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Vitanova kirilov dimitrov 10 5 eutrophication
 

Vitanova kirilov dimitrov 10 5 eutrophication

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    Vitanova kirilov dimitrov 10 5 eutrophication Vitanova kirilov dimitrov 10 5 eutrophication Presentation Transcript

    • Eutrophication Kirilov, Kristiyan Dimitrov, Georgi Vitanova, Karina Section 10/5
    • What is Eutrophication?
      • The increase in the amount of organic matter in the ecosystem (usually in aquatic environments) which stimulates plant growth
      • Antrophogenic/Cultural eutrophication –eutrophication caused by humans (9)
    • http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/culturaleutroph.jpg http://www.balticseaportal.net/media/image/orgdc459351e05a.jpg http://salem.rutgers.edu/nre_homeowner/elmer-eutrophication-480.JPG
    • Which nutrients are the ones to blame?
      • Phosphorus (mainly phosphates)
      • Nitrogen (mainly nitrates)
      • These nutrients are usually found in agricultural and urban sources but there are others sources of them
        • Fertilizers
        • Factories
        • River run-off and erosion
        • Municupal sewage water caused by humans
        • Nitrogen fixation
        • (3,12)
      http:// www.permaculture.org.au/images/phosphorus_molecules.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/4/43/20100805213607!NitrogenRencer.png http://www.biology-blog.com/images/blogs/10-2007/fertilizer-15101.gif
    • Algal Blooms
      • Rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system;
      • Algae - large group of organisms (unicellular and multicellular forms) found in waters and marines
      • Caused by enrichment of some nutrients in the ecosystem (eutrophication)
        • Increase in reproduction and growth in the environment
        • More oxygen needed – lack of O2
        • Light is blocked
        • (1,4)
      http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2007/07/04/js05w_algae_wideweb__
    • Problems Caused on Ecosystem
      • Composition of the water changes (more N and P)
      • Algal Blooms 
      • Block of sunlight for those organisms which need it (photosynthetic)
      • With the increasing algal bloom of vegetation, such as phytoplankton ->
        • A lot of species in small area
          • Less space for each organism -> a lot of death organisms
          • This organic matter is food for bacteria which rapidly grow
          • These bacteria use up most of the oxygen needed by other species
          • Lack of O2 which leads to death of a lot of species
      • (4,6,7)
    • More problems
      • Decrease in diversity of species (one species would predominate)
      • Production of toxins which might lead to extinction of species
      • Decreased productivity of organisms living in deep waters
      • (4,6)
    • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg/800px-Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg.png
    • Impact on People
      • Health
        • Ill fish – harm people who eat them
        • Water is dangerous to drink – may cause illnesses
      • Economic
        • No fishing in the area where eutrophication occurs
          • Loss of people to pay to fish in that area
        • Fish in that area are no longer edible – more money spent on other types of food resources
        • A lot of money spent on
          • Cleaning the water where eutrophication occurs
          • Purifying contaminated drinking water
        • Less tourists come to these places – loss of money
        • (13)
    • What can be done in order to prevent it from occurring?
      • Nutrients in fertilizers should be identified
        • Decreasing the amount of N and P in them
        • Limiting the use of fertilizers
      • Waters should be cleaned so that eutrophication would not happen
        • Making barriers which protect the water from phosphorus coming in water from facilities (cleaner technology)
      • Control of animal wastes
      • Industrial practices near waters should be reduced
      • (7,8,11)
    • How to deal with eutrophication after it occurs?
      • Waters should be cleaned
      • Nutrients that reach the water should be limited
      • Planting vegetation near waters in order to slow down erosion
      • (Riparian buffers)
        • They remove nutrients
      • Building of barriers
        • stop nutrients in runoff waters from entering aquatic environments
      • (5, 14)
      http://www.woodriverriparian.ca/images/pic1.jpg
    • The Baltic Sea
      • Sea located in Northern Europe
      • Surrounds Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark;
      • (2)
      http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Baltic_Sea_map.png
    • Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea
      • Eutrophication is caused by high concentration of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus)
        • Algal Blooms
      • Caused by land-based sources
        • Fertilizers
        • Factories
      • (12,15)
    • More about the Baltic Sea
      • Impact
        • Risk of poisoning animals and humans
        • Decreased biodiversity
        • Reduced income from tourists who no longer want to visit the sea
        • Increased availability for growth of harmful organisms
      • (12,15)
    • More about Baltic Sea…
      • Actions taken to stop eutrophication
        • Reduction of nutrients pollution in the sectors of industry
        • Municipal wastewater treatment and agriculture
        • 50% reduction of targets for nutrient emissions and discharges
        • Monitoring the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in fertilizers
      • (10,12)
    • Missisipi River “Dead Zone”
      • It is in North America, Gulf of Mexico
      • Cause - Nutrient enrichment (N and P)
        • They come from farming estates through
          • Fertilizers
          • Soil erosion
          • Animal wastes
          • Sewage
        • Algal Blooms!
        • (11)
      http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Mississippi_watershed_map_1.jpg
    • More about Missisipi River
      • Impact
        • Decreased biodiversity
        • Poisoned water -> can lead to poisoning animals and humans
        • More money spent on purifying drinking water
      • Solution
        • Decreasing the use of fertilizers
        • Controlled animal wastes
        • Careful industrial practices
        • (11)
    • Works Cited
      • “ Algal Bloom.” ScienceDaily . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/‌articles/‌a/‌algal_bloom.htm>. (1)
      • “ Baltic Sea.” Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/‌wiki/‌Baltic_Sea>. (2)
      • “ Causes of Eutrophication.” Causes of Eutrophication . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://lepo.it.da.ut.ee/‌~olli/‌eutr/‌html/‌htmlBook_4.html>. (3)
      • &quot;eutrophication.&quot;  Encyclopædia Britannica . 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 09 Dec. 2010 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/196751/eutrophication >. (4)
      • “ Eutrophication.” ORACLE ThinkQuest . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/‌04oct/‌01590/‌pollution/‌eutrophication.html>. (5)
      • “ Eutrophication.” Water Pollution Guide . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.water- pollution.org.uk/‌eutrophication.html>. (6)
      • &quot;Eutrophication.&quot; Wiki Doc. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Eutrophication>. (7)
      • “ Eutrophication and Health.” Eutrophication and Health . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://ec.europa.eu/‌environment/‌water/‌water-nitrates/‌pdf/‌eutrophication.pdf>. (8)
      • “ Eutrophication - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oligae.” oligae . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.oilgae.com/‌ref/‌glos/‌eutrophication.html>. (9)
      • “ Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.” HELCOM . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://helcom.navigo.fi/‌stc/‌files/‌BSAP/‌FINAL%20Eutrophication.pdf>. (10)
      • “ The Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone.” Microbial Life . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. < http:// serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/index.html >.( 11)
      • Lundberg, Cecilia. “Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.” N.p., n.d. <http://www.mare.su.se/‌dokument/‌Cecilia_Lundberg_abstract.pdf>. Rpt. in Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea . N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. mare.su . Web. 9 Dec. 2010. (12)
      • Muir, Patricia. “Eutrophication.” Eutrophication . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://people.oregonstate.edu/‌~muirp/‌eutrophi.htm>. (13)
      • &quot;RIPARIAN BUFFERS: WHAT ARE THEY and HOW DO THEY WORK?&quot;  Department of Soil Science . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/ publications/BMPs/buffers.html>. (14)
      • “ Third Intertnational Symposium on Research and Management of Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems.” Eutro 2010 . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.eutro2010.dhi.dk/‌EUTRO%202010%20programme.pdf>. (15)