Carbon and Nitrogen Families

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General Information, Physical and Chemical Analysis, Reactions with Other Groups, Occurrence in Nature.

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  • Carbon and Nitrogen Families

    1. 1. Nitrogen & Carbon Families: General Information, Physical and Chemical Analysis, Reactions with Other Groups, Occurrence in Nature.
    2. 2. Carbon Family
    3. 3. General Information Carbon Family Abbreviation Latin for plumbum From the Greek word “protos” Prehistoric Pb Lead Latin stannum a pre-Indo-European language Used since 3,500 BC Sn Tin Word: Germany Named after the country of Germany 1871 Ge Germanium From the Latin word silex From the Latin word silex 1787 Si Silicon Latin: carbo Derived from Latin “carbo” meaning coal Prehistoric C Carbon Origin of Symbol Origin of Name Date Symbol Name
    4. 4. Physical and Chemical Characteristics <ul><li>Physical: Characteristics are very different as the the group descends. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactivity increases as the group descends. </li></ul><ul><li>In same group: </li></ul><ul><li>React in similar ratios with oxygen and other elements </li></ul><ul><li>Form up to 4 bonds (more than any other family) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon: non-metal </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon, Germanium: metalloids </li></ul><ul><li>Tin, Lead: typical metals. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Reactions with other Groups <ul><li>Groups reactivity as a whole is hard to state and the reactivity of each element must be considered individually. </li></ul><ul><li>All elements react in similar ratio to oxygen and other elements. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Occurrence in Nature Found in elemental form on Earth’s crust Lead Found in elemental form on Earth’s crust Tin Found in: argyrodite, coal, germanite, zinc ores, and other minerals. Germanium Found in mineral deposits Silicon Found on elemental form on Earth’s crust Carbon Frequency: Form: Name:
    7. 7. Important Uses of Each Element <ul><li>Carbon: Diamond Form is used as jewelry and as cutting tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon: (medical) silicon implants, and cmputer chips. </li></ul><ul><li>Tin: Window Glass is produced </li></ul><ul><li>Lead: Pipes, Cable Sheathing </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Elements: <ul><li>Carbon: </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon: </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Germanium: </li></ul><ul><li>Tin: </li></ul><ul><li>Lead: </li></ul>
    10. 10. Nitrogen Family
    11. 11. General Information German words Weisse Masse meaning white mass 1753 Bi Bismuth From stibium, the ancient name for antimony sulfide Greek words &quot;anti + monos&quot; meaning &quot;not alone&quot; 1450 Sb Antimony Greek word arsenikos and the Latin word arsenicum 1250 As Arsenic Greek words phôs (light) and phoros (bearer) 1669 P Phosphorus The Greek words &quot;nitron genes&quot; 1772 N Nitrogen Origin of Symbol Origin of Name Year Symbol Name
    12. 12. Physical and Chemical Characteristics <ul><li>Physical Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Varies Greatly. Nitrogen=colorless, odorless; Phosphorus=white, red, black, solid forms; Arsenic=yellow, grey solid forms; Antimony=metallic, grey; Bismuth=white, brittle metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic character increases when descending the group, oxides become increasingly basic. </li></ul><ul><li>In the same group because: </li></ul><ul><li>All have an expected oxidation state of +3 </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively low ionization energies. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Physical and Chemical Characteristics <ul><li>Nitrogen: Nonmetal (Gas) </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus: Nonmetal </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenic, Antimony: Metalloid </li></ul><ul><li>Bismuth: Poor Metal </li></ul>
    14. 14. Bibliography <ul><li>http://www.carondelet.pvt.k12.ca.us/Family/Science/Nitrogen/nitrogen.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/si.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.impcas.ac.cn/usr/wjx/zhonglz/tool/PERIODIC-TABLE/help.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/data/intro_groupv_data.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://web1.caryacademy.org/chemistry/rushin/StudentProjects/ElementWebSites/tin/usesproperties.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ldaint.org/technotes4.htm#Lead%20pipe </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.3rd1000.com/elements/nitrofam.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.carondelet.pvt.k12.ca.us/Family/Science/Nitrogen/thefamily.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ktf-split.hr/periodni/en/as.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.innvista.com/science/chemistry/elements/etymolo.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/sb.html </li></ul>

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