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Overfishing karina nina_ivoslav_10-7[1]

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  • 1. Over fishing Karina Atanasova Nina Ilieva Ivoslav Ganchev 10/7
  • 2. The Problem
    • Catching too many fish which leads to extinction of their population in certain areas (1)
    • The rate of catching fish is higher than the rate at which fish reproduce (2)
    • Current levels of fishing
    • It is unsustainable
    • The damage – considered even greater than that of pollution (2)
    • Causes: need for fish; unsafe fishing methods
    • 1950-1994 increased with 400% (2)
    • 1997-1998 – 93 million tons fish caught
    • Recently – reduction observed (climate changes)
  • 3. “ Fishing Down the Food Chain”
    • Aiming for smaller species that would normally not be used with a commercial purpose, called “small-pelagic fish” (3)
    • Habitat – near the surface; great significance (3)
    • Food chains are destroyed
    • Only medium fish and plankton are alive
    • WHY?
      • Big fish are caught= not eating medium fish
      • Medium fish stay alive
      • Medium fish eat small fish
      • No small fish
      • Nothing eats the plankton
      • (3)
  • 4. Bycatch
    • The bycatch – catching unwanted species while aiming for another (1)
      • remains unused; sometimes returned (called “discard”)
      • dangerous; bycatch may die after returning to the water
      • NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) call it “the problem of the 1990s” (9)
    • Many fishing methods involve bycatch which makes them damaging
    • Fish dies -> Consequences for the ecosystem? Diversity?
  • 5.
    • „ The big fish, the bill fish, the groupers, the big things will be gone. It is happening now. If things go unchecked, we'll have a sea full of little horrible things that nobody wants to eat. We might end up with a marine junkyard dominated by plankton.” – Dr. Daniel Pauly, Professor and Director of the University of British Columbia's Fisheries Centre (8)
  • 6. Damaging Methods of Fishing
    • Bottom-trawling
    • Throwing a modified net in the sea (that weights more than a ton)
    • Killing many marine species
    • Extremely destructive (5)
    • The greatest bycatch (damaged in the net) (9)
    • Measures: it is banned in certain areas in the world like the South Pacific (11)
    • Gillnetting
    • Putting a net (invisible to fish) that captures fish (9)
    • Mainly used for salmon, cod, sardine (4)
    • Often damages other unwanted fish/marine species (4)
    • Northeast
    • Bycatch – large fish (ex. sharks) (4, 9)
  • 7. “ Safe” Methods of Fishing
    • Harpooning (4)
      • the species can be identified before being killed
      • Used for capturing large fish (ex. swordfish, bluefin tuna)
      • Prevents bycatch – fish can be released easily without being damaged
    • Trolling (hook and line) (4)
      • No damage to the fish
      • fish may be released after identification if it is unwanted
      • Used for salmon, albacore tuna, etc.
  • 8. Other Measures
    • No-take zones
    • Better for the fish (environment)
      • Fish are protected form overfishing
      • The fish increase in size
      • The variety of the species increases
      • The food chain is proper, the ecosystem is restored
      • Example: England- lobsters have increased 6-7 times for 5 years (10)
    • Better for the industry
      • As the fish grow in size there are more fish to sell
      • The profits are more
  • 9. Overall Impact
    • Many fish and marine animals ha ve been extinct and would continue to va nish
    • The ecosystems are damaged
    • Fish decrease in size and number
    • The fish industry suffers from the bad effects on the fish
    • Unemployment
  • 10. Cod in Newfoundland (Canada)
    • Where: Newfoundland (Canada)
    • What: Cod
    • The Problem: decrease in cod population as well as on the fishing industry
      • Impact on the environment: cod almost extinct
      • The industry: unemployment; no fishing industry (7)
    • Measures taken: In 2003 fishing cod was banned in the area
  • 11. Bluefin Tuna in the Mediterranean
    • Where: Mediterranean
    • What: Bluefin Tuna
    • The Problem: the problem with overfishing there has been existing for long time
      • Impact on the environment: number of tuna has dramatically decreased
      • The industry: industrial fishing – mainly responsible for the problem
    • Measures taken: there are plans for the fishing to be banned there during the season when tuna reproduces (6)
  • 12. Works Cited
    • 1. Koster, Pepijn. &quot;Overfishing - A Global Disaster&quot;. Overfishing . 2007. Web. 8 June 2010 <http://overfishing.org/pages/what_is_overfishing.php>.
    • 2. &quot;Overfishing&quot;. See the Sea . Web. 8 June 2010 <http://see-the-sea.org/topics/commerce/overfishing.htm>.
    • 3. &quot;FISHING DOWN THE FOOD CHAIN&quot;. Green Peace . Web. 8 June 2010 <http://archive.greenpeace.org/comms/fish/part3.html>.
    • 4. &quot;Fishing Methods&quot;. Monterey Bay Aquarium . Web. 8 June 2010 <http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/sfw_gear.aspx>.
    • 5. &quot;Bottom Trawling: Overview&quot;. Oceana . Web. 8 June 2010 <http://na.oceana.org/en/our-work/promote-responsible-fishing/bottom-trawling/overview>.
    • 6. &quot;Soon no bluefin tuna to be fished in the Mediterranean&quot;. WWF . 11 Sept 2006. Web. 8 June 2010 <http://www.wwf.org.au/news/soon-no-bluefin-tuna-to-be-fished-in-the-mediterranean/>.
    • 7. &quot;Cod's warning from Newfoundland&quot;. BBC News . 16 Dec 2002. Web. 8 June 2010 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2580733.stm>.
    • 8. Koster, Pepijn. &quot;Overfishing - A Global Disaster&quot;. Overfishing . 2007. Web. 15 June 2010 <http://overfishing.org/pages/why_is_overfishing_a_problem.php>
    • 9. Castro, Kathleen, Williams. “Bycatch”. Rhode Island Sea Grant . 2003. Web. 15 June 2010 < http://seagrant.gso.uri.edu/factsheets/Bycatch.html>
    • 10 . &quot;Marine No-take Zones Are Succeeding beyond Expectations.&quot; Conservation and Environmental Science News . Web. 15 June 2010. <http://news.mongabay.com/2008/0716-hance_fishing.html>.
    • 11 . &quot;Visible from Space Bottom Trawling Impacts.&quot; EurekAlert! - Science News . Web. 06 June 2010. <http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/s-bti021508.php>.
    • http://privatelibrary.typepad.com/.a/6a01156f7ea6f7970b0120a566f154970c-800wi
    • http://www.oceanconservancy.org/images/content/pagebuilder/23588.jpg
    • http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_4CTvIprhy6M/SxWbINCA1JI/AAAAAAAAAMU/tuRAVAyOsRU/s1600/ltompzones.gif
    • http://moldychum.typepad.com/moldy_chum/images/2008/08/11/gillnet_damage.jpg
    • http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/image_full/australia/admin/image-library2/before-and-after-view-of-botto.jpg
    • http://www.buyecofriendlyproducts.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/Seafood-farming.jpg
    • http://photos.mongabay.com/08/0108_Overfishing.jpg
    • http://endoftheline.com/files/10021232140490fish-on-slab-550.jpg
    • http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/images/gear/harpooning4.jpg