COMM ART: Unit 4: Typography Notes and Project

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COMM ART: Unit 4: Typography Notes and Project

  1. 1. unit 4 – typography
  2. 2.  What is typography?  Typography is the art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible. The arrangement of type involves the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, leading (line spacing), adjusting the spaces between groups of letters (tracking) and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning[2]). Type design is a closely related craft, which some consider distinct and others a part of typography; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type designers do not consider themselves typographers.[3][4]  In modern times, typography has been put into motion—in film, television and online broadcasts—to add emotion to mass communication.[5]  Typography is performed by typesetters, compositors, typographers, graph ic designers, art directors, comic book artists, graffiti artists, clerical workers, and anyone else who arranges type for a product. Until the Digital Age, typography was a specialized occupation. Digitization opened up typography to new generations of visual designers and lay users, and David Jury states that "typography is now something everybody does.―
  3. 3.  history of typography  Typography traces its origins to the first punches and dies used to make seals and currency in ancient times. The uneven spacing of the impressions on brick stamps found in the Mesopotamian cities of Uruk and Larsa, dating from the 2nd millennium BC, may have been evidence of type where the reuse of identical characters were applied to create cuneiform text.[7] Babylonian cylinder seals were used to create an impression on a surface by rolling the seal on wet clay.[8] Typography was also realized in the Phaistos Disc, an enigmatic Minoan print item from Crete, Greece, which dates between 1850 and 1600 BC.[9][10][11] It has been proposed that Roman lead pipe inscriptions were created by movable type printing,[12][13][14] but German typographer Herbert Brekle recently dismissed this view.[15]  The essential criterion of type identity was met by medieval print artifacts such as the Latin Pruefening Abbey inscription of 1119 that was created by the same technique as the Phaistos disc.[16][17][18][19] The silver altarpiece of patriarch Pellegrinus II (1195−1204) in the cathedral of Cividale was printed with individual letter punches.[20][21][22] The same printing technique can apparently be found in 10th to 12th century Byzantine reliquaries.[23][21] Individual letter tiles where the words are formed by assembling single letter tiles in the desired order were reasonably widespread in medieval Northern Europe.[24][25]
  4. 4.  history of typography  Modern movable type, along with the mechanical printing press, is most often attributed to the goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg, who independently ivented the technology in mid-15th century Germany.[29][30][31][32] His type pieces from a lead-based alloy suited printing purposes so well that the alloy is still used today.[33] Gutenberg developed specialized techniques for casting and combining cheap copies of letterpunches in the vast quantities required to print multiple copies of texts.[34] This technical breakthrough was instrumental in starting the Printing Revolution and printing the world's first book (with movable type) the Gutenberg Bible.  Computer technology revolutionized typography in the 20th century. Personal computers in the 1980s like the Macintosh allowed type designers to create types digitally using commercial graphic design software. Digital technology also enabled designers to create more experimental typefaces, alongside the practical fonts of traditional typography. Designs for typefaces could be created faster with the new technology, and for more specific functions.[8] The cost for developing typefaces was drastically lowered, becoming widely available to the masses. The change has been called the "democratization of type" and has given new designers more opportunities to enter the field.[35
  5. 5. Typefaces vs. Fonts: Difference?  A lot of people use the terms ―typeface‖ and ―font‖ interchangeably. But they’re two very distinct things. Before we get started talking about typography, let’s get our terms straight.  A typeface is a set of typographical symbols and characters. It’s the letters, numbers, and other characters that let us put words on paper (or screen). A font, on the other hand, is traditionally defined as a complete character set within a typeface, often of a particular size and style. Fonts are also specific computer files that contain all the characters and glyphs within a typeface.  When most of us talk about ―fonts‖, we’re really talking about typefaces, or type families (which are groups of typefaces with related designs).
  6. 6. Classifying Type  There are a number of different ways to classify typefaces and type families. The most common classifications are by technical style: serif, sans-serif, script, display, and so on. Typefaces are also classified by other technical specifications, such as proportional vs. monospaced, or by more fluid and interpretational definitions, such as the mood they create.  Serif  Serif typefaces are called ―serifs‖ in reference to the small lines that are attached to the main strokes of characters within the face. Serif typefaces are most often used for body copy in print documents, as well as for both body text and headlines online. The readability of serifs online has been debated, and some designers prefer not to use serifs for large blocks of copy.
  7. 7. Classifying Type  Sans-Serif   Sans-serif typefaces are called such because they lack serif details on characters. Sans-serif typefaces are often more modern in appearance than serifs. The first sans-serifs were created in the late 18th century. There are four basic classifications of sans-serif typefaces: Grotesque, Neogrotesque, Humanist, and Geometric. Grotesques are the earliest, and include fonts like Franklin Gothic and Akzidenze Grotesk. These typefaces often have letterforms that are very similar to serif typefaces, minus the serifs.
  8. 8. Other Typefaces  Script   Display   Scripts are based upon handwriting, and offer very fluid letterforms. There are two basic classifications: formal and casual. Formal scripts are often reminiscent of the handwritten letterforms common in the 17th and 18th centuries. Some scripts are based directly on the handwriting of masters like George Snell and George Bickham. There are modern creations, too, including Kuenstler Script. They’re common for very elegant and elevated typographical designs, and are unsuitable for body copy. Display typefaces are probably the broadest category and include the most variation. The main characteristic is that they’re unsuitable for body copy and are best reserved for headlines or other short copy that needs attention drawn to it. Display typefaces can be formal, or informal, and evoke any kind of mood. They’re more commonly seen in print design, but are becoming more popular online with the use of web fonts. Dingbats  Dingbats are specialty typefaces that consist of symbols and ornaments instead of letters. Wingdings is probably the best-known dingbat font, though there are now thousands, often created around themes.
  9. 9. Other Qualities  Proportional vs Monospaced   Mood    In proportional typefaces, the space a character takes up is dependent on the natural width of that character. An ―i‖ takes up less space than an ―m‖, for example. Times New Roman is a proportional typeface. In monospace typefaces, on the other hand, each character takes up the same amount of space. Narrower characters simply get a bit more spacing around them to make up for the difference in width. Courier New is one example of a monospace typeface. The mood of a typeface is an important part of how it should be used. Different typefaces have strikingly different moods. Commonly used moods include formal vs. informal, modern vs classic/traditional, and light vs dramatic. Some typefaces have very distinct moods. For example, Times New Roman is pretty much always going to be a traditional font, which is why it’s so commonly used for business correspondence. Verdana, on the other hand, has a more modern mood. Some typefaces are more transcendent, and can convey almost any mood based on the content and the other typefaces they’re combined with. Helvetica is often considered one such font. Weights and Styles   Within the majority of typefaces, you’ll find more than one style and/or weight. Weights are often classified as ―light‖, ―thin‖, ―regular‖, ―medium‖, ―bold‖, ―heavy‖, or ―black‖. Each of these refers to the thickness of the strokes that make up the characters: There are three general styles you’ll find with many typefaces: italic, oblique, and small caps. Small caps are often used for headings or subheadings, to add variety to your typography if using a single typeface.
  10. 10. COPY THE ABOVE 
  11. 11.  Part 1 Follow the anatomy of a typeface and the typeface qualities (style, weight etc.) Design a complete font (typeface set A – Z, a – z, 0 – 9) Design multiple styles for the typeface (bold, SMALL CAPS, italics, bold-italic) 1. 2. 3. Part 2  Repeat the above steps for at least 3 different fonts that you have created Create a:   ▪ ▪ ▪ Sans-serif Serif Dingbats or display

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