Sponges and cnidarians 10 4 iordan delyan radoslav


Published on

1 Comment
1 Like
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sponges and cnidarians 10 4 iordan delyan radoslav

  1. 1. Delyan Karagerov Iordan Milenkov Radoslav Kokinov 10/4
  2. 2. What are Cnidarians and Sponges <ul><li>Cnidarians are a group of aquatic animals that include hydras, corals, jellyfish and sea anemones (1) . </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges are the simplest multi-cellular animals. They come in a variety of colors, shapes and structures (3) . Sponges don’t have internal organs and lack true tissues. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Do they have any symmetry? <ul><li>Cnidarians have radial </li></ul><ul><li> symmetry (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges are </li></ul><ul><li>asymmetrical (4) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where do they belong in the Evolutionary Tree? <ul><li>Cnidarians </li></ul><ul><li>Domain: Eukaryota </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges </li></ul><ul><li>Domain: Eukaryota </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Porifera </li></ul>
  5. 5. Relationships and ancestry <ul><li>Nowdays, scientists think that cnidarians are very closely related to calcareous sponges (5) . </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges appeared about 600 mya and are the oldest animal phylum extant today (5) </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidrians appeared about 580 mya. It is believed that the movement of all animals has started with cnidarians . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cnidarians <ul><li>Gastrovascular Cavity – Internal sack for digestion; it has only one opening (called “mouth”) through which pass both food and waste; round the mouth there are tenticles </li></ul><ul><li>3 layers: Epidermis; Mesoglea; Gastrodermis; </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis: outer layer; includes cells that provide movement, cells that create eggs and sperm, and some unique for the cnidarians cells (cnidocytes); nematocysts(inject toxins to other organisms)(12); (13) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sponges <ul><li>No organs or body systems (they are the simplest multicellular animals) </li></ul><ul><li>The digestion of food happens in the cells only </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t move (filter feeders) </li></ul><ul><li>Can reproduce both sexually and asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Their skeleton is composed of two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Soft part – sponging </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Part – Spicules(13) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Filter-feeders /very efficient/ (7) </li></ul><ul><li>Have large inside volume; cells that have a sticky collar and flagella / Choanocytes / on the walls (7) </li></ul><ul><li>The flagella force water in and out of the sponges’ inside volume, bringing in food and oxygen and excreting waste. (7) </li></ul><ul><li>The food particles get caught by the collar cells and are transported within the sponge by Amebocyte cells (7) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Most of the Sponges are hermaphroditic </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female roles are obtained >>> </li></ul><ul><li>May switch next time (6) </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘male’ sponges releases sperm/gametes/ >> ‘female’ sponge fertilized internally </li></ul><ul><li>>> larvae is produced. (7) </li></ul><ul><li>The larvae floats in the water >> </li></ul><ul><li>settles down and starts growing. (7) </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction (7) -by </li></ul><ul><li>internal/external budding or </li></ul><ul><li>a piece of the sponge may break off </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Sponges don’t move (7) </li></ul><ul><li>They settle in a place, start growing and are anchored/stuck to a rock or etc. (7) </li></ul><ul><li>Encrusting sponges- </li></ul><ul><li>cover rocks like moss does (6) </li></ul><ul><li>Free-standing sponges- </li></ul><ul><li>grow bid in size; large </li></ul><ul><li>inner volume; look like </li></ul><ul><li>big funnels/chimneys (6) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Most are carnivorous /eat crustaceans ,etc./ (8) </li></ul><ul><li>Corals – filter water- absorb dissolved nutrients OR depend on endosymbiosis /e.g. algae/ </li></ul><ul><li>Medusas – uses tentacles/+ nematocyts / + oral arms to catch the pray and paralyze it. Bring it to the mouth / gastro vascular cavity / where enzymes are secreted and break down the food. Flagella mix the enzymes and food until it’s fully digested. Waste excreted (8) </li></ul><ul><li>Sea anemones/hydras – Same but don’t catch - wait for pray to pass by. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion or mesoglea cells (9) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Sexually: </li></ul><ul><li>1.A small larva is produced / planula / (8) </li></ul><ul><li>2.it settles to the seafloor -develops into a polyp (8) </li></ul><ul><li>3.the polyp divides into a colony (8) </li></ul><ul><li>– medusas are ‘shed off’ and mature </li></ul><ul><li>– corals and sea anemones </li></ul><ul><li>stay as polyps (8) </li></ul><ul><li>Asexually : (8) </li></ul><ul><li>By budding or splitting down </li></ul><ul><li> the middle </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Corals - stay anchored to a spot without moving (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Medusas –swim freely or get dragged by currents or- ‘jet propulsion’: force water out their inside cavity by contracting muscles (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydras and sea anemones - </li></ul><ul><li>mostly stay put and anchored </li></ul><ul><li>but can detach and glide </li></ul><ul><li>slowly using their tentacles / </li></ul><ul><li>if the conditions require it/ (9) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hydra Vulgaris <ul><li>Around 12mm in size </li></ul><ul><li>Live in most unpolluted sources of fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Food: They eat small aquatic invertebrates like Daphnia and Cyclops </li></ul><ul><li>When eating Hydra stretches its body and tentacles and uses the tentacles to catch the prey, and to enclose it into its body cavity. (Nematocysts very important) </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: When attacked hydras most often retracts its tentacles and body column to small sphere. (no matter where the attack came from); Although hydras usually don’t move (sessile) they do occasionally move a little… especially when hunting: Hydra vulgaris releases its grip (applied by its base called foot) of the object that it had been clung to, and lets the water flow move it. (16) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Life cycle: When conditions are good reproduce asexually (producing buds, that grow and break away from its body); In winter – they reproduce sexually </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually: They form miniature ovary or testes in the body wall; the testes release free-swimming gametes into water, and they fertilize the eggs of the ovary of another individual; </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/Grzimek_inverts/Hydrozoa/Hydra_vulgaris_polyp.jpg/medium.jpg </li></ul>
  17. 17. Scleractina (Stone Corals) <ul><li>Most are between 1 and 3 millimeters </li></ul><ul><li>Can be found in clear, shallow tropical waters; it is the main creator of the coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on many small organisms such as zooplankton and even some really small fish or vertebras. </li></ul><ul><li>Like all Cnidarians, it uses the nematocysts in the tentacles to immobilize or kill its prey(if it is bigger); then the tentacles bring the prey in to the body cavity </li></ul><ul><li>However, like many other planktons it may undergo a process called zooxanthellae in order to obtain food; it basically uses some elements of photosynthesis on a cellular level. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like all other corals, it doesn’t move.(16) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reproduction <ul><li>Sexual </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 methods of sexual reproduction in corals that differ in whether or not the female gamete is released: </li></ul><ul><li>About 75% of the cases corals form organism called Broadcasters, majority of which are reef-building. </li></ul><ul><li>In the other 25% of the cases they form brooders that are not reef-building. In both cases the result is a primary polyp. Then it uses asexual reproduction to form a mature colony.(16) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>http://www.hausriff.ch/media/DIR_141851/ima4.jpg </li></ul>
  20. 20. Gelliodes Fibrosa <ul><li>Aka: Gray encrusting sponge </li></ul><ul><li>Varies in size between 15mm and 180mm </li></ul><ul><li>Live in shallow waters around the Hawaiian islands </li></ul><ul><li>Food: filter water and the microscopic food particles in the water are captured by specialized collar cells. The particles then are digested intracellular. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduces both sexually and asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Can live up to 200 years or more. </li></ul><ul><li>Sessile animal (Don’t move; although some sponges move when they are really young)(15) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Some jellyfish are eaten in orient cousin (10) </li></ul><ul><li>Many are harmless </li></ul><ul><li>BUT some jellyfish and corals are </li></ul><ul><li>extremely toxic to humans- lethal </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sea wasp&quot; Chironex fleckeri (10) </li></ul><ul><li>Coral riffs create the best beaches (10) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fun Fact <ul><li>The Great Barrier reef is the biggest single structure made by living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>The only living thing on Earth that can be seen from outer space. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 25 million years old </li></ul><ul><li>Built by billions of coral polyps. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>http://cdn.sheknows.com/articles/great%20barrier%20reef%20google%201%281%29.jpg </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>http:// www.animalport.com/img/Cnidarians.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.brandoncole.com/profile%20photos/INVERTEBRATES/cnidarians/ha834-purple_jellyfish_brandon_cole.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Nemve1/Nematostellapolyp.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://batiburrillo.redliberal.com/imagenes/El%20caso%20de%20las%20Medusas.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.afrmc.org/images/jellyfish.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/Avispa_marina.jpg/337px-Avispa_marina.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.arcodiv.org/watercolumn/cnidarian/images/Chrysaora_melanaster_400x300.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lvp.com/data/mso2003/SCUBA%20SPONGES.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>1. &quot;Cnidaria.&quot; About.com: Animals/Wildlife . New York Times Company. Web. <http://animals.about.com/cs/cnidaria/g/cnidaria.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>2. &quot;Radial Symmetry.&quot; About.com: Animals/Wildlife . New York Times Company. Web. <http://animals.about.com/od/cnidarians/ss/cnidarians_2.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>3. &quot;Sponges - Porifera.&quot; About.com: Animals/Wildlife . New York Times Company. Web. <http://animals.about.com/od/sponge1/p/porifera.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>4. &quot;All About Sponges.&quot; Tree of Life Web Project . Tree of Life. Web. <http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=3431>. </li></ul><ul><li>5. &quot;Cnidaria.&quot; Wikipedia . Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Web. </li></ul><ul><li><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria>. </li></ul><ul><li>6. &quot;Sponges&quot;. 2002 Missouri Botanical Garden. 30.03.2010 <http://www.mbgnet.net/salt/coral/animals/sponges.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Bird, Jonathan. &quot;SPONGES: They are Nothing Like Sponge Bob! &quot;. Oceanic Research Group. 30.03.2010 <http://www.oceanicresearch.org/education/wonders/sponges.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Morris, Matthew . &quot;Phylum Cnidaria&quot;. AAA Matilda Canada . 30.03.2010 <http://www.angelfire.com/mo2/animals1/phylum/jellyfish.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Klappenbach, Laura . &quot;Cnidarian Characteristics&quot;. About.com. 30.03.2010 <http://animals.about.com/od/cnidarians/ss/cnidarians.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Klappenbach, Laura . &quot;Interaction with humans&quot;. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 30.03.2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria#Interaction_with_humans>. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Klappenbach, Laura. &quot;Characteristics of cnidarians&quot;. 29.03.10 <http://animals.about.com/od/cnidarians/ss/cnidarians.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>13. &quot;Sponges&Cnidarians&quot;. 29.03.10 <http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/notes-sponges_cnidarians.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>14. &quot;Coral Reef Fact&quot;. 29.03.10 <http://www.barrierreefaustralia.com/the-great-barrier-reef/coralfacts.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>15. &quot;Gelliodes fibrosa&quot;. 29.03.10 <http://www2.bishopmuseum.org/HBS/invertguide/species/gelliodes_fibrosa.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>16. “Cnidarians”.29.03.10 www.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>17.”Sponges”.29.03.10.<www.wikipedia.org> </li></ul>