Gold was discovered in Georgia and white settlers wanted to get their hands on it. This, and the thirst for expansion were the beginnings of the Cherokee migration. The Government, under President Andrew Jackson, authorized the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This act was to force the Native Americans off of their ancestral lands.
President Andrew Jackson
All people were not for the removal of the Indian Nation. Reverend Samuel Worcester was a missionary to the Cherokee people. He went to the Supreme Court to stop the removal. This case is called Worcester vs. Georgia. The Supreme Court decided that the Cherokee were a sovereign nation and would not allow the removal to take place. The Cherokee won the battle, yet their fight was hollow.
In 1835 the Treaty Party, part of the Cherokee Nation, signed the Treaty of New Echota. This treaty sold the Cherokee lands to the United Sates Government. In 1838 the removal of the Native Americans began. General Winfield Scott led thousands of men to round up and escort the Cherokee into stockades in Tennessee.
From the stockades the Cherokee were forced to march from Tennessee to the new Indian Territory in Oklahoma. This forced march has come to be known as the Trail of Tears. They had minimal facilities, food, and protection. All suffered and 4,000 Cherokee died along the trail. Some Cherokee tried to escape the forced march, and some even succeeded. Today there are still groups of Cherokee Nations living in Georgia that are descendants from the Cherokee that escaped.