Research unit booklet

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Research unit booklet

  1. 1. Research Unit Information BookletThis booklet is designed for fellow students on the importance of researchContentsChapter #1:Quantitative and Qualitative ResearchPage 3-4
  2. 2. Chapter #2:Methods & sources of researchPage 5-8Chapter #3:DATA GATHERING AGENCIESPage9-10Chapter #4:Research board (barb) and radio joint audience research ltd (rajar)Page 10-11Chapter #5:Self-Generated RESEARCHPage 12Chapter #6:Purposes of researchPage 13-17Chapter #1:Quantitative and Qualitative ResearchWhy is this chapter important?This chapter is important for many reasons. One of the reasons whythis chapter is important is that it helps define what QuantitativeResearch is and why it’s important. It also helps define its counterpart,Qualitative Research and why that is important. This chapter is alsoimportant as, whilst it gives the definitions in a detailed manner, it also presents a table below if you are leftconfused, making it a lot easier to understand the main differences between the two types of research, withan example being that Quantitative Research features closed questioning techniques whilst QualitativeResearch features more open-ended questioning techniques. This chapter is also important as it givesexamples on how students could go about collecting either one or both of these type of research clearly andfinally has in-depth information that gives a wider context on the world of Quantitative and QualitativeResearch.What is Quantitative research?Quantitative Research is a research technique found in social sciences that investigates social phenomena using statistical, mathematicalor computational techniques. The use of Quantitative Research usually comes under the social sciences of psychology, economics,sociology and political science with less frequency in anthropology and history.Quantitative research usually includessurveys, customer questionnaires and panel research that can help small firms and businesses
  3. 3. improve on their products and services as this enables them to make informed decisions. When discussing the use of surveys, customerquestionnaires and more for Quantitative Research, typically it’s not just to help small firms and businesses improve on their products butat its core to ask people for their opinions in a structured manner so that it is easier to produce facts and statistics. It is important to getthese reliable statistical results as surveying in large numbers can help produce a representative sample for a business’s target market. Thequestionnaires themselves can also be used to measure how people might feel, think or act and consist of closed questions or questionswith set responses.However, these Quantitative methods typically produce information for particular cases and generate conclusions that are onlyhypotheses but the Quantitative methods themselves can help verify which of such hypotheses are true. Since this type of research isgenerally used for scientific methods, it can usually be found in not just models, theories and hypotheses but the development ofinstruments and methods for measurement, experimental control and manipulation of variables and the collection of empirical data.All in all, Quantitative Research is the numbers behind market research. It is about measurement and attachment to numbers in a market,such as market size, share or market growth rates but can also be used to measure attitudes, satisfaction and commitment. The datagathered is absolute, such as numerical data and is examined in the highest unbiased manner possible. It comes later into a project’sresearch but that doesn’t hide the fact that it’s able to generate numerical data into a statistical review with a simple example of this beingthat of “How much did you enjoy the Wine? Under this very question please state from 1 to 5 where you would rate the wine with onebeing severely disappointed and 5 being extremely pleased.”What is Qualitative research?Qualitative Research is a research technique found in social sciences as well as market research that investigates the why and how ofsocial phenomena instead of the what. Qualitative Research’s aim is to gather in-depth understanding of human behavior and thus,smaller more focused surveys and types of research takes place in order to consist with qualitative research’s aim.Qualitative Research can be used to collect data with different approaches whether that be storytelling, classical ethnography, narratologyor grounded theory practice. Whilst surveys and the types of research Quantitative Research holds still has its place in QualitativeResearch, the forms of data are typically more loose and consist of group discussion, observations, interviews and various other text andimagery-based materials. This type of research can often be categorized into patterns in order to give a primary basis for results and helpmakes the more, focused replies from social phenomena on the why and how and not the who, what and when, a lot easier to organize.The information is unstructured when it’s analyzed and doesn’t just reply on statistics or numbers, unlike quantitative research. It’s oftenused to gain insight into people’s attitudes and behaviors, their concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture and or lifestyles. With thisinformation, it can help inform business decisions and policy formation as well as build a greater understanding of communication.All in all, qualitative research is naturalistic. There are three major focus areas: the individuals, the societies and cultures, with languageand communication included. Qualitative Research allows the researches to learn from the participants of understand the meaning oftheir lives as well being standing alone and reliably in terms of its responses and validity.Table displaying the key differences between quantitative and qualitative information: Quantitative Information Qualitative Information Large Samples Smaller Samples Statistically Valid Directional Findings Analyses Numbers – How Many think “what?” Analyses Thoughts and Feelings Closed Questioning Techniques (Less Open Questioning Techniques Opportunity to ask “why?”) Who thinks what? (Measuring) Why do people think/behave as they do? (Explaining) Analyzed in Aggregate Allows us to provide anecdotal type information – for example, we can highlight case examples for “interesting” companies to demonstrate certain pointsHOW WOULD STUDENTS GO ABOUT DOING THIS?
  4. 4. Students could go about gathering Quantitative Information by making sure they have a large sample rate of people and asking themquestions in a survey that is closed questioning and is the analysis of number as that helps explains better the “what” and can be seen asstatistically valid. An example would be what was mentioned earlier with the definition of Quantitative Information with the winequestion.For Qualitative Information, students could go about gathering a much small sample rate of people and making their surveys orquestionnaires a lot more specific but also allowing them to be loose and open ended questions. This would help analysis the thoughtsand feelings of the people and give directional findings on why people think and behave as they do. It gives explaining and gives aninteresting take of the study and an example of this could be to find why the people thought the wine tasted good and bad and give theirreasoning, expanding on the wine question example for Quantitative Research.Sources:Quantitative Research:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantitative_researchhttp://www.marketingdonut.co.uk/marketing/market-research/what-is-quantitative-research-http://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/booth/glossary/qualres.htmlhttp://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=11&Itemid=64http://www.dobney.com/Research/quantitative_research.htmhttp://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-difference-between-quantitative-and-qualitative-research.htmhttp://rmsbunkerblog.wordpress.com/2011/04/01/what-is-quantitative-research/http://www.snapsurveys.com/techadvqualquant.shtmlQualitative Research:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qualitative_researchhttp://www.qsrinternational.com/what-is-qualitative-research.aspxhttp://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?Itemid=64&id=10&option=com_content&task=viewhttp://www.health.utah.edu/qrn/what.htmlhttp://www.qualitativeresearch.org.uk/http://www.experiment-resources.com/quantitative-and-qualitative-research.htmlhttp://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/about-ons/who-we-are/services/data-collection-methodology/what-is-qualitative-research-/index.htmlChapter #2:Methods & sources of researchWhy is this chapter important?This chapter is important for many reasons. One of the reasons why this chapter is important is that it helpsdetail the differences between primary and secondary research in a clear table detailed below but it is alsoimportant if you want to find various examples of research that are consisted in primary and secondary. It alsodefines what exactly these types of research are and that is the final reason why this chapter is important. There are 2main types/methods/sources of Research you need to consider: Primary & Secondary ResearchPRIMARY RESEARCHcan consist of the following: INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES:Techniques used for Interviewing which can consist between the interviewer and theInterviewee. The interviewer usually has a strict set of techniques used to gather Research, mostly in a job scenario which typically leadwith an introduction and give open-ended questions, whilst the Interviewee decides to ask to the best of their ability, as clearly as possibledepending on the circumstances. OBSERVATIONSObservations are activities or an activity in which you look back at a living being to gather Research; this could be to look at medicalrecords or anything similarity to help expand the Research Statistics needed for a chosen purpose.
  5. 5. QUESTIONNAIRESQuestionnaires are research instruments that consist of a series of questions in order to gather research. They are often designed forstatistical analysis from the responses and have certain advantages over surveys in that they are cheap and don’t require as much effort orcommunication. SURVEYSSurveys tend to be more expensive and time consuming than Questionnaires but share many different variations, designs and purposes.Surveys are used to gather Quantitative Information which, as explained above in the table detailing the differences between Quantitativeand Qualitative Information, it is statistically more valid and less open-ended but instead closed-ended than the questionnaires and consistof rather specific measures but of large samples requiring surveys to take a lot longer than their counterpart, questionnaires. TYPES OF QUESTIONSNot all Research has the same questions and that you need consider the types of question you are going to put into your researchgathering methods in order to obtain it. Some of these questions can be very different with such examples as Open-Ended Questions,Closed-Ended Questions, Hypothetical Questions, Leading Questions, Multi-Barreled Questions and Behavioral Questions. FOCUS GROUPSFocus Groups is a form of Qualitative Research whereby a group of people asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudestowards a certain service, product, concept, advertisement, idea or packaging. Focus Groups can prove useful as in large quantities; afocus group can persuade an organization into buying into a project from within the company. They tend to be cheap and easy toassemble, along with being good for capturing rich data but hold limitations as responses of each participated individual might not be soindependent. AUDIENCE PANELSAudience Panels are a method of Research, primarily presented as feedback by thepublic when they are asked on their thoughts and opinions. You usually findaudience panels within a Television Programme or outside a Televisionprogramme but they are taken part in Radio Broadcasts and other forms ofmedia as well. Having an Audience Panel can be useful but rather experience,depending whether it’s incorporated into the television programme itself, such as aGame Show Television Programme or rather PARTICIPATION IN INTERNET FORUMSParticipation in Internet forums is a method of Research as a forum is a placeon the internet whereby people can discuss whatever they want across a widerange of subjects, so long as they go by the rules of the moderators andbecause of this, this can help build research and give understanding on achosen topic as it allows people of all ages and places to experience theiropinions or thoughts of whatever it might be but it shouldn’t be considered asfact.SECONDARY RESEARCH can consist of the following: BOOKSBooks are a method of Research as they are written material that can store a variety of research due to their flexibility of being writteninto almost any context JOURNALJournals are a form of Research as they can contain records which can provide useful information for specific reasons REFERENCE-BASED BOOKS AND DIRECTORIESReference-based books and directories are written pieces of Research that can prove useful in terms of finding a certain local or areference to a piece of information. PERIODICALSPeriodicals are a form of Research that is written literature that is published with a new edition on a regular schedule for a certain amountof time or forever existing so long as the company goes out of business NEWSPAPERSNewspapers are a form of Research and Periodicals that are released on a regular schedule, usually on a weekly basis and containdifferent articles and news stories that try to appeal to one specific audience or a general audience. FILM ARCHIVES
  6. 6. Film Archives are a form of Research that hold of film across many years of its lifespan in the way of an archive where many films will beorganized by date of publishing, director, producer, genre and other sub categories. PHOTO LIBRABIESPhoto Libraries are a form of Research that holds many similarities to Film Archives as they hold Photographs in a categorical, organizedmanner but display them in a library of sorts other than an archive which is typically more classy. WORLDWIDE WEBWorldwide Web, Abbreviated as WWW is a form of Research that runs through most of the computers across the globe, hence the nameand gives a lot of opening for research and information to be published. SEARCHING INTERNET FORUMSSearching Internet Forums can be considered a form of Research by looking at Internet Forums that can contain potential usefulinformation to further Researching. Searching Internet forums could mean looking up various other forums in Search Engines or lookingwithin the forums themselves in their own threads. CD ROM DATABASESCD ROM Databases are a form of Research that come in the form of CD ROM’s that contain databases that, in turn, can containinformation that be useful for Research Purposes AUDIO MATERIALSAudio Materials are a form of Research in the auditoria sector that can have materials such as Podcasts or Sound Effects that you canlisten to in order to build up your Research RATINGSRatings are a form of Research that can sometimes come in the form of words or numerical values in order to express an opinion whichcan prove useful for discovering critical feedback by other people for your Research practices. CIRCULATION FIGURESCirculation Figures are a form of Research that usually consist of figures to portray how much a certain product Is sold, newspapers usuallyuse circulation figures but these can prove useful in understanding marketing and financial aspects of a product when researching it. GOVERNMENT STATISTICSGovernment Statistics are a form of Research that are certified statistics from the Government that cover a wide range of things to eithergive out a message or to bring some legitimacy to a chosen topic of discussion, usually quite controversial. Table displaying the key differences between primary and secondary research: PRIMARY RESEARCH SECONDARY RESEARCH Data created by yourself Data created from an already existing source (Someone else) Tends to be less ethical, mostly down to your Tends to be more ethical, so long as you consider own perspective and research technique your source material Data that hasn’t been collected before Data that is analyzing existing data Research taken from Scratch Research has necessary data available Constructed by Primary Sources Constructed by data collected by someone else More Direct More analyticalSources:Primary ResearchInterview Techniques:http://www.interviewtechniques.org.uk/interviewing-techniques-and-tips.htmlhttp://targetjobs.co.uk/careers-advice/interview-techniques
  7. 7. Observations:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observationhttp://www.edu.plymouth.ac.uk/resined/observation/obshome.htmQuestionnaires:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QuestionnaireSurveys:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveyhttp://www.surveysystem.com/sdesign.htmTypes of Questions:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Questionhttp://www.jobinterviewquestions.org/questions/types-questions.asphttp://www4.uwsp.edu/education/lwilson/learning/quest2.htmFocus Groups:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Focus_grouphttp://www.webcredible.co.uk/user-friendly-resources/web-usability/focus-groups.shtmlAudience Panels:http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/news/audience_panel.shtmlhttp://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090325093208AAlHcVBhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audience_measurementParticipations in Internet Forums:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_forumhttp://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-behave-on-an-internet-forumhttp://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-internet-forum.htmSecondary ResearchBooks:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BookJournal:http://www.journallive.co.uk/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JournalReferences-Based books & Directories:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directoryhttp://www.published.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Address_Book_(application)Periodicals:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodical_literaturehttp://pio.chadwyck.co.uk/home.doNewspapers:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaperhttp://www.independent.co.uk/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/Film Archives:http://www.bfi.org.uk/nationalarchive//http://filmarchives.org.uk/Photo Libraries:http://www.bapla.org.uk/http://www.alamy.com/http://www.photographiclibraries.com/Worldwide Web:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Webhttp://www.w3.org/WWW/http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/World_Wide_Web.html
  8. 8. Searching Internet Forums:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Internet_forum_softwareCD-ROM Databases:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD-ROMhttp://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/CD_ROM.htmlhttp://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/definition/CD-ROMAudio Materials:http://www.miusa.org/ncde/tipsheets/languageguide/infoguide/audiomaterialshttp://www.loc.gov/rr/record/audiodup.htmlhttp://www.shared-visions.com/explore/libraries/audio.htmRatings:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratinghttp://www.esrb.org/esrbratings_guide.aspCirculation Figures:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newspaper_circulationGovernment Statistics:http://www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/index.htmlhttp://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/all-releases.html?definition=tcm:77-21589Differences between Primary & Secondary Research:http://www.ask.com/questions-about/Difference-between-Primary-and-Secondary-Researchhttp://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-primary-research-and-vs-secondary-research/http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_primary_and_secondary_researchhttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080316084303AA4dewThttp://custompapers.com/writing-tutorial/primary-secondary-sources/http://uk.ask.com/question/what-is-the-difference-between-primary-and-secondary-researchChapter #3:DATA GATHERING AGENCIESWhy is this chapter important?This chapter is important as it helps describe what a data gathering agency is, their role and other features in asimplistic but also rather detailed manner. There are also some examples of data gathering agency featured inthis chapter to help build a bigger scope and make the role, the purpose and ultimately, the understanding ofwhat a data gathering agency is a lot easier. This chapter features a total of three prime examples of datagathering agencies with others being found in the sources.What IS A DATA GATHERING AGENCY?A Data Gathering Agency, as you would imagine, is an agency that collects data for various different purposeswith various different methods. Some of these methods could include filling in surveys or taking part ininterview in order to gather data. This data could then be used in products in order to improve It or even forthe government, it really just depends what is the purpose for but many people will go out to data gatheringagencies as they can find there skills useful and enjoy the prospect of many people, working as a team,gathering data for them as it can help save time and money for the individual or business.
  9. 9. EXAMPLE OF A DATA GATHERING AGENCY:Sul& AssociatesSul& Associates is a professional Monitoring and Evaluation firm that serves clients with culturally competentpractices. The data gathering agency provides technical assistance for government agencies, non-profitedcommunity-based organization, schools, regional clinics and other originations.They provide the data, assessments, research and evaluations as services to all these types of organisationsand have skills to provide these into the two broad areas of research methods being that of qualitative andquantitate. Sul& Associates has been taking this on board since 2001 and is a limited liability corporation.Sources:http://sulandassociates.com/?page_id=13http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligence_assessmenthttp://www.hesa.ac.uk/content/view/602/603/http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3448&Itemid=76http://www.business.com/sales-and-marketing/market-research-data/http://www.intelligence.gov/about-the-intelligence-community/how-intelligence-works/data-gathering.htmlhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/hsrinfo/datasites.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DoubleClickhttp://www.indiamart.com/varahii-consultancy/http://www.marketinsightconsultants.com/http://www.marketresearchindia.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AKQAhttp://dir.indiamart.com/indianservices/market.htmlChapter #4:RESEARCH BOARD (BARB) & radio joint audience research ltd (rajar)Why is this chapter important?This chapter is important for many reasons. One of the reasons why thischapter is important is that it helps define B.A.R.B.; the Broadcaster’sAudience Research Board as well as defines R.A.J.A.R., Radio Joint AudienceResearch Limited. Both of which are important factors in the world ofResearch Regulation and Analysis. Furth more, this chapter isn’t justimportant to explain what both companies/boards are, but to display their
  10. 10. importance amongst the world of media and research whilst occasionally slotting in interesting tidbits to keepyou interested.BROADCASTERS AUDIENCE RESEARCH BOARD (BARB):The Broadcaster’s Audience Research Board, which can also be abbreviated as B.A.R.B. is responsible forproviding the official measurement of UK television audiences. They commission specialist companies to helpprovide television audience measurement in service of their behalf. They are responsible for providingestimates of the number of people watching television across a varied amount of channels andanalysesprogrammes as well. The various catergorised that come under the viewing data can be when they arewatching these programmes or channels, the type of people who are viewing at any one time and can get veryspecific with second by second data delivery program they are under at a minute by minute basis.The viewing estimates themselves are obtained from a panel of television owning private homes to helprepresent the viewing behavior of over 26 million TV households within the UK. The panel homes are selectedwith multistage sample design in order to make the panel representative for all the television householdsacross the UK. The survey is carried out on a continuous basis and is a random probability survey which allowsthe opportunity of every private household within the UK to have an interview conducted. These face to faceconducted interviews can vary in length but they help ensure that the panel can be updated and adjusted inorder to get a stronger reflection on the television owning population.With all this research, the numbers BARB provide become very important for commercial television stations asthe higher the BARB numbers, the more money a television station will make. BARB is owned by the BBC, theITV companies, Channel 4, Five, BSkyB and the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising.Radio joint audience research limited (rajar):RAJAR also abbreviated as Radio Joint Audience Research Limited was a measurement system for the radioindustry established in 1992 by BBC and UK licensed commercial stations. It is operated as a single audiencemeasurement system is the company is wholly owned by the RadioCentre.The method in which RAJAR goes about in order to collect measurements for the radio industry is based on apaper diary which is filled on a quarter-hour basis for one week by a representative sample. Approximately130,000 people complete the RAJAR diary with the research itself carried out by contractors. Controversysprings to mind with the collection methods as the diary method has been criticized for consistently underreporting station audiences, notably with the former owner of TalkSport, Kelvin MacKenzie but when thiscame to court it was “impossible to see” his case.RAJAR has conducted extensive testing of electronic devices by picking up encoded signals within stationtransmission and is then further captured in a database of all transmissions. This allows measurements to becaptured for ‘conscious’ and ‘unconscious’ listening but as of 2007, RAJAR has taken a joint venture with BARBwith the establishment of an electronic measurement panel with the further testing of ‘The Portable PeopleMeter’ in order to capture radio listening and TV viewing.Sources:Research Board (BARB):http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadcasters_Audience_Research_Boardhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/journalism/glossary/journalism/broadcasters-audience-research.shtmlhttp://www.barb.co.uk/about/tv-measurement?_s=4http://www.companiesintheuk.co.uk/ltd/broadcasters-audience-research-boardhttp://finds.org.uk/blogs/blog/category/broadcasters-audience-research-board/http://www.creationvideo.co.uk/videolibrary/corporate/barb/http://www.upmystreet.com/findmynearest/community-charities-and-advice/broadcasters-audience-research-board-ltd-located-in-westminster-5943248B-research-institutions-and-organisations.htmlhttp://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/itc/itc_publications/itc_notes/view_note66.htmlhttp://www.localmole.co.uk/business/4525489
  11. 11. http://www.barb.co.uk/index/indexhttp://www.barb.co.uk/report/weeklyTopProgrammesOverview?http://www.barb.co.uk/facts/indexhttp://www.barb.co.uk/facts/since1981?year=2008&view=top10http://www.barb.co.uk/facts/tv-ownership-private?_s=4http://www.barb.co.uk/news/indexhttp://www.barb.co.uk/news/news?_s=4Radio Joint Audience Research LTD (RAJAR):http://www.rajar.co.uk/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAJARhttp://www.rajar.co.uk/content.php?page=about_organisationhttp://www.rsmb.co.uk/http://www.cdrex.com/radio-joint-audience-research-limited-3177261.htmlhttp://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelprestype/sound/radio/radioresearch/research.htmlhttps://www.outsellinc.com/data/companies/profile/8088-outsell-company-profile-radio-joint-audience-research-limited-rajar-http://www.bauermedia.co.uk/Press-Office/Rajars/http://www.rajar.co.uk/docs/news/data_release_2011_Q1.pdfhttp://www.rajar.co.uk/content.php?page=listen_release_dateshttp://www.rajar.co.uk/content.php?page=newsChapter #5:Self-generated RESEARCHWhy is this chapter important?This chapter is important as gives a clear definition on what self-generated research is. Knowing this can leadto further understanding of what self-generated research by giving certain examples of what could beconsidered as self-generated research, thus explaining why this chapter is important.What IS SELF-GENERATED RESEARCH?Self-Generated Research is Research that is provided on your own merits. This is Research that you createdand have originality to it, whether it is a video you produced yourself, a music piece or photographic records ofevents. This could simply see as your forms of media and that is correct but it becomes Self-GeneratedResearch when you’re looking back at your own produced content for your or someone else’s ResearchPurposes.EXAMPLES OF SELF-GENERATED RESEARCH:Your Own Video:Video Production you’ve made which becomes Research once you are looking into elements of filmingtechniques and shot types, so long as you’re looking back at your own workYour Own Photography Collection –Photography Collection that includes photographs, typically in a binder folder that becomes Research once youconsider yourself a photography “artist” and are looking at other elements of photography, involving yourwork.
  12. 12. Your own Music Piece -Likewise with the photography collection, your music piece becomes Research once you look into involvingelements of music, just remembering to consider yours as a piece of Music worth researching.Sources:http://sites.google.com/site/visualrepresentationproject/research-overviewhttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/self-generatedhttp://www.scholars.umd.edu/events/showcase/http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1612263Chapter #6:PURPOSES OF RESEARCHWhy is this chapter important?Similarly with Chapter #5: Self-Generated Research, this chapter is important for two main reasons. One of thereasons why this chapter is important as it gives defines Research as a whole into three main categories:Audience Research, Market Research and Production Research and with this can lead to the second of the tworeasons on why this chapter is important and that is because, since it is categorized into this three main typesof research, it helps arrange the various purposes of research in a clear format to help give a greaterunderstanding on the purpose of Research. There are 3main types OF RESEARCH ALONG WITH THEIR OWN DIFFERENT PURPOSES, THESE TYPES OF RESEARCH ARE: AUDIENCE RESEARCH, MARKET RESEARCH & PRODUCTION RESEARCHAudience researchThe purposes of audience research:There are many different purposes when it comes to Audience Research. Audience Data is a big part of research in themedia and it holds many different purposes when it becomes linked with overall audience research.There is audience profiling in which you find out the correct profile of your audience beforehand. This allows you to getacross your message to the right people for the most effective results. Categories can include that of age, sex, educationalqualification, work experience, financial background, interests, mood, etc. It’s very in depth and helps delegate more
  13. 13. specific information correctly for the best results.Along with audience profiling, there are other purposes to audience research such as demographics and geodemographics.Demographics are studies based on the characteristics of human populations and population segments. These areimportant in terms of audience research as they allow clearer identification of consumer markets. They help indicategrowing population within businesses and other companies but demographics are slightly different.Geo demographics are a form of study that are typically used in business, social research and public policy making geodemographics a strong choice in the field of audience research. They are used to study human population dynamics but interms of the location of the physical and human phenomena on Earth. They share very similarities with demographics butslight differences as well with the fact that geo demographics are more based on human population in terms of space andlocation and not in general.In short, demographics are the study of the characteristics of human populations, geo demographics are the study ofcharacteristics of human populations within terms of location and space but both are good methods of audience researchand help indicate growing population in a field of different elements which is why they are good methods. They are bothimportant methods as they can provide consumer behavior, attitudes and overall audience awareness when looking intoaudience research.Market ResearchThe purposes of market research:There are many different purposes when it comes to Market Research. One of them is in the product market.Product Market is purely a mechanism that allows people to easily buy and sell products. Services are typically included inthe scope of things and product market regulation is the term used to describe economic restrictions in a particular field ormarket. Various different countries have what is called an OECD ranking, a ranking by the organization for economic co-operation and development that helps stimulate economic progress and world trade. It does not include however theexchange of raw materials, scarce resources, factors of production or any type of intermediate goods. Instead it includesthe others and the total of value of goods exchanged each year is measured by a gross domestic product. Demand sideincludes such elements as net exports, government purchases and more whilst the supply side of product markets isproduction business based.Countries such as The United Kingdom have some of the lower OECD rankings which make them have the least regulatedproduct markets. It’s important to know this as you can understand what’s in and what’s out and what countries are mosteffective for buying and selling under the OECD but the product market is very important and almost essential sincewithout a product market, companies can go burst overnight and the mechanism that once allowed people to buy and sellgoods easily, is now a lot tougher, not just on the buyers or the sellers but everyone and can effective an almost globaleconomic struggle so it’s important to have a product market and organizations such as OECD as they help stimulate thiseconomic progress and world trade.Competition is extremely common in all fields of life as well in the field of market research. There are three levels ofeconomic competition that can be identified. Direct competition is the narrowest form where products that perform thesame function compete against each other. Another form is a substitute or indirect competition which is where products ofvery close similarities compete for one another’s dominance and lastly the broadest form of competition, budgetcompetition which is where companies try and compete on the consumer’s expenditure.It is very important that with competition all around and in market research that analysis is taken hold as it is an importantstrategic process. Some business might work best on their own plans and ignore competition but others, it’s critical. Somecan be obsessed with locating all the actions of its competitions in order to be top dog or just to keep up and stay in thegame. Many businesses copying their competitors moves or react to changes similarly but do it in such a way to set themapart from the rest. Competitor analysis generally helps management and understanding of the advantages anddisadvantages when relating to their competitors and can help generate an understanding of the competitors past, presentand future strategies as well as provide and develops strategies that could prove useful in the future if needed. Simple Competitive Analysis could include the links of this table below:
  14. 14. Criteria PETCO.com PetSmart.com Products No specific products, links to product categories and specials Home page features six products Search box Upper-left-hand corner, adjacent to primary navigation Upper-right-hand corner, between primary navigation and account navigation Navigation Primary navigation organized by pet. Additional navigation for Primary navigation organized by pet. Additional navigation for retail services account management Contact Linked from left-hand navigation Linked from top navigation informationThis small competitive analysis table helps look into two particular the home page contents of two prominent pet-relatedweb sites that so happen to be competitors and helps illustrate in different categories, criteria that helps provide acomparison of the two pet-related web sites in a competitive manner and whilst it is simple, simple competitive analysissuch as this still displays two critical dimensions and that is the competitors themselves and the criteria they provide,which is also known as competitive framework with the purpose of this being able to present data to make it easier to seehow various competitors compare when their criteria is put alongside each other.Lastly, in the field of Market Research is advertising placement and advertising effects.An advertisement placement is a specific group of ad units where the advertiser decides to choose to place them in usingplacement targeting. Ad placements can be massive billboards, entire websites or something a lot smaller and a single adunit such a logo or a mobile phone. They are meant to be made visible to advertisers in two ways; there are placementsthat are automatically created by the system. An example of this is where a publisher’s website could have an AdSensenetwork automatically connected to it, meaning that ad placements may be placed and appear anywhere on the websiteas long as that website as an AdSense network attached to it.The latter is where Placements are defined by their publishers where you, the publisher, can have the ability to define andchoose where to place your advert so long as you have permission. As mentioned, they can come in all shapes and sizes, allkinds of units but these publishers are typically a lot more specific and try and place ads in order to appeal to their targetmarket or audience.The location, the topic, the format, the elements that can come into the ad are just some of the common elements that areconsidered by publishers who wanted the ad placements defined by them and it can either make or break as advertising inany form can be expensive and can be a bad move if placed incorrectly but you can be more specific this regard and nothave to rely on the placement by an advertiser. Some of the latest trends in advertising are to be more subtle and moveaway from the “in-your-face” ads as those can prove to frustrating, annoying and not help be a good ad placement as they
  15. 15. don’t seem to help your company achieve what it wants and that’s to get people to come to your product or whatever youradvertising.Some companies will produce mini-movies or make it so the product is the star in order to emit an audience and in essencethis is the practice of product placement combined with the skills of ad placement. Ad placement can also mean hoveringthe product(s) in the background and creating “real-life scenarios” where the product would be used regularly in a suitablesituation. A common example of a product hovering in the background is the Back to the Future film posters. TheDeLoreon car has played a prominent role in the movies but also in the posters if you look below:The effect of this advertising placement is varied. In short, it’s to create attention and achieving that attention to the targetaudience these advertisements are appealing to but in all honest, advertisement placement’s effects are not really toodifferent than general advertisement effects. Some of the positive effects of doing product placement is that is makes youlook back and spot that product continuous, having to wait time and time again to watch the television advertisement/spotin order to see it take place again. Other positive effects can be that if used effectively, especially in the real life scenariosand making the product be the star, it can get in your head. Catchy jingles or songs also help and are just small elementsthat can make a big difference in ad placement. It only helps further is they are placed in other big products such asblockbuster films that are prone to be viewed by hundreds of thousands or millions. These positive effects usually cater tothe company or business themselves whereas the negative effects usually appeal to the actual consumers/potentialcostumers. Hidden costs, lying to customers and censorship are some of the negative effects that come to ad placement asit can mean that there is some falseness to these ad placements. It can make consumers think whether they are being liedto for a quick buck and can lose fans or respect for the company so it’s a risk reward with ad placement but typically if it’sdone well and isn’t used to lie to customers, then it’s effective.Production researchThe purposes of production research:There are many different purposes to the final three of these research types and that is of production research.Content is a main bulk of the product. It can mean the make or break with your product as if the content is not goodenough it could falter but if it, then it can be successful. Content is extremely important to your business and theconsumers you’re trying to appeal to as without content, the product is an empty shell and isn’t anything. Content is theproduct in essence and with dangers with the content comes the viability side.It is important to identify where viability might be prone in a product as business is about making money and you can’tsurvive in business if you’re not making at least a profit, unless your company is a non-profit organization, money is theend all or be all and viability is where you study how to position your product, view your competitors and ask yourself whatis it that I’m selling in order to reinvent yourself and continue a successful business and production plan. If content is theproduct, viability is the term used to explain dangers with the product, how viable it is to attack from either competitors oritself with money loss.Placement media and finance costs are pretty self-explanatory as well as personnel locations. Placement media is the
  16. 16. media in which is placed in various locations in order to help build up the production of the product. This could mean jobplacements but it is the posters themselves that act as the placement media. It is important to have this as it can meanpotential hope in a troubled company and that’s where finance costs come in.Finance costs can come under many categories such as how much it costs to rent the buildings, the staff but in this vain,more specifically towards how much the product is going to cost to make. It’s important to have this as you don’t want tolose a large margin with a business, unless it’s your intention, which it should, but finance costs help explain where thingsmight have gone wrong and where adaptations might have to be made in the company in order to be more successful inthe future.Personnel locations are what it is. It’s locations that are either handmade or chosen naturally in order to help theproduction. This could mean a set for the filming of the products television campaign/debut and the technologicalresources such as camera, stands, editing software and more become very important here in order to make this happen. Itis important to have these as whilst they might not be necessary in all cases of business, typically business is about makingmoney and without taking these elements into consideration, without taking the time and patience to undergo thisresearch, whether it be production, market or audience research, your company could be very void and open tocompetitors, open to unhappy consumers and open to a downfall but with the right research, considerations andtechniques, understanding their purposes and so on, success can be found.Sources:Audience Researchhttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080929075444AAPJwsKhttp://office.microsoft.com/en-us/help/discover-the-importance-of-target-audience-profiling-HA001141467.aspxhttp://www.slideshare.net/leannacatherina/audience-profiling-powerpointhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geodemographyhttp://areaclassification.org.uk/getting-started/introduction/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographicshttp://www.answers.com/topic/demographicsMarket Researchhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_markethttp://www.justice.gov/atr/public/guidelines/horiz_book/11.htmlhttp://glossary.econguru.com/economic-term/product+markethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competitionhttp://tutor2u.net/business/strategy/competitor_analysis.htmhttp://www.digital-web.com/articles/competitive_analysis/http://support.google.com/adsense/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=160534http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_placementhttp://www.alchemyinteractive.co.uk/online_marketing/display_advertising_placement.phphttp://money.howstuffworks.com/product-placement.htmhttp://www.daniweb.com/internet-marketing/advertising-sales-strategies/threads/16222/advertising-placementhttp://www.bookrags.com/research/advertising-effects-eci-01/http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6414/Advertising-Effects.htmlhttp://www.realcool.biz/articles/The_Negative_Effects_of_Advertising_a34_f0.htmlProduction Research:http://cnetcontentsolutions.com/solutions/content_structure.aspxhttp://www.quotewerks.com/realtimeproductcontent.asphttp://www.ehow.com/how_4493168_determine-market-viability-product-service.htmlhttp://www.school-for-champions.com/marketing/product_viability.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimum_viable_producthttp://www.productmanager.co.uk/PM_PVModel.htmhttp://blogs.wsj.com/law/2012/04/18/coming-sooner-law-school-job-placement-data/http://newsandinsight.thomsonreuters.com/New_York/News/2012/02_-_February/Law_schools_hand_over_job_placement_data/
  17. 17. http://www.ccfcs.org.uk/solutions/data-requirement/http://support.google.com/adplanner/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=160504

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