’s life.
2) He had size 8 feet.
3) He could do ‘the worm’.
4) He left univ...
17) He perfected the art of standing on his head to aid his thinking in 1919.
18) He wrote most of his books about poor la...
Task Two: Feedback
Let’s hear your answers
L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and
apply it to the novella
The context and setting of the novel
Higher Order
Thinking
California, America 1930s
a) Great Depression (WW1 and
1929 stock market crash)
b) Lack of jobs
c) D...
Originally called ‘Something That Happened...’
Steinbeck decided on the title, ‘Of Mice and Men’ which is a
phrase from a ...
L.O To explore the context and setting of
the novel
George and Lennie’s dream/fantasy
• George’s dream is frequently repeated throughout the novel.
• It could be perceived th...
‘You can have anything
you want, if you want it
badly enough.’ Abraham
Lincoln (1800)
‘Nothing can stop the man
with the r...
What does this mean?
Write your answer on a mini
whiteboard and share your
ideas with the class
L.O To explore the context...
The Dust Bowl
• The Dust Bowl or the Dirty Thirties was a period of severe dust storms
causing major ecological and agricu...
The Great Depression
• The Great Depression was a worldwide economic
downturn starting in most places in 1929 and ending a...
The Great Depression – the effects
• In America, by 1933 unemployment had reached
25%.
• A drought persisted in the agricu...
Review Your Leaning
• What is ‘context’?
• How did Steinbeck’s life influence his work?
• How did the Depression, bad farm...
Lesson Two
To explore the how Steinbeck creates setting
To analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character
and relationsh...
Re-read the opening Setting
Vocab:
• Soledad means (solitude/loneliness)
• Mottled: spotted/dappled
• Recumbent- still (wi...
What does the opening tell you about the
setting?
• Consider how Steinbeck’s use of
metaphor, simile, and description cont...
Section 1
Plot and Structure – What Happens
• George and Lennie are on their way to new jobs
• George makes Lennie give up...
Write five points about each character
George Lennie
L.O To be able to analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character an...
Lennie Small
Now find quotes:
L.O To be able to analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character and relationship.
George Milton
• Now find quotes:
L.O To be able to analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character and relationship.
George and Lennie
Choose two questions only and write a short SQEEL paragraph for each:
1. What do Steinbeck’s first descr...
Model answer for how we analyse characters
1. Introduce a point and provide evidence with a quotation from the text for
th...
Assessing Understanding
• Let’s hear some of your answers!
• Have your answers met the assessment
criteria?
HOMEWORK
• Study question:
Discuss the relationship between George and
Lennie at the beginning of the novel.
Three SQEEL p...
Lesson Three
To synthesise how characters are
developed in Section Two
‘A Quick Quiz’ ...
L.O to understand how characters are
developed in Chapter Two
1. Name the time of day when the story begins.
2. List the 3 animals Lennie is compared to.
3. What is the one animal Lenn...
Chapter 2
Plot and Structure
Focus on:
• The bunk house is described
• Candy shows George and Lennie where they will sleep...
Ranch Life
Task:
• Like the first section, this one begins with a
setting – the bunk house.
• List three items found in th...
Quick Question
• What type of man is the Boss according to the
Swamper? (p22)
• Write your answer on a mini-whiteboard and...
Can you prove the following statements:
• Lennie follows George’s lead
• Lennie is very strong
• The boss is surprised tha...
Curley
Discuss
• What does ‘He’s done quite a bit in the
ring. He’s a lightweight, and he’s a
handy man’ (p48) mean?
• Wha...
• We are going to analyse the first time
we meet Curley’s wife
• Each group will be given a different aspect of
how she is...
Curley’s Wife
Appearance ‘She had full, rouged lips’
Personality Candy tells George that he has seen her ‘give Slim the ey...
Pause for Thought
Let’s examine our A3 sheet and think of the
following questions:
1. Is Curley’s wife really looking for ...
Curley’s wife extension
1. Think about the contextual information we
learnt about the view of women at the time.
What word...
Lesson Four
To analyse the theme of
loneliness in Section Three
• AO2 Explain how language, structure and
form contribute ...
The First and Last Line
(6 mins)
Creative Writing Task:
Imagine you are George writing a diary entry.
Write a short paragr...
Reading
PAGE 64
• Beginning of Chapter 3
• If you can’t find it, locate page 63… and turn the
page over!
Guided reading:
•...
Extended Writing
The theme of loneliness is discussed in great
depth at the beginning of Chapter Three.
• Write at least t...
Model Example – B Grade
Loneliness is a major theme in Of Mice and
Men, and George and Lennie stave it off by the
closenes...
Model Example – C Grade
Steinbeck writes about three lonely
characters: Candy, Crooks and Curley’s wife. We
find out early...
Assessment Criteria
• Has the student made a strong opening point about
how George and Lennie are lonely? Underline it.
• ...
Slim ‘The Prince of the Ranch’
• Highlight quotations about Slim to back up the
title Steinbeck gives to him.
• What does ...
The Theme of Old Age
• What attitude do the
characters seem to
have towards old age?
• What do you think
they should do ab...
The Theme of Old Age
GRADE BOOSTER:
Make connections. The fact
that Candy’s dog is old and
useless is significant.
Steinbe...
Theme: The Underdog
• What does the term ‘underdog’ mean?
• A more sophisticated way of saying this is by using the phrase...
Post-it Plenary
• Write down one character that is lonely in Of
Mice and Men
• Explain how they are lonely
– Curley’s wife...
Plenary
You are the casting director of the new film
adaptation of Of Mice and Men
With your knowledge of the characters, ...
Lesson Five
To examine Lennie and George’s
American Dream
• AO2 Explain how language, structure and
form contribute to wri...
Your American Dream
One of Steinbeck’s themes in Of Mice and Men is the dreams
people have. George and Lennie’s dream is o...
What is the American Dream?
The term was first used by James Truslow Adams in
his book The Epic of America which was writt...
Reading
• PAGE 84
Guided Reading:
• Why does Lennie always bring up his dream?
• Try and notice all the different parts to...
GRADE FOCUS
• How will you be assessed on theme-based questions?
Grades G-D
In this range of grades, your answers are like...
George and Lennie’s Dream
Highlight all the different parts of George and
Lennie’s dream (P 84-86)
George and Lennie’s
Ame...
Apply your Understanding
• Give the pair next to you one specific quotes
that you have chosen
• In your pairs, analyse thi...
Pessimism or Optimism?
Much of Of Mice and Men is optimistic, with
reference to bettering oneself and dreams
coming true.
...
Homework
• Study question:
How does Steinbeck convey the theme of the American
Dream in Of Mice and Men. Think about the d...
Lesson Six
To explore the character of Crooks
and analyse how he is isolated in the
novel.
How/Why might someone be/feel
alienated?
Starting a new
school
Looking
differentAlienation
Unloved
Isolated
Excluded
L.O t...
Marginalization: race
Crooks is marginalized because he is black. In the
USA at that period, black people were treated as
...
Segregation
Essentially segregation meant that black
people were confined to separate and
usually inferior areas and facil...
Segregation
Segregation laws differed from state to state and
altered over time.
In California in the 1930s some of them h...
Setting
• How is Crooks’ room described at the
beginning of section 4?
• What do we learn about his character from
the pos...
Crooks
Appearance?
Attitude?
What does he think
of the Dream?
How is he treated by
the other ranch
workers?
Any other poin...
Quotes about Crooks
Quotation Meaning / Comment
‘Nice fella too. Got a crooked back where
a horse kicked him. The boss giv...
Role Play
• In your pairs, decide who is going to be Crooks
and who is going to be Lennie.
• Act out the discussion betwee...
Reading
• PAGE 107-116
Guided Reading:
– What does Crooks think of Lennie’s American Dream?
– How does Crooks react to Can...
Crooks’ Isolation
Write a paragraph on whether you think Crooks
is lonely, using accurate quotations to justify
your answe...
Crooks’ Isolation
Crooks is a black man living in a period in American
history when extreme racial prejudice was widesprea...
Assessment Criteria
• Has the student made a strong opening point about
how Crooks is lonely? Underline it.
• Has the stud...
Revision Activity
• Which of the characters appear to you as
victims, and which appear to have control of their
own lives?...
O.M.A.M Word Association
• In pairs, play the word association game, by
referring to the text.
• For example:
– Pupil A = ...
Lesson Seven
To examine the events of Section
Five referring to the alienation and
isolation of Lennie and Curley’s wife
• For each of the following characters, write two or three
sentences explaining
• Why they are marginalized
• What effect ...
Summary of Section Five
1. Lennie has killed the puppy Slim gave him – ‘Why do you got
to get killed? You ain’t so little ...
Dreams and Reality
Discuss with the person next to you the theme
of dreams and reality throughout the novel.
What is the p...
Curley’s Wife
• Write a SQEEL paragraph answering the following
question:
How does Steinbeck describe Curley’s wife when
s...
Curley’s Wife – do we empathise her?
Her Identity:
• She is never called anything else – why? What is Steinbeck making a p...
The Worst and Best of Curley’s wife
• Find quotes to show the contrast in Curley’s
wife:
The worst of Curley’s wife The be...
Finally…
Has your opinion of Curley’s wife changed over
the novel? Explain why or why not. What has
influenced your decisi...
Lesson Eight
To analyse Section Six:
The end of the dream
Steinbeck’s Warnings
• There are many warnings throughout the
novel about what will happen at the end.
• How is Lennie des...
Reading
PAGE 140-149
Guided Reading:
• How does Steinbeck describe the brush?
• What do the visions represent?
• How does ...
How Steinbeck Describes Setting
Compare the opening of the first chapter to the
opening of the sixth.
Describe the main im...
Imaginative Response
A* Interpretation
One may have seen the opening of the novel, before the
arrival of George and Lennie...
Assessment Criteria
• Has the student made a strong opening point about how
setting creates atmosphere? Underline it.
• Ha...
The Visions
The visions of Aunt Clara and the giant rabbit
are poetic, and are very different from
Steinbeck’s style in th...
The Novel as a Paradox
A paradox occurs when something is outwardly
contradictory but actually true.
How are Lennie’s acti...
Homework Essay
The five main themes of the novel are:
• Loneliness
• Friendship
• Shattered Dreams
• Injustice and the mis...
Lesson Nine
To explore and analyse
Steinbeck’s style
Aim: To plan for the exam with
reference to AO2
Starter
• What features does the term ‘style’ refer to?
• How the settings add to the narrative
• How dialogue is used and...
Settings and Dialogue
• Steinbeck stated that this is ‘a playable novel’.
– How does this influence the way he uses settin...
Description - Adjectives
• Complete the grid spotting all the adjectives
used in the description:
Description Adjectives
G...
Description - Adverbs
Steinbeck uses adverbs throughout the novel to indicate
the way in which a character speaks or behav...
Imagery
The term ‘imagery’ refers to the kind of word
pictures an author creates to help us imagine
what is being describe...
Imagery relating to Nature
Notice the way Steinbeck uses imagery in the opening section of
the novel
• ‘the rabbits sat as...
Imagery to Describe People
Steinbeck uses imagery to portray characters as
animals
Look at the following description and w...
Symbolism
Steinbeck’s use of light
We have already looked at how Steinbeck uses
light in a symbolic way to show the contra...
Review Your Learning
On mini-whiteboards, answer the following:
• What does the term ‘style’ refer to?
• How is the novel ...
Lesson Ten
To understand how to write an essay
for your Exam
A/A*
What do you have to show you can do in order
to gain the highest band?
The Exam
• You have 45 minutes for the ‘Exploring Cultures’
section.
• There is one two-part question.
• Part (a) is a quo...
GRADE BOOSTER
• Many two-part questions ask you to comment
on (a) how a character is presented in the
passage, and then (b...
Exam Question
Read the passage in Section 2 which introduces
Curley’s wife, from ‘Both men glanced up’ to
‘and she hurried...
Writing an Exam Response
• Your essay must have:
• Beginning (introduction)
– 100 words
– Refer to the question and give a...
Plan Your Response
• How would you plan for this exam question?
(a) write down all the important quotations that
refer to ...
Plan Your Response
• In pairs on A3 paper, make notes on Curley’s
wife’s character.
• Find evidence from the book to suppo...
Curley’s
wife
Inner feelings
demonstrate
unfairness and
make us
sympathise with
her.
Negative
image
of her is reinforced
b...
Grade the Responses
• Look at the following extract for section (a) and analyse
its strengths and weaknesses:
Curley’s wif...
Grade the Responses
• Look at the following extract for section (a) and analyse
its strengths and weaknesses:
Steinbeck in...
Lesson Eleven
To complete an exam
question
Aim: To plan and write the Controlled
Assessment
Starter
• Share your A3 sheets with another pair
• Did you come up with the same
interpretations of the extract?
• How did...
Answer the Question (45 mins)
Read the passage in Section 2 which introduces
Curley’s wife, from ‘Both men glanced up’ to
...
Lesson Twelve
To complete an exam question
Starter
• Take your post-it note from last lesson.
• Talk to your neighbour about how you can
improve for today’s essay qu...
Question
• Look at the extract provided on the exam sheet.
• Answer the following question:
(a) How does Steinbeck use lan...
Crooks
Treatment by
others
Curley’s wife
p88
Physically
vulnerable
What might this
symbolise?
Isolated from ranch
workers....
Crooks
CROOKS
• He is segregated in the barn, demonstrating racial discrimination of the 1930s.
• Candy tells a story from...
Model
Crooks is a proud man, ‘he kept his distance
and demanded that others kept theirs’ this is
because he is so used to ...
Language
Discuss the effects of vocabulary….
• ‘tattered dictionary’ ‘battered magazines’
• ‘proud, aloof man’
• ‘thin pai...
Final Review
• What are the assessment objectives?
• What are the main themes of the novel?
• How do the themes relate to ...
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Of Mice and Men - Literature Exam

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  • USE IWB TO FEEDBACK (OR POST-IT NOTES IF IWB DOES NOT WORK)
  • Average income for families during this time was reduced by 40%
  • POST-IT NOTE OR MINI-WHITEBOARD
  • Read to page 19
  • Realistic, creates a ‘real’ atmosphere. Clear picture of character and setting-isolated but also full of life
  • What do you remember about each character?
  • Read pages 19-35
  • Reflects a simple and functional character
  • Split the class into groups and ask one group to look at different areas. Then produce an A3 sheet with all the information collated.
  • Sexism- is the author a chauvinist or depicting thoughts at the time? Context.
  • Lolly-stick assessed
  • Use IWB to assess understanding (or post-its)
  • Curley’s dog being shot; the working men of the ranch working; the animals on the ranch; the game of horseshoes played by the men (off-stage) for dramatic effect; the few items in the bunkhouse and in Crooks’ room
  • C Grade
  • A* GRade
  • Of Mice and Men - Literature Exam

    1. 1. ‘Of Mice and Men’ English Literature Exam Exploring Modern Texts (Section B) Lesson One: To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella (AO4) To understand the exam criteria
    2. 2. Of Mice and Men • Section B: Exploring Cultures. • You will be reading for meaning as well as exploring: • Ideas, themes and issues • Characterisation • Settings Exam = 20% of overall marks 45 mins 30 Marks L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    3. 3. Assessment Objectives • AO1: respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations • Breaking this down: – Say what you think of the novel and why – Talk about the possible reasons for Steinbeck’s choice of detail – Provide short quotations to support your views L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    4. 4. Assessment Objectives • AO2: explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings • Breaking this down: – Talk about why Steinbeck chooses specific words and the effect this has on the reader – Structure refers to the overall shape of the novel – remember the novel starts and ends in the same place – Form refers to how Steinbeck has written the novel. Here you can talk about how he uses so much dialogue and how it reads like a ‘playable novel’ – Link all these to your knowledge and understanding of themes, ideas and setting L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    5. 5. Assessment Objectives • AO3 is not listed here as it relates to comparing texts. • YOU DO NOT HAVE TO COMPARE OF MICE AND MEN TO ANY OTHER TEXT IN THE EXAM! L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    6. 6. Assessment Objectives • AO4: relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to self and other readers in different contexts and at different times. • Breaking this down: – Show your understanding of what was happening when Steinbeck wrote the novel, and how this influenced him. – Demonstrate your understanding of why a text has lasting appeal and how it can be interpreted in different ways at different times. For example, how does Curley’s wife compare to women these days? Or, what does modern society have in common with George striving for his American Dream? L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    7. 7. Starter What we will be learning about the novel: Context Theme (s) Characters Language Plot Structure Messages/morals In pairs: What do I mean by context and theme(s)? L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    8. 8. How much can you remember about Of Mice and Men? 1. In pairs, write five sentences that summarise the plot of the story. 2. Then, create five freeze frames that portray what you have come up with. (10 mins) Teach the Teacher L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    9. 9. John Steinbeck • Around the room, in various places are numerous factual and fictional statements about John Steinbeck. (The author of ‘Of Mice and Men’). • Your job is to distinguish which statements are the most important in terms of the influence it has over Steinbeck’s life and writing (AO4). • In your books draw a line (similar to a time line) across a double page • Like this: L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    10. 10. Your exercise book: Most important (Relevant) Least important (irrelevant) L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    11. 11. Go! • Only write the statements that you think are important about the life and times of Steinbeck (roughly about 8 statements) • Plot them on your relevance line. (15 mins) L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    12. 12. 1) Of Mice and Men is based on much of Steinbeck’s life. 2) He had size 8 feet. 3) He could do ‘the worm’. 4) He left university without a degree and pursued writing. 5) He worked for a newspaper and on a ranch. 6) He was the most popular pupil in his class at Salinas High. 7) Of Mice and Men was originally called, ‘Something that happened.’ 8) He won a Pulitzer prize for his book, ‘The Grapes of Wrath’. 9) He died in 1968 in New York from heart disease. 10) He wrote realistic fiction that people could relate to. 11) Of Mice and Men was adapted into a stage play and film three times. 12) Steinbeck used pencil to write his novels. 13) His parents were John and Olive Steinbeck. 14) He had three wives. 15) He had a dog called Coco. 16) Of Mice and Men encompasses themes of racism, loneliness, prejudice against the mentally ill, and the struggle for personal independence. L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    13. 13. 17) He perfected the art of standing on his head to aid his thinking in 1919. 18) He wrote most of his books about poor labourers in California. 19) Of Mice and Men was written in 1937. 20) Steinbeck has German and Irish ancestors. 21) He was born in 1902 in Salinas, California. 22) He loved the outdoors and nature; his family owned land in Salinas. 23) He went to study Marine Biology at Stanford University in 1919. 24) He had first hand experience of what it was like to work as labourer in California. 25) He left to become a freelance writer in New York in 1925 after he left Stanford. 26) During the war Steinbeck wrote for the New York Herald Tribune. 27) Seventeen of his works have been made into films. 28) He liked to listen to classical music. 29) He received the Noble Prize for literature in 1962. 30) He had two children with his 2nd wife, Thomas and John. 31) Steinbeck’s best friend was Ed Ricketts who provided the basis for a character in one of his books. 32) Steinbeck didn’t go to any performances of the play of, ‘Of Mice and Men,’ because it would ruin his perception of the novella. 33) Steinbeck’s mother was a school teacher and helped with Steinbeck’s interest in writing. L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    14. 14. Task Two: Feedback Let’s hear your answers L.O To understand the term ‘context’ and apply it to the novella
    15. 15. The context and setting of the novel
    16. 16. Higher Order Thinking California, America 1930s a) Great Depression (WW1 and 1929 stock market crash) b) Lack of jobs c) Drifters (Dust bowl farmers moved to California in the hope of a better life). d) Poor e) Racism rife in society f) Men provided for women g) Many men worked as labourers on the many ranches h) American Dream – (crushed for many). America 2012 What do you know? How does it compare? L.O To explore the context and setting of the novel
    17. 17. Originally called ‘Something That Happened...’ Steinbeck decided on the title, ‘Of Mice and Men’ which is a phrase from a poem called ‘To a mouse’ by Robert Burns. The full line is ‘...the best-laid schemes o’ mice an’ men, Gang aft agley’ This roughly translates to ‘no matter how well we may plan the future, things often go wrong.’ The link to the novel will become apparent. Steinbeck quite simply demonstrates that through no fault of a single person; others’ lives are affected by particular events they have no control over. L.O To explore the context and setting of the novel
    18. 18. L.O To explore the context and setting of the novel
    19. 19. George and Lennie’s dream/fantasy • George’s dream is frequently repeated throughout the novel. • It could be perceived that this ‘dream’ he has is linked to the overall fabled ‘American Dream’. • What is the American Dream? The notion you can work hard for something at a cost to achieve personal success. Unfortunately for the ranchers the American Dream will be hard to come by due to social constraints at the time. L.O To explore the context and setting of the novel
    20. 20. ‘You can have anything you want, if you want it badly enough.’ Abraham Lincoln (1800) ‘Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal.’ Thomas Jefferson (1700) ‘To make America a beacon of opportunity in the 21st century.’ George W. Bush ‘Every citizen has access to the American dream; an America that is educated, so every child has the keys to realise that dream; and an America that is united in our diversity and our shared American values that are larger than race or party.’ Bush L.O To explore the context and setting of the novel
    21. 21. What does this mean? Write your answer on a mini whiteboard and share your ideas with the class L.O To explore the context and setting of the novel
    22. 22. The Dust Bowl • The Dust Bowl or the Dirty Thirties was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936. • The Dust Bowl was an ecological and human disaster caused by misuse of land and years of sustained drought. • Millions of acres of farmland became useless, and hundreds of thousands of people were forced to leave their homes; many of these families travelled to California and other states, where they found economic conditions little better than those they had left. Owning no land, many travelled from farm to farm picking fruit and other crops at starvation wages. John Steinbeck later wrote Of Mice and Men about such people.
    23. 23. The Great Depression • The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in 1929 and ending at different times in the 1930s or early 1940s for different countries. • It was the largest and most severe economic depression in the 20th century, and is used in the 21st century as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. • The Great Depression originated in the United States; historians most often use a starting date of when the stock market crashed of October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday.
    24. 24. The Great Depression – the effects • In America, by 1933 unemployment had reached 25%. • A drought persisted in the agricultural heartland. • Businesses and families defaulted on record numbers of loans, and more than 5,000 banks had failed. • Hundreds of thousands of Americans found themselves homeless. • Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60 percent. • International trade plunged by half to two-thirds, as did personal income, tax revenue, prices and profits.
    25. 25. Review Your Leaning • What is ‘context’? • How did Steinbeck’s life influence his work? • How did the Depression, bad farming and the weather help to create the poverty that is the background to the novel? • Curley’s wife states on P. 124, “I coulda made somethin’ of myself… Maybe I will yet”. What does this relate to? • From what you know so far, does the novel seem relevant socially to modern Britain?
    26. 26. Lesson Two To explore the how Steinbeck creates setting To analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character and relationship. Tell your partner three things about the context of the novel. What are the assessment objectives?
    27. 27. Re-read the opening Setting Vocab: • Soledad means (solitude/loneliness) • Mottled: spotted/dappled • Recumbent- still (without movement) • ‘coons – racoons • Brush- dense area of bushes • Jungle-up – sleep for the night L.O To explore the context and setting of the novel
    28. 28. What does the opening tell you about the setting? • Consider how Steinbeck’s use of metaphor, simile, and description contribute to the effect of the opening section. • Write a short paragraph in your books • After you have finished, read your neighbour’s work and see if you have met AO2. L.O To explore the context and setting of the novel
    29. 29. Section 1 Plot and Structure – What Happens • George and Lennie are on their way to new jobs • George makes Lennie give up a dead mouse • George tells Lennie how to behave at the new ranch • George complains about Lennie, and then regrets it • They eat a supper of tinned beans… without any ketchup • Lennie persuades George to tell him again about their dream of owning their own land • George tells Lennie to come back to this place (the brush) if he gets into trouble – ‘like you done in Weed’ L.O To be able to analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character and relationship.
    30. 30. Write five points about each character George Lennie L.O To be able to analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character and relationship
    31. 31. Lennie Small Now find quotes: L.O To be able to analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character and relationship.
    32. 32. George Milton • Now find quotes: L.O To be able to analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character and relationship.
    33. 33. George and Lennie Choose two questions only and write a short SQEEL paragraph for each: 1. What do Steinbeck’s first descriptions of George and Lennie tell us about their characters? Is there anything which he writes about Lennie which leads us to believe that he has the mind of a child? 2. What hints are there in the opening dialogue between George and Lennie to tell us about the nature of their relationship? 3. What is the significance of the dead mouse in terms of what it might tell us about Lennie? What is the literary term for this? 4. George appears to get easily annoyed with Lennie. Do you think George is being honest when he states that he would be better off without Lennie? 5. Why do you think George asks Lennie to familiarise himself with the location of the clearing where they spend the night? L.O To be able to analyse aspects of George and Lennie’s character and relationship.
    34. 34. Model answer for how we analyse characters 1. Introduce a point and provide evidence with a quotation from the text for the following headings: Introduction of character Character’s use of language The introduction of the two protagonists immediately introduces an imbalanced nature to their friendship. “Even in the open one stayed behind the other” suggests George to be the more dominant of the duo, comparable to that of a big brother. Physical description of character Relationship to other characters Character LO: To analyse the characters of George and Lennie in greater depth
    35. 35. Assessing Understanding • Let’s hear some of your answers! • Have your answers met the assessment criteria?
    36. 36. HOMEWORK • Study question: Discuss the relationship between George and Lennie at the beginning of the novel. Three SQEEL paragraphs. Enjoy. LO: To analyse the characters of George and Lennie in greater depth
    37. 37. Lesson Three To synthesise how characters are developed in Section Two
    38. 38. ‘A Quick Quiz’ ... L.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    39. 39. 1. Name the time of day when the story begins. 2. List the 3 animals Lennie is compared to. 3. What is the one animal Lennie always remembers? 4. Name 3 things Lennie forgets in Chapter One. 5. List 3 pastimes George could enjoy without Lennie 6. What is Lennie’s aunt’s name? 7. What does George tell Lennie to do if he gets into trouble? 8. What is the thing that Lennie will not be allowed to do if he gets into trouble in the future? 9. What are the main themes of the novel? L.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    40. 40. Chapter 2 Plot and Structure Focus on: • The bunk house is described • Candy shows George and Lennie where they will sleep • George and Lennie meet the boss • George wants Lennie to avoid Curley • Curley’s wife is introduced and George warns Lennie against her • George and Lennie meet Slim and Carlson • Candy has an old dog, and Slim’s dog has puppies L.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    41. 41. Ranch Life Task: • Like the first section, this one begins with a setting – the bunk house. • List three items found in the bunk house. • What does the description of the bunk house reflect? What type of people live there? How does it relate to the context? • Peer assess after you have finishedL.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    42. 42. Quick Question • What type of man is the Boss according to the Swamper? (p22) • Write your answer on a mini-whiteboard and get ready to show me your answers. • Extension: how are we learning about the Boss? Think of all the different ways we learn about characters (eg. From other character’s perspective) L.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    43. 43. Can you prove the following statements: • Lennie follows George’s lead • Lennie is very strong • The boss is surprised that two men care about each other L.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    44. 44. Curley Discuss • What does ‘He’s done quite a bit in the ring. He’s a lightweight, and he’s a handy man’ (p48) mean? • What do we learn about Curley and what hints are there in the text that he might cause trouble in the future (foreshadowing)? Find quotes to prove your points. • Jot your answers down on a post-it L.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    45. 45. • We are going to analyse the first time we meet Curley’s wife • Each group will be given a different aspect of how she is presented. • Make sure you find quotes and explain the effect of the language • Link it to the context! Curley’s Wife
    46. 46. Curley’s Wife Appearance ‘She had full, rouged lips’ Personality Candy tells George that he has seen her ‘give Slim the eye’ Attitude of the men towards her Language Actions L.O: To analyse the characters of Curley and his wife
    47. 47. Pause for Thought Let’s examine our A3 sheet and think of the following questions: 1. Is Curley’s wife really looking for her husband? If not, what is she doing in the bunk house? 2. Why does George tell Lennie to stay away from Curley’s wife? 3. Curley’s wife is never given a name of her own. Why do you think this is? (consider chauvinism) L.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    48. 48. Curley’s wife extension 1. Think about the contextual information we learnt about the view of women at the time. What word beginning with ‘S’ might the men be? 2. Because of Steinbeck’s description on p30. before we meet her, are we also prejudiced? Do we judge her before we meet her and jump to conclusions? L.O to understand how characters are developed in Chapter Two
    49. 49. Lesson Four To analyse the theme of loneliness in Section Three • AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings. • AO4 Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to self and other readers in different contexts and at different times.
    50. 50. The First and Last Line (6 mins) Creative Writing Task: Imagine you are George writing a diary entry. Write a short paragraph where the first line is: ‘I ain’t got no people … The last line of the paragraph must be: … after a long time they get mean.’ LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    51. 51. Reading PAGE 64 • Beginning of Chapter 3 • If you can’t find it, locate page 63… and turn the page over! Guided reading: • What does Slim say about Lennie (page 64) • Why does Slim find it strange George and Lennie are travelling together? • How did George used to treat Lennie? (66) LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    52. 52. Extended Writing The theme of loneliness is discussed in great depth at the beginning of Chapter Three. • Write at least two paragraphs on how the relationship between George and Lennie reflects the theme of loneliness. – You should use at least three quotes in each paragraph. (15 mins) LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    53. 53. Model Example – B Grade Loneliness is a major theme in Of Mice and Men, and George and Lennie stave it off by the closeness of their relationship. However, Steinbeck views loneliness as a part of the human condition, something that all Americans experience, as Slim summarises ‘I hardly never see two guys travel together’. This statement, as with many others in the novel, makes us realise how extraordinary the friendship between George and Lennie is. The relationship gives George a role in life, one of a protector; yet also explains the importance of loneliness when George states, ‘I ain’t got no people … now we kinda look after each other’. LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    54. 54. Model Example – C Grade Steinbeck writes about three lonely characters: Candy, Crooks and Curley’s wife. We find out early in the novel that loneliness is important when Lennie persuades George to him again about their ‘dream farm’: ‘Guys like us, that work on the ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don’t belong no place’. George then says he and Lennie have escaped this fate. They have each other: ‘We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us’. LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    55. 55. Assessment Criteria • Has the student made a strong opening point about how George and Lennie are lonely? Underline it. • Has the student made reference to some of the ways in which they are lonely through accurate and supportive quotations? Tick  the key words • Has the student explained what makes that quote effective? How does it make the reader feel? Draw a wibbly line underneath. • www and ebi (naturally)
    56. 56. Slim ‘The Prince of the Ranch’ • Highlight quotations about Slim to back up the title Steinbeck gives to him. • What does Slim say about Lennie and George’s relationship? Why does he say other men don’t travel together like them? LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    57. 57. The Theme of Old Age • What attitude do the characters seem to have towards old age? • What do you think they should do about the dog? Was it fair to shoot it? Discuss with your neighbour for 3 mins LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    58. 58. The Theme of Old Age GRADE BOOSTER: Make connections. The fact that Candy’s dog is old and useless is significant. Steinbeck uses this paring to make a point. In this case, the dog is like Candy himself – not much use to anyone now he is old. This is a social world in which people are judged by their usefulness. LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    59. 59. Theme: The Underdog • What does the term ‘underdog’ mean? • A more sophisticated way of saying this is by using the phrase ‘marginalised by society’. • Thus suggesting people that don’t conform to the accepted norm are different and therefore marginalised by the people around them. • Candy’s dog symbolises the underdog. • Can you think of any other characters who are/could be perceived as underdogs? Why? Denied power Discriminated against LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    60. 60. Post-it Plenary • Write down one character that is lonely in Of Mice and Men • Explain how they are lonely – Curley’s wife is lonely as she is the only woman on the ranch. Furthermore, she has recently married a man who regards her more as a trophy than a human being and partner • Put your post-it notes on an A3 sheet titled ‘THEMES: LONELINESS’
    61. 61. Plenary You are the casting director of the new film adaptation of Of Mice and Men With your knowledge of the characters, which modern actors would you cast in the roles of Slim, George, Candy, Candy’s dog, Lennie, Curley’s wife and Curley – AND WHY? LO: To analyse the theme of loneliness in Chapter Three
    62. 62. Lesson Five To examine Lennie and George’s American Dream • AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas, themes and settings. • AO4 Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to self and other readers in different contexts and at different times.
    63. 63. Your American Dream One of Steinbeck’s themes in Of Mice and Men is the dreams people have. George and Lennie’s dream is of a very small farm, a patch of land which they own themselves. It is a dream of working for themselves, of being independent. Mind-map your American Dream American Dream LO: To examine Lennie and George’s American Dream
    64. 64. What is the American Dream? The term was first used by James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America which was written in 1931. He states: "The American Dream is "that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to achieve the fullest stature of which they are capable of, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the circumstances of birth or position."LO: To examine Lennie and George’s American Dream
    65. 65. Reading • PAGE 84 Guided Reading: • Why does Lennie always bring up his dream? • Try and notice all the different parts to the dream. • How is George and Lennie’s American Dream becoming more real? • Why does the dream appeal to Candy? • What is George afraid will happen to them if others find out they are going to buy a ranch? LO: To examine Lennie and George’s American Dream
    66. 66. GRADE FOCUS • How will you be assessed on theme-based questions? Grades G-D In this range of grades, your answers are likely to deal with themes purely in terms of how they relate to characters and the plot, and to see themes individually rather than interrelated. Grades C-A* In this range of grades, examiners will expect to see that you know how the characters embody themes, and you know that they do so in a variety of different ways. They will also expect you to place the theme in cultural context. For example, loneliness could be seen as a theme that relates to Crooks, who is embittered because of the racial prejudice that he encounters. However, it also relates to Curley’s wife, because her own version of the American Dream has failed, thus she has to remain in a loveless and brutal marriage, whilst also being prejudiced against for being a woman.
    67. 67. George and Lennie’s Dream Highlight all the different parts of George and Lennie’s dream (P 84-86) George and Lennie’s American Dream LO: To examine Lennie and George’s American Dream
    68. 68. Apply your Understanding • Give the pair next to you one specific quotes that you have chosen • In your pairs, analyse this quote in your books • Let’s hear some good answers!
    69. 69. Pessimism or Optimism? Much of Of Mice and Men is optimistic, with reference to bettering oneself and dreams coming true. Discuss with the person next to you why Steinbeck shatters the dreams of all the major characters? LO: To examine Lennie and George’s American Dream
    70. 70. Homework • Study question: How does Steinbeck convey the theme of the American Dream in Of Mice and Men. Think about the different dreams of each of the following characters: George, Lennie, Candy, Curley’s wife and Crooks. Three SQEEL paragrpahs. Enjoy.
    71. 71. Lesson Six To explore the character of Crooks and analyse how he is isolated in the novel.
    72. 72. How/Why might someone be/feel alienated? Starting a new school Looking differentAlienation Unloved Isolated Excluded L.O to explore the character of Crooks and how he is isolated in the novel
    73. 73. Marginalization: race Crooks is marginalized because he is black. In the USA at that period, black people were treated as second-class citizens. Segregation laws (known as Jim Crow laws from a derogatory term for a black person) dominated every area of life and frequently affected Native Americans and people of Asian origin as well as African Americans. L.O to explore the character of Crooks and how he is isolated in the novel
    74. 74. Segregation Essentially segregation meant that black people were confined to separate and usually inferior areas and facilities. They lived in different neighbourhoods, attended separate schools, and were barred from entering certain professions. Some states refused to allow black people to enter theatres and restaurants. Even public transport was segregated into ‘white’ seats and ‘black’ seats. L.O to explore the character of Crooks and how he is isolated in the novel
    75. 75. Segregation Segregation laws differed from state to state and altered over time. In California in the 1930s some of them had been repealed. But many white people still regarded black people as inferior. L.O to explore the character of Crooks and how he is isolated in the novel
    76. 76. Setting • How is Crooks’ room described at the beginning of section 4? • What do we learn about his character from the possessions in his room?
    77. 77. Crooks Appearance? Attitude? What does he think of the Dream? How is he treated by the other ranch workers? Any other points? Crooks introduces what theme into Of Mice and Men? LO: To examine Crook’s loneliness in Chapter 4
    78. 78. Quotes about Crooks Quotation Meaning / Comment ‘Nice fella too. Got a crooked back where a horse kicked him. The boss gives him hell when he’s mad. But the stable buck don’t give a damn about that. He reads a lot. Got books in his room.’ Despite being the ‘stable buck’, Crooks is proud, independent and intelligent. But none of the admirable features stop the boss from giving him ‘hell’. ‘Crooks was a proud, aloof man … his eyes … seemed to glitter with intensity … he had thin, pain tightened lips’ ‘I ain’t wanted in the bunk house … cause I’m black. Find two more quotes to show Crooks’ isolation or segregation. LO: To examine Crook’s loneliness in Chapter 4
    79. 79. Role Play • In your pairs, decide who is going to be Crooks and who is going to be Lennie. • Act out the discussion between the two when Crooks is taunting Lennie about George leaving him. – How would Lennie react to this? – Think about what that would mean to Lennie if George never returned – NO RABBITS!! – Why do you think Crooks is taunting him in the first place? LO: To examine Crook’s loneliness in Chapter 4
    80. 80. Reading • PAGE 107-116 Guided Reading: – What does Crooks think of Lennie’s American Dream? – How does Crooks react to Candy entering his room? – How does Curley’s wife treat Crooks? – What is your impression of Curley’s wife in this section – have your views changed? – Can you see any similarities between the way Curley’s wife is treated by the men and how Crooks is treated? LO: To examine Crook’s loneliness in Chapter 4
    81. 81. Crooks’ Isolation Write a paragraph on whether you think Crooks is lonely, using accurate quotations to justify your answer. Do you think the way he acts towards people is his true character or due to the way he is discriminated against? These paragraphs will be assessed by your peers LO: To examine Crook’s loneliness in Chapter 4
    82. 82. Crooks’ Isolation Crooks is a black man living in a period in American history when extreme racial prejudice was widespread and a black man could not expect equality. Steinbeck rarely comments directly on his characters, but he does so with Crooks through the presentation of Crooks’ room as a reflection of its owner: ‘This room was swept and fairly neat, for Crooks was a proud, aloof man’. It is this pride that intensifies his loneliness. Shunned because of his colour, he is proudly determined not to seek company that is not freely granted. When Lennie tries to befriend him, he resists it at first, insisting on his right to be alone: ‘You got no right to come into my room. This here’s my room. Nobody got any right in here but me’ LO: To examine Crook’s loneliness in Chapter 4
    83. 83. Assessment Criteria • Has the student made a strong opening point about how Crooks is lonely? Underline it. • Has the student made reference to some of the ways in which Crooks is lonely through accurate and supportive quotations? Tick  the key words (eg; ‘aloof’, ‘ain’t wanted’) • Has the student explained what makes that quote effective? How does it make the reader feel? Draw a wibbly line underneath. • www and ebi (naturally)
    84. 84. Revision Activity • Which of the characters appear to you as victims, and which appear to have control of their own lives? • How many of these characters can be said to be lonely? LO: To examine Crook’s loneliness in Chapter 4
    85. 85. O.M.A.M Word Association • In pairs, play the word association game, by referring to the text. • For example: – Pupil A = Lennie – Pupil B = Animal – Pupil A = Rabbits – Pupil B = American Dream LO: To examine Crook’s loneliness in Chapter 4
    86. 86. Lesson Seven To examine the events of Section Five referring to the alienation and isolation of Lennie and Curley’s wife
    87. 87. • For each of the following characters, write two or three sentences explaining • Why they are marginalized • What effect this has on their lives. 1. Crooks 2. Candy 3. Curley’s wife 4. Lennie • Decide who has the least power and write a SQEEL paragraph explaining why you think this. Isolation and loneliness LO: To examine the events of Chapter Five referring to the alienation and isolation of Lennie and Curley’s wife
    88. 88. Summary of Section Five 1. Lennie has killed the puppy Slim gave him – ‘Why do you got to get killed? You ain’t so little as mice’. 2. He tries to bury it secretly in the barn; however, he once again shows his aggressive side by throwing it across the barn. 3. Curley’s wife enters and talks to Lennie about her dislikes of Curley and her American Dream to become a movie star. 4. She invites Lennie to stroke her hair, but panics when she feels his strength. 5. Lennie panics, tries to quieten her and then gets angry and shakes her to death, breaking her neck. LO: To examine the events of Chapter Five referring to the alienation and isolation of Lennie and Curley’s wife
    89. 89. Dreams and Reality Discuss with the person next to you the theme of dreams and reality throughout the novel. What is the point of dreams? Are they ever achievable? How do dreams differ to the real world? LO: To examine the events of Chapter Five referring to the alienation and isolation of Lennie and Curley’s wife
    90. 90. Curley’s Wife • Write a SQEEL paragraph answering the following question: How does Steinbeck describe Curley’s wife when she is alive and in death? How does this difference change the reader’s opinion of her? (AO2) – Focus on how Steinbeck uses colour and imagery to describe her. – Also, focus on how he uses light to symbolise her importance in the novel LO: To examine and analyse Curley’s wife – Isolation and Alienation
    91. 91. Curley’s Wife – do we empathise her? Her Identity: • She is never called anything else – why? What is Steinbeck making a point about? ‘A tart’? • Think about how Steinbeck wants us to perceive her. To what extent should we believe what the other characters say about her? For example, before we meet her, Candy tells George that he has seen her ‘give Slim the eye’ and that she’s ‘ tart’ (p. 49-50) • Her physical appearance reinforces the negative imagery created by Candy. Furthermore, her first appearance in the bunk house blocks out the light: ‘the rectangle of sunshine in the doorway was cut off. A girl was standing there looking in’ (p. 53). She is dressed all in red and is ‘heavily made up’. What cultural references is Steinbeck making by describing her in such negative way? LO: To examine and analyse Curley’s wife – Isolation and Alienation
    92. 92. The Worst and Best of Curley’s wife • Find quotes to show the contrast in Curley’s wife: The worst of Curley’s wife The best of Curley’s wife We see the worst of her when she is bored and lonely on a Saturday night and visits Crooks’ room. Steinbeck’s portrayal of Curley’s wife is at its most sympathetic just before she dies. ‘I could get you strung up on a tree so easy it ain’t even funny’ (p. 113) I coulda made somethin’ of myself … Maybe I will yet’ (p. 124) ‘They left all the weak ones here’ ‘But you’re a kinda nice fella. Jus’ like a big baby’ (p. 125)
    93. 93. Finally… Has your opinion of Curley’s wife changed over the novel? Explain why or why not. What has influenced your decision? LO: To examine and analyse Curley’s wife – Isolation and Alienation
    94. 94. Lesson Eight To analyse Section Six: The end of the dream
    95. 95. Steinbeck’s Warnings • There are many warnings throughout the novel about what will happen at the end. • How is Lennie described as both dangerous, yet innocent. • Write down all the everything Lennie has done to represent both these character traits. LO: To read and analyse Chapter Six: The end of the dream
    96. 96. Reading PAGE 140-149 Guided Reading: • How does Steinbeck describe the brush? • What do the visions represent? • How does Steinbeck create dramatic tension? • How is the ending ironic? • Who do we feel most sympathy for? LO: To read and analyse Chapter Six: The end of the dream
    97. 97. How Steinbeck Describes Setting Compare the opening of the first chapter to the opening of the sixth. Describe the main images in both sections and analyse how they are similar or different. LO: To read and analyse Chapter Six: The end of the dream
    98. 98. Imaginative Response A* Interpretation One may have seen the opening of the novel, before the arrival of George and Lennie, as mere scene-setting. But this opening does more than set a scene: it paints a picture of paradise. It shows a peaceful and harmonious natural world, the paradise where human beings could live if they were not selfish and afraid. Section 6 returns to the same setting, but now it has lost its innocence, as shown in the heron spearing the water snake. Even Lennie’s Aunt Clara and the rabbits have taken on a sinister aspect in his imagination. When George finally recounts their dream of ‘livin off the fatta the lan’ for the final time, we know that it is now impossible. So the structure is therefore used to reinforce the theme.
    99. 99. Assessment Criteria • Has the student made a strong opening point about how setting creates atmosphere? Underline it. • Has the student made reference to some of the ways in which Steinbeck achieves this through accurate and supportive quotations? Tick  the key words • Has the student explained what makes that quote effective? How does it make the reader feel? Draw a wibbly line underneath. • www and ebi (naturally)
    100. 100. The Visions The visions of Aunt Clara and the giant rabbit are poetic, and are very different from Steinbeck’s style in the rest of the novel. Both visions provide a clear insight into Lennie’s feelings at the close of the novel. They show both his guilt and his genuine inability to control himself – a giant man with the mind of a child. LO: To read and analyse Chapter Six: The end of the dream
    101. 101. The Novel as a Paradox A paradox occurs when something is outwardly contradictory but actually true. How are Lennie’s actions displayed as paradoxes? LO: To read and analyse Chapter Six: The end of the dream
    102. 102. Homework Essay The five main themes of the novel are: • Loneliness • Friendship • Shattered Dreams • Injustice and the mistreatment of others • The working man Write a page answering: How do these themes relate to each other? How do these themes relate to the characters? LO: To read and analyse Chapter Six: The end of the dream
    103. 103. Lesson Nine To explore and analyse Steinbeck’s style Aim: To plan for the exam with reference to AO2
    104. 104. Starter • What features does the term ‘style’ refer to? • How the settings add to the narrative • How dialogue is used and how realistic is it • What description is included • The viewpoint from which the story is told • Imagery – the way Steinbeck uses word pictures • Symbolism – to represent a theme of part of a character
    105. 105. Settings and Dialogue • Steinbeck stated that this is ‘a playable novel’. – How does this influence the way he uses setting and atmosphere? – Can you think of any examples of events happening in the novel but would be too impractical to act of stage? Name as many as you can • What can be said about the vast amount of dialogue in the novel? What is Steinbeck trying to achieve here?
    106. 106. Description - Adjectives • Complete the grid spotting all the adjectives used in the description: Description Adjectives George: ‘The first man was small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp, strong features. Every part of him was defined: small, strong hands, slender arms, a thin and bony nose.’ (p. 19) Small, quick, dark… Lennie: ‘a huge man, shapeless of face, with large, pale eyes, with wide, sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws. His arms did not swing by his sides, but hung loosely.’ (p. 19) Huge, large, wide…
    107. 107. Description - Adverbs Steinbeck uses adverbs throughout the novel to indicate the way in which a character speaks or behaves. The following adverbs are used at different points to describe George and Lennie: George: angrily, gently, softly, coldly, loudly, ominously, insultingly, casually, thoughtfully, wonderingly, quickly Lennie: gently, softly, hopefully, patiently, craftily, timidly, breathl essly, miserably, sorrowfully Try and find adverbs that describe Curley’s wife, Crooks and Slim
    108. 108. Imagery The term ‘imagery’ refers to the kind of word pictures an author creates to help us imagine what is being described: Simile – one thing compared to another using ‘like’ or ‘as’ (Curley ‘flopping like a fish on the end of the line’) Metaphor – when something is described as if it actually is something else (Lennie’s hand is a ‘paw’)
    109. 109. Imagery relating to Nature Notice the way Steinbeck uses imagery in the opening section of the novel • ‘the rabbits sat as quietly as little gray, sculptured stones’ (p. 19) • ‘A water snake slipped along on the pool, its head held up like a periscope’ (p. 25) Compare this with the beginning of section six • ‘A silent head a beak lanced down’ (p. 140) • ‘a gust drove through the tops of the trees like a wave’ (p. 140) Describe the effect this contrast has on the reader Imagery
    110. 110. Imagery to Describe People Steinbeck uses imagery to portray characters as animals Look at the following description and write an ‘L’ for each character Imagery Lennie Curley Curley’s wife ‘he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws’ (p. 19) ‘Curley stepped over to Lennie like a terrier’ (p. 90) ‘her body flopped like a fish’ (p. 91)
    111. 111. Symbolism Steinbeck’s use of light We have already looked at how Steinbeck uses light in a symbolic way to show the contrast in Curley’s wife. If a questions in the exam comes up about her, make sure you reference this!
    112. 112. Review Your Learning On mini-whiteboards, answer the following: • What does the term ‘style’ refer to? • How is the novel theatrical? • How does Steinbeck use setting? • How does Steinbeck use adverbs? • How does Steinbeck use imagery and sybolism?
    113. 113. Lesson Ten To understand how to write an essay for your Exam
    114. 114. A/A* What do you have to show you can do in order to gain the highest band?
    115. 115. The Exam • You have 45 minutes for the ‘Exploring Cultures’ section. • There is one two-part question. • Part (a) is a quoted passage; part (b) develops the ideas in (a), asking you to comment on the novel as a whole. • For example, part (a) might ask you to focus on how a particular character is portrayed in the passage, with part (b) asking you to write about how that character is used to develop a particular theme. • There is no choice of question. • You will have a clean text in the exam
    116. 116. GRADE BOOSTER • Many two-part questions ask you to comment on (a) how a character is presented in the passage, and then (b) how that character reflects a particular theme. • Prepare for these questions by making sure you know which themes especially relate to each character
    117. 117. Exam Question Read the passage in Section 2 which introduces Curley’s wife, from ‘Both men glanced up’ to ‘and she hurried away’. Then answer the questions which follow: (a) How does Steinbeck use detail in this passage to show what Curley’s wife is like? (b) Discuss the way in which Steinbeck presents women in the novel as a whole Discuss language, form and structure Ensure you read and fully understand the passage before planning your response Show awareness of how the representation of women are portrayed in the novel through analysis. Analysing character: consider what they say, think and do as well as how they are treated by others.
    118. 118. Writing an Exam Response • Your essay must have: • Beginning (introduction) – 100 words – Refer to the question and give an initial response to it – Show you have understood it – Show how you intend to answer it – Explain your interpretation • Middle (development) – Follow your plan, point by point – Present your argument with supporting quotations – Make your writing flow smoothly (use linking phrases like: however, yet, despite this, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the other hand, therefore, by contrast, in addition to, similarly, etc) • End (conclusion) – Refer back to the question – Summarise your argument, don’t just repeat your introduction – State your personal opinion if you have explored more that one interpretation
    119. 119. Plan Your Response • How would you plan for this exam question? (a) write down all the important quotations that refer to the question and write a brief comment about them (b)Link how these quotes are contrasted to the rest of the novel (for example how the men talk about the women in the brothel) See next slide for the task…
    120. 120. Plan Your Response • In pairs on A3 paper, make notes on Curley’s wife’s character. • Find evidence from the book to support the following elements: – Everything about Curley’s wife in the extract – How does she compare to the other female characters in the text? Aim: To plan and write the Controlled Assessment
    121. 121. Curley’s wife Inner feelings demonstrate unfairness and make us sympathise with her. Negative image of her is reinforced by Steinbeck’s description. B/F? George’s view … a tramp and a jailbait. Isolated from ranch workers. She can’t make friends. No name She’s defined by her relationship with Curley, not seen as an individual. Attractiveness is her weapon although not much use to her on the ranch. Powerlessness She tries to threaten Crooks and Candy with what little power she has. Criticised before we meet her. Dreams of Hollywood! Believes it might have come true.
    122. 122. Grade the Responses • Look at the following extract for section (a) and analyse its strengths and weaknesses: Curley’s wife is described as having ‘full, rouged lips’ and her eyes are ‘heavily made up’. This suggests that she wants to appear sexy. Her red fingernails especially show that she has made an effort with her appearance. Her shoes (mules) seem more suitable for going to a party than walking around a ranch. The fact that her voice has a ‘nasal, brittle quality’ does not mean that she is a bad person, but the description is unattractive, as if she is common, not elegant like she would like to be.
    123. 123. Grade the Responses • Look at the following extract for section (a) and analyse its strengths and weaknesses: Steinbeck introduces Curley’s wife in a way which reflects the fact that he originally conceived of this novel being written for the stage. He describes how she cuts off the light by standing in the doorway, casting a shadow literally and metaphorically, as if she is denying George and Lennie life and escape from their situation. He presents her in a complex way. She is ‘a girl’ rather than a woman, which could suggest that she is young, or merely that Steinbeck, like many men of the time, sees women in this way.
    124. 124. Lesson Eleven To complete an exam question Aim: To plan and write the Controlled Assessment
    125. 125. Starter • Share your A3 sheets with another pair • Did you come up with the same interpretations of the extract? • How did they compare her to the other female characters (b)?
    126. 126. Answer the Question (45 mins) Read the passage in Section 2 which introduces Curley’s wife, from ‘Both men glanced up’ to ‘and she hurried away’. Then answer the questions which follow: (a) How does Steinbeck use detail in this passage to show what Curley’s wife is like? (b) Discuss the way in which Steinbeck presents women in the novel as a whole
    127. 127. Lesson Twelve To complete an exam question
    128. 128. Starter • Take your post-it note from last lesson. • Talk to your neighbour about how you can improve for today’s essay question • Write this target down on the top of today’s answer
    129. 129. Question • Look at the extract provided on the exam sheet. • Answer the following question: (a) How does Steinbeck use language to present the character of Crooks? (b) How is Crooks treated by the other characters in the whole novel and what does this show you about the society he lived in? Write about: • What Crooks does and what happens when he talks to Lennie. • The attitudes of other people on the ranch towards Crooks.
    130. 130. Crooks Treatment by others Curley’s wife p88 Physically vulnerable What might this symbolise? Isolated from ranch workers. No choice but to endure the prejudice. Bitter and resentful. No card games/chat Nickname -Crooks A reference to his crooked back after being kicked by a horse. Educated Compared to the other workers. Reads for company. Powerlessness He is segregated in the barn. . Discriminated before we meet him (p 22) Dreams Cynical yet hopes.
    131. 131. Crooks CROOKS • He is segregated in the barn, demonstrating racial discrimination of the 1930s. • Candy tells a story from Christmas when “they let the nigger come in that night.” • Excluded from the companionship that exists in the bunkhouse – no cards or chat. When he comes to speak to Slim about a mule’s foot, he does not enter – “the stable buck put in his head.” • At the beginning of Section 4, we see where and how he lives, his possessions including books as he reads instead of having company. • ”Crooks was a proud, aloof man” because he has no choice but to endure this prejudice and isolation. Consequently, he bitterly guards his enforced privacy, saying to Lennie, ”This here’s my room…I ain’t wanted in the bunkhouse, and you ain’t wanted in my room.” • He is regretting the way that he taunted Lennie, “A guy needs somebody – to be near him” and “a guy gets too lonely “ and “A guy sets alone out here at night.” • Crooks isolates himself because he wants to exercise his only rights. He is also isolated because of racial discrimination. Therefore, both these things serve to reinforce his loneliness and consequently, alienation.
    132. 132. Model Crooks is a proud man, ‘he kept his distance and demanded that others kept theirs’ this is because he is so used to being segregated from society that he doesn’t like anyone getting close. Steinbeck described how he ‘scowled’ when anyone tried to come in is room. He is also described as being ‘scornful’ which implies he is resentful and bitter. Years of alienation have left him cold and reluctant to open himself up to anyone.
    133. 133. Language Discuss the effects of vocabulary…. • ‘tattered dictionary’ ‘battered magazines’ • ‘proud, aloof man’ • ‘thin pain-tightened lips’ • ‘Crooks scowled’ • ‘The stable buck went on dreamily’ • Crooks was ‘scornful’ • Crooks ‘stared hopelessly’ at her
    134. 134. Final Review • What are the assessment objectives? • What are the main themes of the novel? • How do the themes relate to the characters? • How does the context relate to the themes and characterisation? • Describe Steinbeck's style
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