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Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
Tina ecology dams
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Tina ecology dams

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  • This presentation demonstrates the new capabilities of PowerPoint and it is best viewed in Slide Show. These slides are designed to give you great ideas for the presentations you’ll create in PowerPoint 2010! For more sample templates, click the File tab, and then on the New tab, click Sample Templates.
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    • 1.
      • Konstantina Stefanova
      • Mihaela Kozanova
      • Robert Kardjaliev
      • 10/6
      Ecological Impact of Dams and Water Diversions
    • 2. Dam
      • Definition (1):
        • a barrier built across a waterway in order to prevent overflow of water;
        • a water pool that contains this barrier
      • Purpose (2):
        • Retains water
        • Generates electricity
        • Stores water for irrigation/industry
        • Contains drinking water
        • Navigation
        • Recreation
        • Provide water for any purpose in case of emergency
      Fig.1 – Gordon Dam
    • 3. Effects on Humans - Diseases
      • Spread of diseases (3):
        • Dams create lakes whose slow moving waters attract mosquitoes, snails, etc.
        • These animals carry diseases (ex.: malaria, Schistosomiasis /snail fever)
        • Infect humans when a direct contact is present
      Fig.3 Mosquito with malaria biting a person
    • 4. Effects on Humans - Resettlement
      • Often floods from dams have the following impacts over a population living near-by (5):
        • - human deaths (+ diseases)
        • - damage of property
        • - destruction of crops
        • - ruined infrastructure, health care facilities
      • Solution: enforced resettlement (3):
        • - Individuals have to leave their homes
        • Reason: possible periodic flooding in present
        • and future
      • Consequences (5) :
        • - Loss of property – houses (+ devices like stove, refrigerator, TV)
        • - Loss of livelihood
        • - Ruined business + social affairs
        • - Continuing stress and depression
        • - "Dam related relocation affects society in three ways: an economic disaster, human trauma, and social catastrophe ” Dr. Michael Cernea (3)
      Fig.2
    • 5. Effect on Water Quality (4)
      • Sediments and other toxins are
      • collected along the dams, and their
      • concentration is not controlled
      • Thermal starification occurs due
      • to the inability of the water to be mixed
        • Deep water – cold and poor O2 circulation
        • Surface water – hotter
      • Water carrying toxins and poor oxygenation can cause serious problems to the species downstream  effect on the aquatic life
      Fig. 7 - Hartebeespoort Dam, South Africa
    • 6. Impact on Downstream Areas
      • Sediment (3):
        • material carried by water from banks, stream beds to the downstream areas. It carries nutrients that serve as food for aquatic animals
      • In the presence of a dam (4):
        • Sediment’s flow within the river is disconnected
        • The material accumulates behind the dam
        • Water bed below the dam – rocky with a lack of sediment
        • Accumulation of sediment in the up + down layers of the dam
      • Results (3,4):
        • R educed water-storage capacity because part of the storage space has been taken by the sediment
        • Due to lack of sediment on downstream areas water plants can no longer grow
        • Animals/fish on the downstream areas can’t obtain the nutrients they need since there are no sediment and plants
        • Extinctions of species
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AE771AdF5dM
    • 7. Impact on Fish (4)
      • Makes migration impossible for some water
      • species
      •  Some fishes need to swim from freshwater
      • to saltwater after spawning (salmon)
      • Reduces the diversity of the particular species,
      • as they are not able to pass through the dams
      • In the 20 th century dams were created in such a
      • way to allow the passage of fish (*dam fish ladder)  many of them can not do it and die in the machinery of the dam  rapid decrease in the number and diversity of fish
      • Migration is not possible, which makes it easier for predators to attack very sensitive fish
      • Effect on the biological systems of many fishes that cannot pass through and are exposed to high level of predation
      Fig. 6
    • 8. Aral Sea (6)
      • Translation: “Sea of Islands”
      • Location: Asian continent; between Kazakhstan in the north and Uzbekistan in the south
      • In the past: used to be the fourth largest lake in the world
      • Its initial area of 68 000 square km has decreased with 90% since 1960s and now is split into 3 lakes – North Aral Sea, Eastern and Western South Aral Sea
      • Cause: in 1918, the government of the Soviet Union decided to use the two rivers that fed the Aral Sea (Amy Darya and Syr Darya) for irrigation of the nearby desert.
      Fig. 4
    • 9. Aral Sea (6)
      • Goal: to grow rice, melons, cereals and cotton (for export), “and make the transition to socialism more certain” (Lenin)
      • Dams + irrigation systems – built across both of the rivers
      • Outcomes/ Impact :
      • - Drop of water level in the Aral Sea
      • - Increased salt concentration
      • - The resulting hostile environment led to the extinction of all plants and animals
      • - The lands left by the sea had contained salt + chemical toxins
      •  health problems for people living in that area
      • - Successful fishing industry – ruined
      Fig. 5
    • 10. Solutions (6)
      • Proposed environmental solutions:
        • Modernizing the canals used for irrigation
        • Planting desalination plants
        • Exposing taxes on the farmers using the water from the 2 rivers
        • Produce cotton with less water
        • Build dams to fill the Aral Sea
        • In January 1994, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan signed a contact with which they agreed to pay 1% of their budgets for sea recovering (fact!)
    • 11. Three Gorges Dam (7)
      • On Yangtze River, near the town Sandoupring in the Hubei province of China
      • The largest hydroelectric power dam and the most popular in the world
      • Its construction – a controversial issue in China
      • Purpose – to regulate flooding along the Yangtze river in the summer and increasing the electrical production in China
      • China planning to build a series of dams in the Jinisha River in order to prevent the sedimentation before reaching to the Three Gorges Dam
      fig. 8
    • 12. Three Gorges Dam – Impacts (7)
      • Effect on biodiversity – extinction of some species (e.g. Yangtze river dolphin)
      • Pollution in the river annually, which increases because there is no water flushing due to the dam
      • Flooding of some archeological and historical relics in the territories along the river
      • High levels of sedimentation in the upper regions due to erosion
      • Potential increase in the ground acceleration to overcome the strength of the upstream water  earthquakes
      • Possible landslides due to erosion in reservoir because of the rising water
      fig.9
    • 13. Work Cited
      • &quot;Dam - Definition of Dam by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.&quot; Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Dam>.
      • &quot;Dam Functions.&quot; Stanford.edu . Stanford University. Web. 05 June 2010. <http://npdp.stanford.edu/damfunc.html>.
      • &quot;Environmental Impacts of Dams.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impacts_of_dams#cite_note-5>.
      • Smith, S. E. &quot;Why Are Dams Potentially Harmful to Fish?&quot; WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions . 12 Apr. 2010. Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.wisegeek.com/why-are-dams-potentially-harmful-to-fish.htm>.
      • &quot;APFM - Associated Programme on Flood Management.&quot; APFM Associated Programme on Flood Management . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.apfm.info/helpdesk/q_and_a/social_05.htm>.
      • &quot;Aral Sea.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aral_Sea>.
      • &quot;Three Gorges Dam.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Web. 06 June 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam>.
      • Figures
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gordon_Dam.jpg
      • http://www.smashboxstudios.com/yello/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/philippines-flood-cp-w73953.jpg
      • http://kkpjayapura.or.id/foto/cdc_malaria_mosquito_070607_ssh.jpg
      • http://www.geography.hunter.cuny.edu/~tbw/wc.notes/15.climates.veg/climate/aral.sea.map.jpg
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aral_Sea_1989-2008.jpg
      • http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bonneville_Ladder.jpg
      • http://willndre.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Green.jpg
      • http:// www.mtholyoke.edu/~lpohara/index.htm
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dreischluchtendamm_hauptwall_2006.jpg

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