Tina ecology dams


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  • Tina ecology dams

    1. 1. <ul><li>Konstantina Stefanova </li></ul><ul><li>Mihaela Kozanova </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Kardjaliev </li></ul><ul><li>10/6 </li></ul>Ecological Impact of Dams and Water Diversions
    2. 2. Dam <ul><li>Definition (1): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a barrier built across a waterway in order to prevent overflow of water; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a water pool that contains this barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose (2): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retains water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores water for irrigation/industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide water for any purpose in case of emergency </li></ul></ul>Fig.1 – Gordon Dam
    3. 3. Effects on Humans - Diseases <ul><li>Spread of diseases (3): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dams create lakes whose slow moving waters attract mosquitoes, snails, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These animals carry diseases (ex.: malaria, Schistosomiasis /snail fever) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infect humans when a direct contact is present </li></ul></ul>Fig.3 Mosquito with malaria biting a person
    4. 4. Effects on Humans - Resettlement <ul><li>Often floods from dams have the following impacts over a population living near-by (5): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- human deaths (+ diseases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- damage of property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- destruction of crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- ruined infrastructure, health care facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution: enforced resettlement (3): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Individuals have to leave their homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason: possible periodic flooding in present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences (5) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Loss of property – houses (+ devices like stove, refrigerator, TV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Loss of livelihood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Ruined business + social affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Continuing stress and depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- &quot;Dam related relocation affects society in three ways: an economic disaster, human trauma, and social catastrophe ” Dr. Michael Cernea (3) </li></ul></ul>Fig.2
    5. 5. Effect on Water Quality (4) <ul><li>Sediments and other toxins are </li></ul><ul><li>collected along the dams, and their </li></ul><ul><li>concentration is not controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal starification occurs due </li></ul><ul><li>to the inability of the water to be mixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep water – cold and poor O2 circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface water – hotter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water carrying toxins and poor oxygenation can cause serious problems to the species downstream  effect on the aquatic life </li></ul>Fig. 7 - Hartebeespoort Dam, South Africa
    6. 6. Impact on Downstream Areas <ul><li>Sediment (3): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>material carried by water from banks, stream beds to the downstream areas. It carries nutrients that serve as food for aquatic animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the presence of a dam (4): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediment’s flow within the river is disconnected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The material accumulates behind the dam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water bed below the dam – rocky with a lack of sediment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation of sediment in the up + down layers of the dam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results (3,4): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R educed water-storage capacity because part of the storage space has been taken by the sediment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to lack of sediment on downstream areas water plants can no longer grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals/fish on the downstream areas can’t obtain the nutrients they need since there are no sediment and plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinctions of species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AE771AdF5dM </li></ul>
    7. 7. Impact on Fish (4) <ul><li>Makes migration impossible for some water </li></ul><ul><li>species </li></ul><ul><li> Some fishes need to swim from freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>to saltwater after spawning (salmon) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the diversity of the particular species, </li></ul><ul><li>as they are not able to pass through the dams </li></ul><ul><li>In the 20 th century dams were created in such a </li></ul><ul><li>way to allow the passage of fish (*dam fish ladder)  many of them can not do it and die in the machinery of the dam  rapid decrease in the number and diversity of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Migration is not possible, which makes it easier for predators to attack very sensitive fish </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on the biological systems of many fishes that cannot pass through and are exposed to high level of predation </li></ul>Fig. 6
    8. 8. Aral Sea (6) <ul><li>Translation: “Sea of Islands” </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Asian continent; between Kazakhstan in the north and Uzbekistan in the south </li></ul><ul><li>In the past: used to be the fourth largest lake in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Its initial area of 68 000 square km has decreased with 90% since 1960s and now is split into 3 lakes – North Aral Sea, Eastern and Western South Aral Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: in 1918, the government of the Soviet Union decided to use the two rivers that fed the Aral Sea (Amy Darya and Syr Darya) for irrigation of the nearby desert. </li></ul>Fig. 4
    9. 9. Aral Sea (6) <ul><li>Goal: to grow rice, melons, cereals and cotton (for export), “and make the transition to socialism more certain” (Lenin) </li></ul><ul><li>Dams + irrigation systems – built across both of the rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes/ Impact : </li></ul><ul><li>- Drop of water level in the Aral Sea </li></ul><ul><li>- Increased salt concentration </li></ul><ul><li>- The resulting hostile environment led to the extinction of all plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>- The lands left by the sea had contained salt + chemical toxins </li></ul><ul><li> health problems for people living in that area </li></ul><ul><li>- Successful fishing industry – ruined </li></ul>Fig. 5
    10. 10. Solutions (6) <ul><li>Proposed environmental solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernizing the canals used for irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting desalination plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposing taxes on the farmers using the water from the 2 rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce cotton with less water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build dams to fill the Aral Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In January 1994, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan signed a contact with which they agreed to pay 1% of their budgets for sea recovering (fact!) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Three Gorges Dam (7) <ul><li>On Yangtze River, near the town Sandoupring in the Hubei province of China </li></ul><ul><li>The largest hydroelectric power dam and the most popular in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Its construction – a controversial issue in China </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose – to regulate flooding along the Yangtze river in the summer and increasing the electrical production in China </li></ul><ul><li>China planning to build a series of dams in the Jinisha River in order to prevent the sedimentation before reaching to the Three Gorges Dam </li></ul>fig. 8
    12. 12. Three Gorges Dam – Impacts (7) <ul><li>Effect on biodiversity – extinction of some species (e.g. Yangtze river dolphin) </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution in the river annually, which increases because there is no water flushing due to the dam </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding of some archeological and historical relics in the territories along the river </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of sedimentation in the upper regions due to erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Potential increase in the ground acceleration to overcome the strength of the upstream water  earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Possible landslides due to erosion in reservoir because of the rising water </li></ul>fig.9
    13. 13. Work Cited <ul><li>&quot;Dam - Definition of Dam by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.&quot; Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Dam>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Dam Functions.&quot; Stanford.edu . Stanford University. Web. 05 June 2010. <http://npdp.stanford.edu/damfunc.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Environmental Impacts of Dams.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impacts_of_dams#cite_note-5>. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, S. E. &quot;Why Are Dams Potentially Harmful to Fish?&quot; WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions . 12 Apr. 2010. Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.wisegeek.com/why-are-dams-potentially-harmful-to-fish.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;APFM - Associated Programme on Flood Management.&quot; APFM Associated Programme on Flood Management . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.apfm.info/helpdesk/q_and_a/social_05.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Aral Sea.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aral_Sea>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Three Gorges Dam.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Web. 06 June 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam>. </li></ul><ul><li>Figures </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gordon_Dam.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.smashboxstudios.com/yello/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/philippines-flood-cp-w73953.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://kkpjayapura.or.id/foto/cdc_malaria_mosquito_070607_ssh.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.geography.hunter.cuny.edu/~tbw/wc.notes/15.climates.veg/climate/aral.sea.map.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aral_Sea_1989-2008.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bonneville_Ladder.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://willndre.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Green.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.mtholyoke.edu/~lpohara/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dreischluchtendamm_hauptwall_2006.jpg </li></ul>