Before History


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1. The evolution of Homo sapiens
A. The hominids B. Homo sapiens
2. Paleolithic society
A. Economy and society of hunting and gathering peoples B. Paleolithic culture
3. The neolithic era and the transition to agriculture
A. The origins of agriculture B. Early agricultural society; population explosion caused by surplus C. Neolithic culture; calendars and life cycle deities D. The origins of urban life

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Before History

  1. 1. Before History
  2. 2. INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES <ul><li>After studying this chapter students should: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Be able to describe the development and significance of the relationship between hominids and their changing environment and be able to identify the three distinctive traits of human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Be able to describe the ways in which early humans adapted to different environments and be able to differentiate between hunter-gatherer and food-producing economies. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Be able to analyze the environmental causes and effects of the transition from hunter-gatherer to food-producing economies. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Be able to describe the relationship between the development of different economies (hunter-gatherer, agricultural, and pastoral) and their different social and cultural characteristics. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The evolution of Homo sapiens <ul><li>The hominids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australopithecus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeared in east Africa about four million to one million years ago </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walked upright on two legs; well-developed hands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stone tools; fire later </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The evolution of Homo sapiens <ul><li>The hominids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo erectus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 million to two hundred thousand years ago, east Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large brain; sophisticated tools; definitely knew how to control fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed language skills in well-coordinated hunts of large animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migrated to Asia and Europe; established throughout by two hundred thousand years ago </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Australopithecus Homo erectus
  6. 6. The evolution of Homo sapiens <ul><li>Homo sapiens; evolved as early as two hundred thousand years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain with large frontal regions for conscious and reflective thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread throughout Eurasia beginning more than one hundred thousand years ago, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice age land bridges enabled them to populate other continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The natural environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens used knives, spears, bows, and arrows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brought tremendous pressure on other species </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Australopithecus Homo erectus Homo Sapiens
  8. 8. Interpreting the Evidence <ul><li>1859 Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>he suggested that species evolve over long periods of time through the process of natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speculated that humans must be “descended from a hairy, tailed quadruped,” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must have started in Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remains in Java (1891) and Beijing (1929) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian origins? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australopithecus africanus in 1924 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed by the Leakeys in eastern Africa beginning in 1950. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Archaeological evidence and understanding of the evolution of other species has helped scientists to trace the evolution of human beings over a period of 4 million years. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Migrations from Africa <ul><li>Homo erectus and Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to various parts of Europe and Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low sea levels associated w/ Ice Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crossed the land bridge to the Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also reached Japan and New Guinea/Australia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minor physical evolutionary changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skin pigmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural adaptation. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Human Migration according to Mitochondrial DNA </li></ul><ul><li>In mammals, 100% of the mtDNA contribution to a zygote. </li></ul>
  11. 17. Paleolithic society <ul><li>Economy and society of hunting and gathering peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Economic life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented individuals from accumulating private property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived an egalitarian existence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in small bands, about thirty to fifty members in each group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big game hunting with special tools and tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Some permanent Paleolithic settlements, if area rich in resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natufians in eastern Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jomon in central Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinook in Pacific northwest area of North America </li></ul></ul>
  12. 18. Natufians Jomon Chinook
  13. 19. Paleolithic society <ul><li>Paleolithic culture </li></ul><ul><li>Neanderthal peoples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe and southwest Asia between one hundred thousand and thirty-five thousand years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful, deliberate burials were evidence of a capacity for emotion and feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cro-Magnon peoples (Homo sapiens sapiens) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first human beings of fully modern type; appeared forty thousand years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venus figurines--fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cave paintings of animals--sympathetic magic </li></ul></ul>
  14. 20. Neanderthal Homo sapiens sapiens Evolution or independent innovation??
  15. 21. Cave Paintings Upper left: India c. 20,000- 10,000 BCE Upper right: Spain c. 15,000-12,000 BCE Lower left: France c. 15,000-10,000 BCE
  16. 22. Gender Roles and Social Life <ul><li>Slow maturation of humans + mate at any time of the year = two-parent family </li></ul><ul><li>Women would have been responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child-care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men would have been responsible for hunting. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter-gatherers probably lived in small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>follow animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seasonal variations of foraged foods. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 23. The Neolithic era and the transition to agriculture <ul><li>The origins of agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neolithic era; new stone age ; refined tools and agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From about twelve thousand to six thousand years ago </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neolithic women began systematic cultivation of plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neolithic men began to domesticate animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early agriculture around 9000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture emerged independently in several parts of the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants, migrants, and travelers spread food knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slash-and-burn cultivation involved frequent movement of farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture more work than hunting/gathering but steady, large supply of food </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 24. The Agricultural Revolutions <ul><li>Agricultural revolutions—the domestication of plants and animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurred independently in various parts of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in global climate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 st stage of domestication = semicultivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scatter the seeds of desirable food-producing plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd stage = fire to clear fields and specialized tools </li></ul><ul><li>Transition is best best documented in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>But it happened independently in other parts of the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eastern Sahara = sorghum, millet, and teff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Nile Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greece = Wheat and barley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early farmers practiced swidden agriculture, changing fields periodically as the fertility of the soil became depleted. </li></ul><ul><li>Environments dictated the choice of crops </li></ul>
  19. 25. The Neolithic era and the transition to agriculture <ul><li>Early agricultural society; population explosion caused by surplus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of villages and towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jericho, earliest known Neolithic village </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mud huts and defensive walls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialization of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neolithic site of Çatal Hüyük, eight thousand people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prehistoric craft industries: pottery, metallurgy, and textile production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social distinctions, due to private land ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The beginnings of CIVILIZATION </li></ul>
  20. 26. Natufians Jomon Chinook Jericho Çatal Hüyük
  21. 27. Early Towns and Specialists <ul><li>Most people lived in villages, but in some places, the environment supported towns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jericho and Çatal Hüyük. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jericho, on the west bank of the Jordan River, was a walled town with mud-brick structures and dates back to 8000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Çatal Hüyük, in central Anatolia, 7000–5000 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>center for the trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>craftsmen produced pottery, baskets, woolen cloth, beads, and leather and wood products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Art of Çatal Hüyük reflects a fascination with hunting </li></ul><ul><li>But agriculture was the mainstay of the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Çatal Hüyük had a flourishing religion centered on the worship of a goddess and have been administered by priestesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Çatal Hüyük include objects made of copper, lead, silver, and gold </li></ul><ul><li>Jericho and Çatal Hüyük = social organization in which food producers had to support non-producing specialists such as priests and craftspeople </li></ul><ul><li>And labor had to be mobilized for nonproductive projects such as defensive walls, megalithic structures, and tombs. </li></ul><ul><li>We do not know whether this labor was free or coerced. </li></ul>
  22. 28. Agriculture and Ecological Crisis <ul><li>Humans made the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural because of global warming (beginning 9000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced the supplies of game and wild food plants </li></ul><ul><li>The agricultural revolutions = population explosion = 10 million in 5000 BCE to between 75 million in 1000 BCE </li></ul>
  23. 29. The Neolithic era and the transition to agriculture <ul><li>Neolithic culture; calendars and life cycle deities </li></ul><ul><li>The origins of urban life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of cities, larger and more complex than villages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest cities in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, 4000 to 3500 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul>Stonehenge
  24. 30. How to answer discussion questions <ul><li>Step #1 – Log onto </li></ul><ul><li>Step #2 – Goto the link “Discussion Questions” </li></ul><ul><li>Step #3 – Read the requirements and forum rules </li></ul><ul><li>Step #4 – Click on the button “Discussion Board” </li></ul><ul><li>Step #5 – Read over the topics and respond to 2 of the questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Step #5 – Respond to 2 of your classmates answers. </li></ul>
  25. 31. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS <ul><li>What is culture? Do environmental conditions and changes in the techniques of production have an effect on culture? If so, how? </li></ul><ul><li>What were women’s roles in the first 4 million years of human history? What evidence can we find that might give us some indications of what women’s roles may have been? Does the evidence indicate how women’s roles may have changed over time? How and why might such change have occurred? </li></ul><ul><li>How did differences in the environment and geographical location affect the development of the three early civilizations? </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence do you see here of interaction between these civilizations and other peoples (including interaction between the three civilizations themselves)? How important do you think that interaction with other peoples was for the development of these three civilizations? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors might explain the rise and decline of civilizations in general? Of these particular civilizations? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the connection between knowledge and power? How did writing play into this relationship? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the political system and the political philosophies of China to those of Egypt and Mesopotamia. How does ideology develop in response to political and social crises? </li></ul><ul><li>How did elites in Nubia, Mesoamerica, and China gain access to and maintain control over essential raw materials? What factors might account for the different strategies adopted by elites in different times and places? </li></ul>
  26. 32. Natufians Jomon Chinook Jericho Çatal Hüyük Other Places to know Southwest Asia Africa Europe India China Southeast Asia Lascaux Anatolia