Vitanova kirilov dimitrov 10 5 eutrophication

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Vitanova kirilov dimitrov 10 5 eutrophication

  1. 1. Eutrophication Kirilov, Kristiyan Dimitrov, Georgi Vitanova, Karina Section 10/5
  2. 2. What is Eutrophication? <ul><li>The increase in the amount of organic matter in the ecosystem (usually in aquatic environments) which stimulates plant growth </li></ul><ul><li>Antrophogenic/Cultural eutrophication –eutrophication caused by humans (9) </li></ul>
  3. 3. http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/culturaleutroph.jpg http://www.balticseaportal.net/media/image/orgdc459351e05a.jpg http://salem.rutgers.edu/nre_homeowner/elmer-eutrophication-480.JPG
  4. 4. Which nutrients are the ones to blame? <ul><li>Phosphorus (mainly phosphates) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (mainly nitrates) </li></ul><ul><li>These nutrients are usually found in agricultural and urban sources but there are others sources of them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River run-off and erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municupal sewage water caused by humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3,12) </li></ul></ul>http:// www.permaculture.org.au/images/phosphorus_molecules.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/4/43/20100805213607!NitrogenRencer.png http://www.biology-blog.com/images/blogs/10-2007/fertilizer-15101.gif
  5. 5. Algal Blooms <ul><li>Rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system; </li></ul><ul><li>Algae - large group of organisms (unicellular and multicellular forms) found in waters and marines </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by enrichment of some nutrients in the ecosystem (eutrophication) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in reproduction and growth in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More oxygen needed – lack of O2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light is blocked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1,4) </li></ul></ul>http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2007/07/04/js05w_algae_wideweb__
  6. 6. Problems Caused on Ecosystem <ul><li>Composition of the water changes (more N and P) </li></ul><ul><li>Algal Blooms  </li></ul><ul><li>Block of sunlight for those organisms which need it (photosynthetic) </li></ul><ul><li>With the increasing algal bloom of vegetation, such as phytoplankton -> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of species in small area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less space for each organism -> a lot of death organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This organic matter is food for bacteria which rapidly grow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These bacteria use up most of the oxygen needed by other species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of O2 which leads to death of a lot of species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(4,6,7) </li></ul>
  7. 7. More problems <ul><li>Decrease in diversity of species (one species would predominate) </li></ul><ul><li>Production of toxins which might lead to extinction of species </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased productivity of organisms living in deep waters </li></ul><ul><li>(4,6) </li></ul>
  8. 8. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg/800px-Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg.png
  9. 9. Impact on People <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ill fish – harm people who eat them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is dangerous to drink – may cause illnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No fishing in the area where eutrophication occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of people to pay to fish in that area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish in that area are no longer edible – more money spent on other types of food resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of money spent on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning the water where eutrophication occurs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purifying contaminated drinking water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less tourists come to these places – loss of money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(13) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What can be done in order to prevent it from occurring? <ul><li>Nutrients in fertilizers should be identified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing the amount of N and P in them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting the use of fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waters should be cleaned so that eutrophication would not happen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making barriers which protect the water from phosphorus coming in water from facilities (cleaner technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of animal wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial practices near waters should be reduced </li></ul><ul><li>(7,8,11) </li></ul>
  11. 11. How to deal with eutrophication after it occurs? <ul><li>Waters should be cleaned </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients that reach the water should be limited </li></ul><ul><li>Planting vegetation near waters in order to slow down erosion </li></ul><ul><li>(Riparian buffers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They remove nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building of barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stop nutrients in runoff waters from entering aquatic environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(5, 14) </li></ul>http://www.woodriverriparian.ca/images/pic1.jpg
  12. 12. The Baltic Sea <ul><li>Sea located in Northern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark; </li></ul><ul><li>(2) </li></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Baltic_Sea_map.png
  13. 13. Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea <ul><li>Eutrophication is caused by high concentration of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algal Blooms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caused by land-based sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(12,15) </li></ul>
  14. 14. More about the Baltic Sea <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of poisoning animals and humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced income from tourists who no longer want to visit the sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased availability for growth of harmful organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(12,15) </li></ul>
  15. 15. More about Baltic Sea… <ul><li>Actions taken to stop eutrophication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of nutrients pollution in the sectors of industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal wastewater treatment and agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% reduction of targets for nutrient emissions and discharges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(10,12) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Missisipi River “Dead Zone” <ul><li>It is in North America, Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Cause - Nutrient enrichment (N and P) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They come from farming estates through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algal Blooms! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(11) </li></ul></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Mississippi_watershed_map_1.jpg
  17. 17. More about Missisipi River <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisoned water -> can lead to poisoning animals and humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More money spent on purifying drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing the use of fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled animal wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful industrial practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(11) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Works Cited <ul><li>“ Algal Bloom.” ScienceDaily . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/‌articles/‌a/‌algal_bloom.htm>. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Baltic Sea.” Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/‌wiki/‌Baltic_Sea>. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Causes of Eutrophication.” Causes of Eutrophication . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://lepo.it.da.ut.ee/‌~olli/‌eutr/‌html/‌htmlBook_4.html>. (3) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;eutrophication.&quot;  Encyclopædia Britannica . 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 09 Dec. 2010 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/196751/eutrophication >. (4) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eutrophication.” ORACLE ThinkQuest . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/‌04oct/‌01590/‌pollution/‌eutrophication.html>. (5) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eutrophication.” Water Pollution Guide . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.water- pollution.org.uk/‌eutrophication.html>. (6) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eutrophication.&quot; Wiki Doc. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Eutrophication>. (7) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eutrophication and Health.” Eutrophication and Health . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://ec.europa.eu/‌environment/‌water/‌water-nitrates/‌pdf/‌eutrophication.pdf>. (8) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eutrophication - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oligae.” oligae . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.oilgae.com/‌ref/‌glos/‌eutrophication.html>. (9) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.” HELCOM . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://helcom.navigo.fi/‌stc/‌files/‌BSAP/‌FINAL%20Eutrophication.pdf>. (10) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone.” Microbial Life . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. < http:// serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/index.html >.( 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Lundberg, Cecilia. “Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.” N.p., n.d. <http://www.mare.su.se/‌dokument/‌Cecilia_Lundberg_abstract.pdf>. Rpt. in Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea . N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. mare.su . Web. 9 Dec. 2010. (12) </li></ul><ul><li>Muir, Patricia. “Eutrophication.” Eutrophication . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://people.oregonstate.edu/‌~muirp/‌eutrophi.htm>. (13) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;RIPARIAN BUFFERS: WHAT ARE THEY and HOW DO THEY WORK?&quot;  Department of Soil Science . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/ publications/BMPs/buffers.html>. (14) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Third Intertnational Symposium on Research and Management of Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems.” Eutro 2010 . N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2010. <http://www.eutro2010.dhi.dk/‌EUTRO%202010%20programme.pdf>. (15) </li></ul>

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