Overfishing by yuliya_miryana_bedros


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Overfishing by yuliya_miryana_bedros

  1. 1. Overfishing By Bedros, Yuliya, Miryana 10/8
  2. 2. History of Overfishing <ul><li>Earliest overfishing: in the early 1800s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blubber for lamp oil - decline in the whale population. (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid 20th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>international efforts to increase the availability and affordability of protein-rich foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>led to efforts to increase fishing capacity (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quadrupled since then (7) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Level of Global Fish Catch <ul><li>Total of more than 120 million tons (19) </li></ul><ul><li>Total consumption of fish: 110 million tons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food fish consumption: 80 million tons (19) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industrial products (fish oil): 30 million tons (20) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fish catch is sustainable </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ Fishing down the food chain” <ul><li>Overfishing is destroying a food chain system </li></ul><ul><li>No big fish because of overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>Many medium fish because nothing eats them </li></ul><ul><li>No small fish, all eaten by the many medium fish </li></ul><ul><li>Many plankton and algae because there are no small fish to eat them </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of slime will be produced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more dead zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>red tides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>jellyfish who die and sink to the bottom of the ocean and mix with the dissolved oxygen while they rot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen-depleted waters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nothing can live there except bacteria (the simplest organism) (21) </li></ul>
  5. 5. By-Catch <ul><li>The incidental catch of non-target animals during commercial fishing operations (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: sea turtles, seabirds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The catch of target animals that are too small and discarded (1) </li></ul><ul><li>A leading factor of the decline of population of marine animals (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico (1) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up to 20 million tons a year (6) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Damaging Methods of Fishing <ul><li>Trawls and dredges – Net reaching the bottom with metal mesh to it dragging the sea floor and damaging it. (16) </li></ul><ul><li>Gillnetting- Large nets used to catch a lot of fish. Many times this method results in the killing of sea turtles and other sea creatures. (16) </li></ul><ul><li>Explosives- Dynamite or home made bombs cause shock and kill fish. This destroys many other species and the physical environment. (17) </li></ul><ul><li>Video: http :// www . montereybayaquarium . org / cr / cr_seafoodwatch / sfw_gear . aspx </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bottom Trawling <ul><li>Bottom trawls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a type of fishing gear, powered by a motor, which consists of a very big and heavy net, dragged on the seafloor (8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish for shrimp and finfishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some catch 20 pounds of by-catch (9) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global impact of trawling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most destructive human activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden until recently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy coral, sponge, fish, etc. populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mud clouds (9) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some precautions taken? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2005, the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean banned trawling below 1,000 meter depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S.A. closed deep-sea areas of Alaska for trawling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2006 the UN General Assembly began discussing a moratorium to ban trawling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Pacific nations banned all trawling in an area that amounts for 14% of the Earth (9) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. No-Take Zones <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reserve” or “fully-protected area” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An area that is completely (or seasonally) free of all (extractive or non-extractive) human uses that contribute impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S ome exceptions are permitted for scientific/research activities. (4) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect populations of targeted fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent overfishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase species diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also benefit outside areas (3) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Impact of Aquaculture <ul><li>Disappearing predators up to 90% because people love to eat them. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Tuna, Swordfish and Marlin(18) </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse in certain areas of cod industry because of lacking fishes that have been damaged by overfishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Cod fishery off </li></ul><ul><li>Newfoundland, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>causing the loss of </li></ul><ul><li>jobs for 40 000. (18) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bluefin Tuna <ul><li>Bluefin tuna facts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic tuna is amongst the biggest (up to 3m) and fastest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm-blooded for cold waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T ens of thousands of dollars per one fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Atlantic, Mediterranean, Black Sea (10) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fishing for tuna: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sharp Cup in Nova Scotia: 1,760 fish in 1949 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giant tuna trophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained popularity with Japanese specialty market in 1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1960: 97% decline (10) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecology and preservation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean: EU veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict measurements to prevent illegal fishing (10) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Cod <ul><li>Cod Facts (15) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, smooth scales; heavy body; colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>range from gray and green to brown,even red. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lives in the ocean’s bottom layers in cold waters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2000 year- Newfoundland, Canada there was 97% decrease in number of cods since the population in 1990 (15) </li></ul><ul><li>April 24th 2003: ban on cod fishing in order to save the remaining of the population (15) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Works Cited <ul><li>1. “GulfBase - Overfishing and Bycatch.&quot; GulfBase - Resource Database for Gulf of Mexico Research . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.gulfbase.org/issue/view.php?iid=oab>. </li></ul><ul><li>2. &quot;Marine Fish Catch Statistics - Countries Compared - NationMaster.&quot; NationMaster - World Statistics, Country Comparisons . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/env_mar_fis_cat-environment-marine-fish-catch>. </li></ul><ul><li>3. &quot;Marine No-take Zone Rapidly Benefits Endangered Penguin — Biology Letters.&quot; Biology Letters . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/02/04/rsbl.2009.0913.abstract>. </li></ul><ul><li>4. &quot;No-take Zone.&quot; NMFS-RTR Program @ VT . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.nmfs.vt.edu/case_studies/mpa/glossary.php#glossn>. </li></ul><ul><li>5. “Overfishing -- National Geographic.&quot; The Ocean -- National Geographic . Web. 5 June 2010. <http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/critical-issues-overfishing/>. </li></ul><ul><li>6. &quot;Ocean Facts.&quot; Save the Sea / Committed to save the Sea and Protect Our Environment . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.savethesea.org/STS ocean_facts.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Owen, James. &quot;Overfishing Is Emptying World's Rivers, Lakes, Experts Warn.&quot; Daily Nature and Science News and Headlines | National Geographic News . 01 Dec. 2005. Web. 05 June 2010. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/12/1201_051201_overfishing.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>8. &quot;What Is a Bottom Trawl?&quot; Www.mcbi.org . Web. 6 June 2010. <http://www.mcbi.org/what/what_pdfs/What_%20is_a_Bottom_Trawl.pdf>. </li></ul><ul><li>9. &quot;Visible from Space Bottom Trawling Impacts.&quot; EurekAlert! - Science News . Web. 06 June 2010. <http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/s-bti021508.php>. </li></ul><ul><li>10. &quot;Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus Thynnus.&quot; MarineBio.org - Marine Biology, Ocean Life Conservation, Sea Creatures, Biodiversity, Oceans Research... Web. 06 June 2010. <http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=236>. </li></ul><ul><li>11. &quot;Fishing Methods.&quot; Welcome to Fishonline . Web. 05 June 2010. <http://www.fishonline.org/information/methods/>. </li></ul><ul><li>12. &quot;Habitat Damage.&quot; Web. <http://www.circleofresponsibility.com/page/296/habitat-damage.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>13. &quot;Solutions to Challenges Facing The Great Barrier: Over-Fishing, Blooming, and Global Warming: GreenJoyment Brings You Green Living. Solar, Wind, Geothermal and Simple Steps for Going Green.&quot; GreenJoyment: Enjoy A Green Lifestyle And Have Fun Helping The Environment . Web . 05 June 2010. <http://www.greenjoyment.com/the-great-barrier-reef-global-warming-over-fishing-and-pollu.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>14. &quot;Aquascope|Facts|Cod.&quot; Vattenkikaren . Web. 06 June 2010. <http://www.vattenkikaren.gu.se/fakta/arter/chordata/teleoste/gadumorh/gadumoe.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>15. &quot;CBC News Indepth: Fishing.&quot; CBC.ca - Canadian News Sports Entertainment Kids Docs Radio TV . Web. 06 June 2010. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/fishing/cod.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>16. &quot;Fishing Methods| Monterey Bay Aquarium.&quot; Monterey Bay Aquarium, California . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/sfw_gear.aspx>. </li></ul><ul><li>17. “Fishing Techniques.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishing_techniques>. </li></ul><ul><li>18. &quot;Overfishing | Greenpeace International.&quot; Greenpeace | Greenpeace USA . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/oceans/overfishing/?tab=0>. </li></ul><ul><li>19. Ye, Yimin. &quot;HISTORICAL CONSUMPTION AND FUTURE DEMAND FOR FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS.&quot; 1999. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 12 June 2010 <ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/x3216e/X3216E00.pdf>. </li></ul><ul><li>20. &quot;Marine Fisheries, Population and Consumption: Science and PolicyIssues.&quot; AAAS - The World's Largest General Scientific Society . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.aaas.org/international/ehn/fisheries/speer.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>21. YouTube - Overfishing - The consequences . YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. 13 June 2010 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxacxShp3LY>. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures: </li></ul><ul><li>http://picasaweb.google.com/clairechristian47/NewAlbum121108329PM?authkey=Gv1sRgCIbtmMOvja25cw&feat=flashslideshow#5278636756773584130 </li></ul><ul><li>http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2009/06/06/article-0-053D172C000005DC-837_468x562.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.google.bg/imgres?imgurl=http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/image_full/international/seafood/understanding-the-problem/fisheries-problems-today/beam-trawling.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.greenpeace.org/international//seafood/understanding-the-problem/fisheries-problems-today/beam-trawling&usg=__Iimx69QB847zSj0ur2KedVBh9no=&h=584&w=430&sz=57&hl=bg&start=4&itbs=1&tbnid=RCjvnHbcduWqjM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=99&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbeam%2Btrawl%26hl%3Dbg%26sa%3DX%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.coralcoe.org.au/research-tools/qpwstalks/NO-TAKE%20ZONES.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/race/images/cod.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/photos/oceans-overfishing/#fish-net_158_600x450.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://scienceline.org/_s/files/2009/03/fishmarket.jpeg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fishingfury.com/ff-content/explosivefishing.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.midcurrent.com/images/tomes_retrieve_3.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/planet-2/External/image/2005/11/this-spectacular-squid-is-disc.jpg </li></ul>