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The River Valley Civilizations Mr. Keatley’s World History Honors Class Spring 2007
MESOPOTAMIA
Mesopotamia “The Cradle of Civilization” <ul><li>Known as “the land between two rivers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Home to the fir...
Sumer  3500-2006 B.C . <ul><li>First Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Converted open villages into walled cities </li></ul><...
Babylonia  1792-539 B.C.   <ul><li>Inherited culture of Sumer </li></ul><ul><li>Became seat of strong central government <...
Assyria  1115-612 B.C. <ul><li>Conquered Babylon with chariots, battering rams and armored horses </li></ul><ul><li>Forced...
P olitical <ul><li>The Mesopotamians believed their kings and queens were descended from the city gods but, they never bel...
Leaders <ul><li>Sargon (2350-2330 BC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First in his dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usurper </li><...
E conomics <ul><li>Poor people mostly had to depend on crops because they had little money. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich people ...
Economics <ul><li>Each group migrated from different areas. Many are those who were settled on the other side of the Tigri...
R eligious <ul><li>Believed the world was a flat disc surrounded by space. Above it was the heavens. </li></ul><ul><li>Pol...
S ocial <ul><li>Slaves and wealthy people. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance pyramid </li></ul>
I ntellectual <ul><li>Astronomers and Chemists. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied stars  </li></ul>
Intellectual <ul><li>Education was practical and aimed to train scribes and priests </li></ul><ul><li>Basic reading, writi...
Arts & Technology <ul><li>They were the first people known to study the heavens, use metalworking, create laws, and compil...
Mesopotamian Art
N ear (geography) <ul><li>Between tigris and euphrates river. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Mesopotamia made up of hills and ...
Ancient Egypt
Large and in charge…. <ul><li>The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the political and religious leader, the pharao...
The Pharaoh <ul><li>Egypt was a monarchy and was ruled by a Pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>The Pharaoh was considered a God to ...
Famous Pharaohs <ul><li>Menes/Narmer/Aha: unified upper and lower Egypt, first Pharaoh. Killed by a hippopatamus. </li></u...
Power and Government <ul><li>Power was based on religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians didn’t particularly  believe in a si...
Wars <ul><li>The most famous war in Egypt was the war with Syria and the Hittite people. </li></ul><ul><li>The Syrians att...
Intellectual <ul><li>Scribes were the thinkers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly boys were given the chance to learn. </li></ul><u...
Achievments <ul><li>1650 BC, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: geometry, cotangent analogue, algebraic equations, arithmetic ser...
Writing <ul><li>Hieroglyphic inscription was a common form of art and writing from the ancient Egyptians. </li></ul><ul><l...
Religion <ul><li>The temple was a sacred place where only priests and priestesses were allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>On speci...
Religion <ul><li>The Egyptians were polytheistic, they believed in about 2,000 gods and goddesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Every...
Religeon <ul><li>Belived in many gods. Most important being Ra the sun god </li></ul><ul><li>Most royalty was mummified af...
Economy <ul><li>Their source for wealth and money was through farming and fishing. </li></ul><ul><li>As well, mining was p...
Economy <ul><li>Economy was based on commerce and agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most heavily taxed nations was...
Economy <ul><li>Egypt’s economy was mostly based on agriculture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They grew wheat, barley, lettuce, b...
economy <ul><li>Farmed </li></ul><ul><li>Raised bees </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus worlds earliest known paper </li></ul><ul><...
Social <ul><li>Ancient Egyptians communicated using hieroglyphics.  </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians were placed in a social py...
Egyptian Homes <ul><li>They lived in crammed villages, with narrow streets. </li></ul><ul><li>The homes were made primaril...
Clothes and “Bling” <ul><li>Clothes were primarily made of light weight linens, suitable for hot climates. These were worn...
Food and Drink  <ul><li>Egyptians relied on the Nile for their major source of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The river yielded ...
Geography <ul><li>Separated into two types of land. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Black Land” was the fertile land on the banks of t...
Arts and Literature <ul><li>They used large architectural structures, as temples for the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>Mater...
Indus River Valley
Timeline <ul><li>It began in 2500 B.C in present day Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>The civilization flourished for about 1000...
Geography <ul><li>The two main cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, may have been twin capitals. Each was dominated by a mass...
 
Government <ul><li>There is no  recorded  information on the Indus River Valley civilizations politics. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Political <ul><li>From 2600 B.C. to 1700 B.C. a vast number of settlements were built on the banks of the Indus River Vall...
Farming and Trade <ul><li>Most Indus Valley people were farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>They grew a wide variety of crops such ...
Economics <ul><li>Farming began in the Indus River Valley around 6,000 B.C.E., around a 1,000 years before Egypt. The Indu...
Religion <ul><li>They are polytheistic.  </li></ul><ul><li>A mother goddess, the source of creation, seems to be widely ho...
Religion <ul><li>Indus religion belief systems are difficult to reconstruct. They made clay figurines of animals, men, and...
Art <ul><li>Scholars believed they had marvelous craftsmen, skilled in pottery, weaving, and metal working.  </li></ul><ul...
Artistic <ul><li>The people of the Indus River Valley were skilled in pottery, weaving and metal working. The pottery is o...
Intellectual <ul><li>The Indus Valley civilization is considered a literate society. There have been over 400 objects reco...
<ul><li>Not much is known about the Indus River Valley because there is very little evidence of the civilization itself.  ...
The Golden River Civilization
Political <ul><li>Basically all of the civilizations that developed along the Yellow (golden) river were dynasties ruled b...
Economic <ul><li>During the Zhou period China’s economy grew. The knowledge of ironworking reached China about 500 BC. Iro...
Religious <ul><li>By Shang times, the Chinese had developed complex religious beliefs. They prayed to many gods and nature...
Sacrifices <ul><li>The early Chinese people believed that their ancestors were in heaven and continues to show an interest...
Artistic <ul><li>The people of the Yellow River or Huang He River communicated with a unique form of writing </li></ul><ul...
Artistic <ul><li>Made pots, wrote poetry, and sang songs based on the river.  </li></ul><ul><li>Papercut  has emerged as a...
writing <ul><li>Among their accomplishments, one of the most famous is the development of a written language </li></ul><ul...
Intellectual <ul><li>Most of the decisions and ruling was done by the chinese dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Shang Priests wer...
Social <ul><li>One of the biggest and most popular forms of communications was the writing system </li></ul><ul><li>People...
Geography <ul><li>Many people lived by and off of the river because of china’s deserts and mountain. </li></ul><ul><li>Yel...
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  1. 1. The River Valley Civilizations Mr. Keatley’s World History Honors Class Spring 2007
  2. 2. MESOPOTAMIA
  3. 3. Mesopotamia “The Cradle of Civilization” <ul><li>Known as “the land between two rivers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Home to the first civilizations to develop the basics of technology and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>First Cities developed around 3500 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Civilizations included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sumeria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babylonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assyria </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sumer 3500-2006 B.C . <ul><li>First Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Converted open villages into walled cities </li></ul><ul><li>Cities became city-states ruled by strong leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a system of writing, metal working and were early users of wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest leader- Sargon the Great </li></ul>
  5. 5. Babylonia 1792-539 B.C. <ul><li>Inherited culture of Sumer </li></ul><ul><li>Became seat of strong central government </li></ul><ul><li>Great cultural and religious center </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon became greatest city in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Created the 60-minute hour </li></ul><ul><li>Created a calendar with 12 lunar months </li></ul><ul><li>Created advanced multiplication tables </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest leader- Hammurabi </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assyria 1115-612 B.C. <ul><li>Conquered Babylon with chariots, battering rams and armored horses </li></ul><ul><li>Forced the conquered into slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Built cities with ornate palaces and temples </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a sewage system </li></ul><ul><li>Opened trade links with other kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest leaders- Tiglath-pileser III, Senacherib and Ashurbanipal II </li></ul>
  7. 7. P olitical <ul><li>The Mesopotamians believed their kings and queens were descended from the city gods but, they never believed their kings were actually gods </li></ul><ul><li>Kings often named them selves “king of the universe&quot; or “great king” </li></ul><ul><li>Kings had to look after their people. </li></ul><ul><li>King Hammurabi created a set of rules containing the crimes and their punishments. And citizen conduct. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Leaders <ul><li>Sargon (2350-2330 BC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First in his dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usurper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved capitol to Akkad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Succeeded by his two sons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi (1792-1750) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtains monopoly over Mesopotamia by clever politics and military success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important cultural revival because of the large number of texts known </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. E conomics <ul><li>Poor people mostly had to depend on crops because they had little money. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich people had slaves and easier ways of obtaining food. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming one main way to get food and other needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Barter systems were used </li></ul>
  10. 10. Economics <ul><li>Each group migrated from different areas. Many are those who were settled on the other side of the Tigris and Euphrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Priests and priestesses were the only people who talked to the gods or goddesses. They were the religious leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that the gods and goddesses could either be pleased with them or annoyed with them so they were constantly serving them food and clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>The place of worship was at a temple. The temple had tall towers which were believed to connect heaven to earth. </li></ul>
  11. 11. R eligious <ul><li>Believed the world was a flat disc surrounded by space. Above it was the heavens. </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggurats were built to connect heaven to earth </li></ul><ul><li>Built of mud bricks </li></ul><ul><li>Religious events held at temple (learning). </li></ul><ul><li>Every city had their own god or goddess who owned everything and everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>4 gods created and controlled universe . God of heaven god of air god of water and goddess of earth. </li></ul>
  12. 12. S ocial <ul><li>Slaves and wealthy people. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance pyramid </li></ul>
  13. 13. I ntellectual <ul><li>Astronomers and Chemists. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied stars </li></ul>
  14. 14. Intellectual <ul><li>Education was practical and aimed to train scribes and priests </li></ul><ul><li>Basic reading, writing, religion, law, medicine, and astrology </li></ul><ul><li>Schools for priests were numerous </li></ul><ul><li>Center of intellectual activity was the library </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of learning were memorization, oral repetition, copying of models, and individual instruction </li></ul>
  15. 15. Arts & Technology <ul><li>They were the first people known to study the heavens, use metalworking, create laws, and compile written records. </li></ul><ul><li>They were the first chemists by using chemicals to make soap and remedies. </li></ul><ul><li>They developed a number system by using their fingers. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of their arts was based on their gods, kings, and jewelry. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mesopotamian Art
  17. 17. N ear (geography) <ul><li>Between tigris and euphrates river. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Mesopotamia made up of hills and plains </li></ul><ul><li>Land is fertile most of the year because of the rains,rivers and streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Mesopotamia made up of marshy flat barren plains. </li></ul><ul><li>Created and irregation system </li></ul><ul><li>300 miles long and 150 miles wide </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ancient Egypt
  19. 19. Large and in charge…. <ul><li>The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the political and religious leader, the pharaoh. </li></ul><ul><li>One of these rulers was Horus Djer who ruled in the first dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled for 57 years. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Pharaoh <ul><li>Egypt was a monarchy and was ruled by a Pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>The Pharaoh was considered a God to the people of Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>The Pharaoh was in charge of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping irrigation works in order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing the army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping peace with neighboring countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issuing laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade and economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of the land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The power of the Pharaoh was passed to the pharaoh’s chief wife’s oldest son, or oldest daughter. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Famous Pharaohs <ul><li>Menes/Narmer/Aha: unified upper and lower Egypt, first Pharaoh. Killed by a hippopatamus. </li></ul><ul><li>Hatshepsut: female pharaoh, built many obelisks and the Deir el Bahri temple. </li></ul><ul><li>Akhenaten: tried to alter relgion, military, and art, and almost destroyed Egypt in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Tutenkhamen: Akhenaten’s son, became Pharaoh at 8 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramses II (the great): longest reign (67 years), created the treaty with the Hittite people, first treaty in history. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Power and Government <ul><li>Power was based on religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians didn’t particularly believe in a single god, but more of spiritual beings. </li></ul><ul><li>They were polytheistic. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Wars <ul><li>The most famous war in Egypt was the war with Syria and the Hittite people. </li></ul><ul><li>The Syrians attempted to conquer Egypt’s land with help of the Hittites. </li></ul><ul><li>The war ended with the Hittite treaty (Ramses II) the first treaty in history. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Intellectual <ul><li>Scribes were the thinkers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly boys were given the chance to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>They were taught by their parents, until they pick a career, then they’re trained specifically for it. </li></ul><ul><li>They developed technology through trial and error. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Achievments <ul><li>1650 BC, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: geometry, cotangent analogue, algebraic equations, arithmetic series, geometric series. </li></ul><ul><li>1300 BC, Berlin Mathematical Papyrus, 19th dynasty - 2nd order algebraic equations </li></ul><ul><li>Had schools and a deep understanding of math </li></ul>
  26. 26. Writing <ul><li>Hieroglyphic inscription was a common form of art and writing from the ancient Egyptians. </li></ul><ul><li>Their culture was spent upon embodying in their form of mythology, which is a succession of beliefs held by them. </li></ul><ul><li>An example, are their portrayals of cats in their hieroglyphic writings. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Religion <ul><li>The temple was a sacred place where only priests and priestesses were allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>On special occasions, commoners were allowed only into the temple courtyard. </li></ul><ul><li>As well, when someone deceased, they were mummified and preserved. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Religion <ul><li>The Egyptians were polytheistic, they believed in about 2,000 gods and goddesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything done in Egypt was based on their religion </li></ul><ul><li>Temples were built in every city for the dwelling place for the god of that city. </li></ul><ul><li>Priests were important for attending to the god’s needs, funerals, teaching school, supervising artists and their works, and advised people on problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Death was considered a transitional stage to a better life in the next world. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Religeon <ul><li>Belived in many gods. Most important being Ra the sun god </li></ul><ul><li>Most royalty was mummified after death and placed in tombs with jewlery and other things that were needed in the afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>Anubis was the god of death. </li></ul><ul><li>Temples could only be entered by priests and priestesses </li></ul>
  30. 30. Economy <ul><li>Their source for wealth and money was through farming and fishing. </li></ul><ul><li>As well, mining was practiced to find precious metals. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Economy <ul><li>Economy was based on commerce and agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most heavily taxed nations was Egypt. They relied primarily on revenue which were in the form of labor and taxes. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Economy <ul><li>Egypt’s economy was mostly based on agriculture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They grew wheat, barley, lettuce, beans, onions, figs, dates, grapes, melons, and cucumbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade was also important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their main exports were gold and other minerals, wheat, barley, and papyrus. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. economy <ul><li>Farmed </li></ul><ul><li>Raised bees </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus worlds earliest known paper </li></ul><ul><li>Beer </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest known glass making </li></ul><ul><li>Wine </li></ul><ul><li>Turquoise </li></ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul>
  34. 34. Social <ul><li>Ancient Egyptians communicated using hieroglyphics. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians were placed in a social pyramid. People usually married in their own social class and continued the same profession as their parents. </li></ul><ul><li>The father was responsible for the well-being of the family. Women took care of raising the children. Children stayed at home until marriageable age. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Egyptian Homes <ul><li>They lived in crammed villages, with narrow streets. </li></ul><ul><li>The homes were made primarily of brick, mud, and chopped straw. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Clothes and “Bling” <ul><li>Clothes were primarily made of light weight linens, suitable for hot climates. These were worn by both men and women, rich and poor. </li></ul><ul><li>They adorned themselves with as much jewelry as they could afford. </li></ul><ul><li>Bracelets, rings, anklets, and hair pins were worn. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Food and Drink <ul><li>Egyptians relied on the Nile for their major source of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The river yielded enough to feed the country. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Beer and bread” were the primary food and drink they ate. (made from yeast, wheat, and barley) </li></ul><ul><li>Beans, lettuce, leeks, figs, dates, grapes, fish, fruit juices, and many other fruits and vegetables. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Geography <ul><li>Separated into two types of land. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Black Land” was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Red Land” was the barren desert that protected Egypt on two sides. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Arts and Literature <ul><li>They used large architectural structures, as temples for the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials used: bricks, mud, stone, copper, limestone, bronze, and granite. </li></ul><ul><li>Made: pottery, buildings, chariots, weapons, and stone artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Literature: hymns to the god, myth and magical texts, “Books of the Dead”. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Indus River Valley
  41. 41. Timeline <ul><li>It began in 2500 B.C in present day Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>The civilization flourished for about 1000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Then it vanished without a trace </li></ul>
  42. 42. Geography <ul><li>The two main cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, may have been twin capitals. Each was dominated by a massive hill structure either or a fortress or a temple. They were carefully planned. Each laid out in a grid pattern with rectangular blocks. The houses had surprisingly modern plumbing systems, with baths, drains, and water chutes. </li></ul><ul><li>The whether in ancient India caused Monsoons and droughts. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several rivers in The Indus river valley, which made the land very fertile. </li></ul><ul><li>An important river was the Ganges. </li></ul><ul><li>Many cities and towns were built around the banks of this river. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Government <ul><li>There is no recorded information on the Indus River Valley civilizations politics. </li></ul><ul><li>But we can assume from the archeology that the government was: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had powerful leaders (Priest-Kings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government promoted skills in mathematics and surveying to lay out the cities so precisely. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Political <ul><li>From 2600 B.C. to 1700 B.C. a vast number of settlements were built on the banks of the Indus River Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>These regions covered almost 1.25 million kilometers of which today is known as Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western India. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Farming and Trade <ul><li>Most Indus Valley people were farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>They grew a wide variety of crops such as wheat, barley, melons, and dates. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people were merchants and traders. </li></ul><ul><li>Their ships carried cargos of cotton , cloth, grain, copper, pearls, and ivory cones. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Economics <ul><li>Farming began in the Indus River Valley around 6,000 B.C.E., around a 1,000 years before Egypt. The Indus River had twice the silt as the “Mighty Nile” making it a great place to grow crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grew wheat, barley, beans, sesame, rice, bananas, black pepper, mustard and cotton crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Floods were common in the Indus River valley. To prevent their crops and fertile soil from being destroyed farmers built dirt walls and canals from washing away the fields. </li></ul><ul><li>To the north, where it was a dry plain, farmers domesticated cattle and water buffalo instead of growing crops. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Religion <ul><li>They are polytheistic. </li></ul><ul><li>A mother goddess, the source of creation, seems to be widely honored. </li></ul><ul><li>Indus people also apparently worshipped sacred animals, including the bull. </li></ul><ul><li>Some scholars think these early practices influenced later Indian beliefs, especially the veneration of cattle. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Religion <ul><li>Indus religion belief systems are difficult to reconstruct. They made clay figurines of animals, men, and women that were used in special rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>Indus people buried their dead in wooden coffins along with many pottery vessels that were filled with food for the afterlife. Most individuals were buried with some simple ornaments. No royal burials have been found. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Art <ul><li>Scholars believed they had marvelous craftsmen, skilled in pottery, weaving, and metal working. </li></ul><ul><li>The pottery they found was said to be of high quality with unusually beautiful designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Several small statues of what are believed to be female gods have been found as well as, bowls made of bronze and silver and many beads and ornaments. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Artistic <ul><li>The people of the Indus River Valley were skilled in pottery, weaving and metal working. The pottery is of very high quality and unusual beautiful designs. </li></ul><ul><li>The metal that they use to make things did not come from the Indus Valley, so therefore the items had to be imported. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Intellectual <ul><li>The Indus Valley civilization is considered a literate society. There have been over 400 objects recovered with inscriptions on them that archeologists say is proof that they are literate. </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Not much is known about the Indus River Valley because there is very little evidence of the civilization itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists are still trying to understand the language and many of them seem to think that they had communications with the Mesopotamian civilizations. </li></ul>
  53. 54. The Golden River Civilization
  54. 55. Political <ul><li>Basically all of the civilizations that developed along the Yellow (golden) river were dynasties ruled by kings, and their noblemen. Archeologists have found evidence that the noblewomen had considerable status during the Shang period. Also archeologists believe that kings only ruled a small area while loyal princes and nobles governed most of the land </li></ul>
  55. 56. Economic <ul><li>During the Zhou period China’s economy grew. The knowledge of ironworking reached China about 500 BC. Iron tools began replacing old wood, stone, and bronze tools. Farmers produced much more food. Peasants began growing new crops, such as soy beans. Some feudal lords organized large-scale irrigation works, making farming more productive. </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce expanded too, the Chinese began to use money for the first time. They used copper coins which made trading much easier. Also new roads and canals from the river helped merchants expand their trading area </li></ul><ul><li>The last thing that made the Chinese economy expand is that by 1000 BC the Chinese discovered how to make silk and how to turn into different colors using brilliant dyes. They began cultivating silkworms and the mulberry trees they fed, and since they dint tell anybody how to make silk, eventually silk became China’s most valuable export. </li></ul>
  56. 57. Religious <ul><li>By Shang times, the Chinese had developed complex religious beliefs. They prayed to many gods and nature spirits. Chief among them were the Shang Di and a mother goddess who brought plants and animals to Earth. They also believed that great gods could not hear the prayers of simple mortals. So they prayed to their ancestors. The Chinese believed that only powerful spirits like the spirit of a king or noble could contact the gods. That’s why they made sacrifices like food and other necessities. At first only the royal family had ancestors important enough to influence the gods but eventually more families shared these rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the Chinese believed that the universe reflected a delicate balance between to forces, Yin, and Yang. Yin linked to Earth, darkness, and female forces, while Yang stood for heaven, light, and male forces. They believed that the well being of the universe depended on keeping the delicate balance between these 2 forces. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Sacrifices <ul><li>The early Chinese people believed that their ancestors were in heaven and continues to show an interest in their family even after their death… </li></ul><ul><li>Being superstitious, they believed that failing in ones duties to the ancestors could bring all kinds of disaster on the family </li></ul><ul><li>To please Shang ti and other gods, including ancestors, the practiced sacrificing… </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves and prisoners of war were often sacrificed by the hundreds when kings died. Lesser numbers were sacrificed at the founding of a palace or temple </li></ul>
  58. 59. Artistic <ul><li>The people of the Yellow River or Huang He River communicated with a unique form of writing </li></ul><ul><li>This system used pictographs and ideographs and signs that express thoughts or ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>The form of writing used by the Chinese is one of the most difficult to learn even after many years of simplifying the characters. </li></ul><ul><li>This writing style became known as calligraphy or a fine writing art form </li></ul><ul><li>Since china covered such a large area, many parts spoke different language. But since they use the same form of writing systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The writing styles used today are still the same used since thousands of years ago but developed in each place in its own way. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Artistic <ul><li>Made pots, wrote poetry, and sang songs based on the river. </li></ul><ul><li>Papercut has emerged as an important art form in rural China. </li></ul><ul><li>The craftsman used hand tools to make small daggers and knives , which make nice ornaments. </li></ul>
  60. 61. writing <ul><li>Among their accomplishments, one of the most famous is the development of a written language </li></ul><ul><li>The language consisted of pictograms in which the early Chinese would have a picture which symbolized something </li></ul><ul><li>They also had oracle bones which were used to divine the fortune. The question to the oracle would be written on a bone, and then its answer, then the real outcomes would be written last. </li></ul><ul><li>They also learned to manufacture silk which was used to write on </li></ul>
  61. 62. Intellectual <ul><li>Most of the decisions and ruling was done by the chinese dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Shang Priests were selected to develop and teach the forms of writing styles to the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese scholars and only the richer upper class could afford to be educated with the arts of calligraphy </li></ul><ul><li>The main achievements of the chinese was the slikmaking and the books. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1000BC the chinese developed a way to make silk thread from cacoons of slikworms. </li></ul><ul><li>This became the chinese main export and valuable resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Zhou the chinese wrote the first books. </li></ul><ul><li>Many poems were developed and put into one of the greatest books called the Book of songs. </li></ul><ul><li>Also these books included sad and love songs. </li></ul>
  62. 63. Social <ul><li>One of the biggest and most popular forms of communications was the writing system </li></ul><ul><li>People of china had a very wide range of language and had no forms of communication, but once they developed a single writing system they were able to comunicate all country </li></ul><ul><li>Shang warriors were seen as the upper class and used leather armor , bronze weapons, and rode on chariots </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate and highest form of class were the royal dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Most people in Shang China were peasants, they lived in small pit houses were the floor was earthen </li></ul><ul><li>The peasants led grueling lives working in the fields. </li></ul>
  63. 64. Geography <ul><li>Many people lived by and off of the river because of china’s deserts and mountain. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow river provide most of the civilization with its resources. </li></ul>

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