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Unit 5   notes pt 1
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Unit 5 notes pt 1

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  • 1. rules of lighting the use of tone
  • 2. tones of gray • The world can be broken into 9 tones of gray – represents the 256 million colors the human eye registers • Decide up front what type of tone photo you are making – – – – 2 tone: High Contrast 3 tone: Medium Contrast 5 tone: Dramatic Lighting Or 9 tone: Natural Lights
  • 3. types of light • Hard light – High contrast – Pure black and pure white • Soft Light – – – – Low contrast Overcast filter Levels 2-8 (no 1 or 9) The more lights you add the more grays you will add to your photo
  • 4. hard light
  • 5. soft light
  • 6. types of light • Natural light – Sunlight & Moonlight – Reflected sunlight & moonlight – Overcast and Soft • Artificial Light – – – – Fluorescent Flash Incandescent Hard and Enhances Contrast
  • 7. natural light
  • 8. fluorescent light
  • 9. incandescent light
  • 10. lighting techniques • Floodlighting & Spotlighting – Dramatic – High contrast • Directional Lighting – Control of shadows – Creates strong sense of mood – Under & Over • Multiple Light Sources – Enhances center of interest – Washes out background
  • 11. floodlights & spotlights
  • 12. floodlights & spotlights
  • 13. under lighting
  • 14. over lighting
  • 15. over lighting
  • 16. over lighting
  • 17. multi-lighting
  • 18. multi-lighting
  • 19. lighting techniques • Backlighting – Light source is behind the subject matter – Creates deep shadow against a bright background • Silhouettes – Developed in the 1700’s – Solid black shapes
  • 20. backlighting
  • 21. silhouette
  • 22. • 1:1 Flat Lighting – High Key lighting ratios – Equal amounts of light for the highlight and shadows • 2:1 General Color Photography – Middle Key – 2 times more light in the highlight areas over the shadowed portions of the subject matter • 3:1 General B&W Photography – Middle Key – 3 times more light in the highlight areas over the shadowed portions of the subject matter • 4:1 Dramatic Lighting – Low Key – 4 times more light – Common for traditional portraiture • 8:1 Very Dramatic Lighting – Low Key – 8 times more light – Shadows become black abstract shapes
  • 23. examples of lighting ratios
  • 24. keys: overall tone • High Key – White/off-white background & brighter subject matter – Low lighting ratio near 2:1 – Eliminate shadows • Middle Key – Use skin tone to set the mood – The “Goldilocks” photo • Low Key – Dark background and dark subject matter – Higher lighting ratios 3:1 or 4:1 – Shadows emphasized
  • 25. examples of keys
  • 26. • F-stop darker lighter – how MUCH light is allowed by SIZE of aperture • Shutter Speed – how LONG film is exposed to light coming through the lens • Work together – Both work together as in the bucket analogy: • Large, dumping of water into a bucket quickly (f-stop) • Thin stream of water over a long time (shutter speed)
  • 27. in photoshop • Levels & Curves • Lighting Effects Filter • Darken Image using Mimicked F-stops: – Duplicate your background layer and put the duplicate layer in Multiply mode – This will create the effect of lowering your f stop by 1 • Lighten Image using Mimicked F-stops: – Duplicate your background layer and put the duplicate layer in Screen mode – This will create the effect of raising your f stop by 1
  • 28. f-stops in photoshop
  • 29. Tones Lightning Techniques Keys & Ratios F-Stops Measure of Grays Manipulation of Highlights & Shadows Used During the Shoot Aperture setting on Camera 1 – White Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 1:1 High Key F/8 2 – High Gray Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 1:1 High Key F/5.6 3 – High Gray Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 1:1 High Key F/5.6 4 – Mid Gray Natural – Soft (Overcast) 2:1 Mid Key F/5.6 5 – Mid Gray Natural – Soft (Overcast) 2:1 Mid Key F/4 6 – Mid Gray Natural – Soft (Overcast) 2:1 Mid Key F/4 7 – Low Gray Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 3:1 Low Key F/2.8 8 – Low Gray Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 4:1 Low Key Portraits F/2 9 – Black Artificial – Hard (Over/Under & Backlighting) 8:1 Low Key Extreme Contrast F/1.4