Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord;
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – nerves and ganglia.
Nervous tissue cells:
Neurons -> carry impulses around the body;
Neuroglia (glial cells) -> proper biochemical levels for the neurons 15.
Sense & responses to stimuli;
Generation of thoughts, emotions, forming and storing memories;
PNS: collecting and transporting messages that control the body;
CNS: generating information
Neocortex – ONLY in mammals; responsible for sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought , and language 15.
Exchange of Gases and Waste with the Environment
Mammals can not live without oxygen, because it is needed for metabolism in their cells.
In the process of breathing, they inhale oxygen from the air with their lungs, and then exhale carbon dioxide. 15.
Plants use the exhaled carbon dioxide in order to photosynthesize, and then they release oxygen. That is how an exchange of gases happens between mammals and the environment.
Byproducts of digestion, which are discarded by the body.
In the environment these byproducts are decomposed by microorganisms and nutrients are released in the soil. These nutrients are needed by plants 15.
Representative Organisms Bat Giraffe Zebra Hippopotamus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hippo_memphis.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Two_male_Giraffe_are_necking_in_San_Franzisco_Zoo_4.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beautiful_Zebra_in_South_Africa.JPG http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1076/603093359_961a75545b_o.jpg
Leopard Panthera pardus
• Habitat :
G rasslands, woodlands and riverside forests
Animals have been studied in open savannah habitats
Generally considered nocturnal animals (e.g. being active during the night)
They can also be diurnal and crepuscular, as rainforest leopards are
They are exceptionally adaptable
• Range :
Found mostly in central Africa, can be also found in south Asia (India/ South China). They are missing in North and South America.
• What they eat? :
They are classified as carnivores.
They are stalkers, they wait hidden somewhere, and then suddenly attack and kill very fast.
Most likely to hunt between sunset and sunrise
Their diet includes: ungulate s and monkeys, but also reptiles, bird, and fish.
In Africa leopard’s most commonly killed prey are the antelopes, especially impalas 15.
• Locomotion :
They move quadrupedally, run very fast, and have the ability to climb trees even with a prey in its jaws.
• Ecological role/ niche :
They must compete with other animals for food and place to live; larger predators like tigers and lions can take their prey or kill its infants; so it is better to hunt in different arias from them, which means it uses different animals as its food. 15.
The estrous cycle lasts 46 days and the female usually is in heat for 7 days
Gestatio n - 100 days.
The little leopards are in a litter of 2-4, but only 1-2 are able to survive their first year (big infant mortality)
The female will search for a hidden, quiet place, because it needs to take care of the cubs in the beginning. They open their eyes 10 days after they are born, but they stay with their mother from 18-24 months, before leaving them and start hunting and living only by themselves. 15.
• Other characteristics :
Variant of coloration:
Red/orange in the savannah
pale cream and yellow brown in the desert
golden in the rainforest,
Melanistic (black) in the high mountains.
The only known big cat that can take its pray up to a three, and sometimes 15.
Male lions prefer to rest while females are doing most of the hunting (read this, guys, and then say that a woman’s place is at home!)
Just like humans, dogs and cats can be either right or left-handed (or should we say ‘pawed’)
A ring-tailed lemur’s tail is longer than its body 13.
O ccipital condyles – undersurface facets of the occipital bone in vertebrates
Synapsids – group of amniotes, to which mammals belong
Monotremes – like all mammals, monotremes have hair and produce milk, but they lack nipples
Marsupials – Opossums, kangaroos, and koalas
Placenta – structure in which nutrients diffuse into the embryo from the mother’s blood
Opposable thumb – a thumb which makes primates different from other animals, they can touch the ventral surface of the tip of all four fingers with the ventral surface of the thumb of the same hand
N eocortex – brain region that is unique to mammals
B ronchus – is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs
A lveolus – an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity in lungs
Warm-blooded – maintaining a nearly constant body temperature, usually higher than and independent of the environment
M alleus , incus , and stapes – the three bones that comprise the middle ear of mammals
Fetus – developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth
Uterus – a female reproductive organ, within which the fetus develops during gestation
Wean – to stop feeding offspring with mother’s milk
Gestation – the process of carrying offspring in the womb during pregnancy 6.
"File:Ring Tailed Lemur and Twins.jpg -." Wikimedia Commons . Uknown, 26 Aug. 2009. Web.30Mar.2010.<http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ring_tailed_lemur_and_twins.jpg>.
"Aronsha Photography -- Photo Detail." Aronsha Scenic and Nature Stock Photography (35-mm, Digital) . Aronsha. Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.aronsha.com/PhotoDetail-new.cfm?image=GJB00X05-Ring-tailed-Lemer.jpg&cat=wildlife>.
"Tree of Life Web Project - Details for Media ID# 28722." Tree of Life Web Project . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?service=external/ViewImageData&sp=28722>.
"Friends of the Coalas." Coalas - Facts Diet . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://home.vicnet.net.au/~koalas/factsdiet.html>.
"Parks & Wildlife Service - Eucalypt Forests." Parks & Wildlife Service - Home . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=598>.
"MSN Encarta." Dictionary . Microsoft. Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/dictionaryhome.aspx>.
"PE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd" Koala: Koala Habitat." Lycos . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.lycos.com/info/koala--koala-habitat.html>.
"Ring-tailed Lemur -." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring-tailed_Lemur>.
"Lemur Life Cycle | EHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_5278529_lemur-life-cycle.html>.
"ANIMAL BYTES - Ring-tailed Lemur." SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS - HOME . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/animal-bytes/animalia/eumetazoa/coelomates/deuterostomes/chordata/craniata/mammalia/primates/ring-tailed-lemur.htm>.
"Ring-tailed Lemur." Tree of Life Web Project . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4730>.
"Ring-Tailed Lemur." Honolulu Zoo Home Page . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.honoluluzoo.org/ringtailed_lemur.htm>.
"Amazing Facts , Animal Facts, Interesting Facts, Trivia." A Parent's Guide to Internet Safety ::Indianchild.com . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.indianchild.com/amazing_facts2.htm>.
"Teeth." Texas A&M University Kingsville Users . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://users.tamuk.edu/kfjab02/Biology/Mammalogy/biology_4429_ch_4b.htm>.
"Biological Diversity 9." Estrella Mountain Commuity College . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_9.html#Subphylum%20Vertebrata>.
"Fallopian Tube -." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallopian_tube>.
"Placenta -." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placenta>.
"Reproduction in Mammals." The Earth Life Web . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <http://www.earthlife.net/mammals/reproduction.html>.