Agricultural revolution

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Agricultural revolution

  1. 1. Changes inAgriculture and Industry
  2. 2. Job Sectors• Types of jobs in society can be classifiedinto three main sectors:Agriculture/Resourceex. Farming, mining, forestry, fishingIndustryex. Factories, workshops, constructionServiceex. Retail, teaching, banking, nursing
  3. 3. Economies of Nations• Nations tend to have one of these threesectors as the major type.Poor Nations - agricultural & resource(subsistence farming, mines, forestry)ex. HaitiMiddle Nations - industrial(with some agricultural & resource)ex. MexicoRich Nations - service dominated(with some agricultural & resourceand industry) ex. USA
  4. 4. Economies of Nations• The strongest nations have a mix of allthree, with most of the jobs being service.• In those countries service jobs pay betterthan industrial jobs, which pay better thanresource jobs (for the most part).SectorAgriculture &ResourceIndustryService
  5. 5. Progression of Nations• Nations desire to progress.• To do this they need to undergoagricultural and industrial revolutions. Inother words, to dramatically change theway that agriculture and industry are donein their countries.Agriculture& ResourceIndustry Service
  6. 6. The Agricultural RevolutionFrom:• Lots of farmers• Most people farm• Poorly used land• Hand tools• Not much foodTo:• Very few farmers• Many work in factories• Better used land• Machines• Plenty of food
  7. 7. Farming in the Middle Ages• Manual labour (basic tools)• Shared labour• Common land / Open fields• Three field system• Gleaning by the poor
  8. 8. 1. Bigger Farmsa. Enclosuresb. Land Reclamation2. Better Equipmenta. Machines3. Better Techniquesa. Crop Rotationb. Selective Breeding
  9. 9. 1. BIGGER FARMSa. ENCLOSURES• Enclosing landmeant puthedges, fences,or stone wallsaround farms toclaim the landand keep peopleand animals out.
  10. 10. 1a. ENCLOSURES• Small, individuallyowned farmswere bought ortaken away frompoorer farmersand turned intolarge enclosedfarms owned by aricher farmer.
  11. 11. AFTER•Each landownerreceived a single pieceof property•No common landsBefore•Each person got somegood and some badland.•There was commonland.1a. ENCLOSURES
  12. 12. Small FarmersWere Forced off Their Land• Had to pay for :Fences/Walls to surround their farmsA team of oxen• Could no longer glean or gather wood• Often had to sell plots to largelandowners:Forced to Rent orWork for someone else
  13. 13. Map ofLandEnclosed byParliament
  14. 14. Example: the Highland Clearancesin Scotland• Sometimes landwas just takenfrom peoplebecause theycould not proveownership.• This increasedthe number ofpeople lookingfor work.
  15. 15. Enclosures BenefitedLarge Land Owners• They had the political strength to pass theenclosure law• They owned large unified farms under thissystem which meant:Farming was more efficientDidn’t need consent of the village toexperiment with new crop methodsCould obtain cheap labour
  16. 16. 1b. LAND RECLAMATION• In addition to enclosures, farms alsoincreased in size because of landreclamation:– Marshlands were drained– Forests were cleared– Poor soil was enriched and used more
  17. 17. 2. BETTER EQUIPMENT:MACHINES OF THEAGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION• Labour on farms had always been done byhand. This was harder to do now withbigger farms.• Farmers with large farms were earningmore money, and now they were moreinterested in investing in machines
  18. 18. • Invented by Jethro Tull• Planted seed in neatrows• Improved germinationby making furrows,dropping seed intothem, and coveringthem• Reduced amount ofseed used in planting
  19. 19. Examples of Additional MachinesHorse-drawn cultivator – Jethro Tull
  20. 20. Examples of Additional MachinesCast-iron plow (1797)– American Charles Newbold
  21. 21. Examples of Additional MachinesReaper – Englishman Joseph Boyce (1799) andAmerican Cyrus McCormick (1834)
  22. 22. 3. BETTER TECHNIQUES:a. CROP ROTATION• Peoplelearned thatcrops could berotated toimprove thenitrogen in thesoil instead ofjust leavingland fallow.WheatCloverBarleyTurnips
  23. 23. CROP ROTATION
  24. 24. CROP ROTATION• Use of Clover and Turnips fixed nitrogen inthe soil while also providing food for animals• Yields of Wheat and Barley proved to bebetter than Rye, especially with theimproved nitrogen levels in the soil
  25. 25. 3. BETTER TECHNIQUES:b. SELECTIVE BREEDING• Farmers began the selectivebreeding of animals such assheep and cattle• Produced better animalswith better offspring• Produced more milk, meat,and wool
  26. 26. Summary:Agricultural Revolutions NeedBigger Farms• Enclosures• Land ReclamationBetter Equipment• MachinesBetter Techniques• Crop Rotation• Selective Breeding
  27. 27. THE SPREAD OF THEAGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION• The Agricultural Revolution began inBritain, in the early 1700s.• It soon spread to other countries. InNorthern Europe, it took place in the mid-1700s.• In America, the A.R. took place in thesecond half of the 1700s.
  28. 28. 1. Agricultural production increased.2. Cost of food dropped.3. Increased production of food helpedcreate a rapid growth of population.4. Large farms, using machines and scientificmethods, began to dominate agriculture.Farming became big business.Of the Agricultural Revolution
  29. 29. 5. The number of small farms began todecline.6. The number of farmers decreased sharply.7. Many farmers moved to the cities.8. The population of cities increased rapidly.Of the Agricultural Revolution

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