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Vitanova kirilov dimitrov 10 5 eutrophication

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  • 1. Eutrophication Kirilov, Kristiyan Dimitrov, Georgi Vitanova, Karina Section 10/5
  • 2. What is Eutrophication?
    • The increase in the amount of organic matter in the ecosystem (usually in aquatic environments) which stimulates plant growth
    • Antrophogenic/Cultural eutrophication –eutrophication caused by humans (9)
  • 3. http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/culturaleutroph.jpg http://www.balticseaportal.net/media/image/orgdc459351e05a.jpg http://salem.rutgers.edu/nre_homeowner/elmer-eutrophication-480.JPG
  • 4. Which nutrients are the ones to blame?
    • Phosphorus (mainly phosphates)
    • Nitrogen (mainly nitrates)
    • These nutrients are usually found in agricultural and urban sources but there are others sources of them
      • Fertilizers
      • Factories
      • River run-off and erosion
      • Municupal sewage water caused by humans
      • Nitrogen fixation
      • (3,12)
    http:// www.permaculture.org.au/images/phosphorus_molecules.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/4/43/20100805213607!NitrogenRencer.png http://www.biology-blog.com/images/blogs/10-2007/fertilizer-15101.gif
  • 5. Algal Blooms
    • Rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system;
    • Algae - large group of organisms (unicellular and multicellular forms) found in waters and marines
    • Caused by enrichment of some nutrients in the ecosystem (eutrophication)
      • Increase in reproduction and growth in the environment
      • More oxygen needed – lack of O2
      • Light is blocked
      • (1,4)
    http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2007/07/04/js05w_algae_wideweb__
  • 6. Problems Caused on Ecosystem
    • Composition of the water changes (more N and P)
    • Algal Blooms 
    • Block of sunlight for those organisms which need it (photosynthetic)
    • With the increasing algal bloom of vegetation, such as phytoplankton ->
      • A lot of species in small area
        • Less space for each organism -> a lot of death organisms
        • This organic matter is food for bacteria which rapidly grow
        • These bacteria use up most of the oxygen needed by other species
        • Lack of O2 which leads to death of a lot of species
    • (4,6,7)
  • 7. More problems
    • Decrease in diversity of species (one species would predominate)
    • Production of toxins which might lead to extinction of species
    • Decreased productivity of organisms living in deep waters
    • (4,6)
  • 8. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg/800px-Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg.png
  • 9. Impact on People
    • Health
      • Ill fish – harm people who eat them
      • Water is dangerous to drink – may cause illnesses
    • Economic
      • No fishing in the area where eutrophication occurs
        • Loss of people to pay to fish in that area
      • Fish in that area are no longer edible – more money spent on other types of food resources
      • A lot of money spent on
        • Cleaning the water where eutrophication occurs
        • Purifying contaminated drinking water
      • Less tourists come to these places – loss of money
      • (13)
  • 10. What can be done in order to prevent it from occurring?
    • Nutrients in fertilizers should be identified
      • Decreasing the amount of N and P in them
      • Limiting the use of fertilizers
    • Waters should be cleaned so that eutrophication would not happen
      • Making barriers which protect the water from phosphorus coming in water from facilities (cleaner technology)
    • Control of animal wastes
    • Industrial practices near waters should be reduced
    • (7,8,11)
  • 11. How to deal with eutrophication after it occurs?
    • Waters should be cleaned
    • Nutrients that reach the water should be limited
    • Planting vegetation near waters in order to slow down erosion
    • (Riparian buffers)
      • They remove nutrients
    • Building of barriers
      • stop nutrients in runoff waters from entering aquatic environments
    • (5, 14)
    http://www.woodriverriparian.ca/images/pic1.jpg
  • 12. The Baltic Sea
    • Sea located in Northern Europe
    • Surrounds Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark;
    • (2)
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Baltic_Sea_map.png
  • 13. Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea
    • Eutrophication is caused by high concentration of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus)
      • Algal Blooms
    • Caused by land-based sources
      • Fertilizers
      • Factories
    • (12,15)
  • 14. More about the Baltic Sea
    • Impact
      • Risk of poisoning animals and humans
      • Decreased biodiversity
      • Reduced income from tourists who no longer want to visit the sea
      • Increased availability for growth of harmful organisms
    • (12,15)
  • 15. More about Baltic Sea…
    • Actions taken to stop eutrophication
      • Reduction of nutrients pollution in the sectors of industry
      • Municipal wastewater treatment and agriculture
      • 50% reduction of targets for nutrient emissions and discharges
      • Monitoring the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in fertilizers
    • (10,12)
  • 16. Missisipi River “Dead Zone”
    • It is in North America, Gulf of Mexico
    • Cause - Nutrient enrichment (N and P)
      • They come from farming estates through
        • Fertilizers
        • Soil erosion
        • Animal wastes
        • Sewage
      • Algal Blooms!
      • (11)
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Mississippi_watershed_map_1.jpg
  • 17. More about Missisipi River
    • Impact
      • Decreased biodiversity
      • Poisoned water -> can lead to poisoning animals and humans
      • More money spent on purifying drinking water
    • Solution
      • Decreasing the use of fertilizers
      • Controlled animal wastes
      • Careful industrial practices
      • (11)
  • 18. Works Cited
    • “ Algal Bloom.” ScienceDaily . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/‌articles/‌a/‌algal_bloom.htm>. (1)
    • “ Baltic Sea.” Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/‌wiki/‌Baltic_Sea>. (2)
    • “ Causes of Eutrophication.” Causes of Eutrophication . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://lepo.it.da.ut.ee/‌~olli/‌eutr/‌html/‌htmlBook_4.html>. (3)
    • &quot;eutrophication.&quot;  Encyclopædia Britannica . 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 09 Dec. 2010 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/196751/eutrophication >. (4)
    • “ Eutrophication.” ORACLE ThinkQuest . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/‌04oct/‌01590/‌pollution/‌eutrophication.html>. (5)
    • “ Eutrophication.” Water Pollution Guide . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.water- pollution.org.uk/‌eutrophication.html>. (6)
    • &quot;Eutrophication.&quot; Wiki Doc. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Eutrophication>. (7)
    • “ Eutrophication and Health.” Eutrophication and Health . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://ec.europa.eu/‌environment/‌water/‌water-nitrates/‌pdf/‌eutrophication.pdf>. (8)
    • “ Eutrophication - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oligae.” oligae . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.oilgae.com/‌ref/‌glos/‌eutrophication.html>. (9)
    • “ Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.” HELCOM . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://helcom.navigo.fi/‌stc/‌files/‌BSAP/‌FINAL%20Eutrophication.pdf>. (10)
    • “ The Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone.” Microbial Life . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. < http:// serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/index.html >.( 11)
    • Lundberg, Cecilia. “Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.” N.p., n.d. <http://www.mare.su.se/‌dokument/‌Cecilia_Lundberg_abstract.pdf>. Rpt. in Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea . N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. mare.su . Web. 9 Dec. 2010. (12)
    • Muir, Patricia. “Eutrophication.” Eutrophication . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://people.oregonstate.edu/‌~muirp/‌eutrophi.htm>. (13)
    • &quot;RIPARIAN BUFFERS: WHAT ARE THEY and HOW DO THEY WORK?&quot;  Department of Soil Science . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/ publications/BMPs/buffers.html>. (14)
    • “ Third Intertnational Symposium on Research and Management of Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems.” Eutro 2010 . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.eutro2010.dhi.dk/‌EUTRO%202010%20programme.pdf>. (15)