Mammals 10 4-roumenova_bojkov_damyanov


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  • Mammary glands – function in producing milk for nourishing the offspring, since milk is a substance rich in fats, sugars, proteins, minerals, and vitamins; serve as the primary source of nourish for young mammals, and they are can obtain nutrition in this way even before they are physically able to digest other type of food Hair – composed of the protein keratin; functions in: insulation (heat regulation, since mammals are warm-blooded); protection (in addition to the skin); camouflage ( protective coloration , which allows some mammals to blend into their environment in order to avoid being seen by predators , which may attack them, or prey , which they are going to attack so that they obtain food); sensory function (detects information from senses; for example, a cat can use its whiskers to sense the presence of nearby objects even withouth seeing or touching them) Three middle ear bones – consists of three bones: malleus , incus , and stapes (in early reptiles , malleus and incus were bones from the jaw but evolution occurred; today reptiles’ the stape still comprises the ear ) ; function in transmitting sound vibrations and allowing animals to hear Differentiated teeth (Heterodont teeth) – vary in size and shape; adapted for chewing many kinds of foods; mammals’ teeth are specialized; e.g. for cutting and shearing – incisors ( резци ) and canine teeth ( кучешки зъби ); for grinding and crushing – premolars ( предкътници ) and molars ( кътници )
  • Mammals have the most complex nervous system; consists of the central nervous system (CNS – includes the brain and the spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS – nerves and ganglia, clusters of nerve cells); nervous tissue is made up of two main types of cells: neurons (carry impulses around the body) & neuroglia (also known as glial cells; maintain proper biochemical levels for the neurons) Functions: sense and responses to stimuli responsible for generation of information (thoughts, emotions, forming and storing memories) PNS: collecting sensory stimuli and transporting it to CNS; transporting messages that control the body’s response CNS: generating information neocortex – only mammals possess it; functions in sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought , and language
  • Habitat: deciduous forests (made up of trees that lose their leaves every year) , dry scrub, highland humid forests, and gallery forests , which are forests along riverbanks ; in general, the ring-tailed lemur inhabits dry woodland districts that have a seven to eight month dry season Range: found only on southern and southwestern Madagascar , an east African island What they eat: they are classified as herbivores; they eat mostly leaves (especially leaves of tamarind tree), fruits (berries), and flowers; however, from time to time, lemurs eat bird eggs, insects, and small mammals; as a source of water, they lick dew from leaves Locomotion: the lemur moves quadrupedally (on its four limbs); walks or runs on the ground as well as on the tops of branches ; its tail stand s up for balance Ecological role/ niche: significant ecological role in Madagascar; make an extensive use of the ground; have the ability to adapt to different environments; range further than any other lemur species into the interior of Madagascar; threatened with extinction because of deforestation, etc.
  • Life cycle changes: weaning (stop feeding offspring with mother’s milk) takes about 6 months; childhood- for the fist weeks, young are carried in their mothers’ mouths or on their mothers’ belly, then they start riding on their mothers’ backs; reach sexual maturity at about 15 months (1 year & 3 months); gestation period (pregnancy) lasts for 132-134 days (about 4.5 months); give birth to 1 or 2 babies; birth season – late summer/early fall; life span – up to 27 years (in captivity, not in the wild) Other characteristics: grooming claw – used for personal grooming of the fur; opposable thumb; enjoy sunbathing in the morning before feeding: “worshipping the sun” in Lotus position (Yoga  )
  • Mammals 10 4-roumenova_bojkov_damyanov

    1. 1. Animal Diversity: Mammals By Violeta Roumenova, Kalin Bojkov, & Martin Damyanov 10/4
    2. 2. Scientific Name <ul><li>From Late Latin: mammalis , meaning “of the breast” 6. </li></ul><ul><li>Term in Bulgarian: “ БОЗАЙНИЦИ ” </li></ul>Symmetry <ul><li>Bilateral => a right & a left side </li></ul>
    3. 3. Fitting into the Big Picture <ul><li>Appeared on the Earth relatively recent, compared to other organisms – 265 MYA </li></ul><ul><li>Most closely related to Reptiles, because are the two parts in which the group “Amniotic egg” is divided. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are part of this group; humans are mammals, but the human as we know it nowadays (the first known example is Homo habilis ) appeared 2,5 million years ago. 3. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Tree of Life Mammals
    5. 5. Derived Character <ul><li>Mammary glands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing milk (fats, sugars, proteins, minerals, and vitamins) for nourishing the offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary source of nourish for young mammals 15. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hair (contains protein keratin): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation/ heat regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection (in addition to the skin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage ( protective coloration =>mammals to blend into their environment ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory function (detects information from senses): e.g. cat’s whiskers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three middle ear bones: malleus , incus , and stapes : transmit sound vibrations & allow animals to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated (Heterodont) teeth for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cutting and shearing – incisors ( резци ) & canine teeth ( кучешки зъби ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grinding and crushing – premolars ( предкътници ) and molars ( кътници ) 14. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Reproduction <ul><li>Placental mammals- the embryo is connected to the mother’s blood supply by the placenta 16., 17. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-placental mammals- the egg is separated from the mother; feeds on its initial nutrients 18. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Maintaining Control: The Nervous System <ul><li>Most complex nervous system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – nerves and ganglia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nervous tissue cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons -> carry impulses around the body; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroglia (glial cells) -> proper biochemical levels for the neurons 15. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why bother? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense & responses to stimuli; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of thoughts, emotions, forming and storing memories; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PNS: collecting and transporting messages that control the body; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS: generating information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neocortex – ONLY in mammals; responsible for sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought , and language 15. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Exchange of Gases and Waste with the Environment <ul><li>Mammals can not live without oxygen, because it is needed for metabolism in their cells. </li></ul><ul><li>In the process of breathing, they inhale oxygen from the air with their lungs, and then exhale carbon dioxide. 15. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants use the exhaled carbon dioxide in order to photosynthesize, and then they release oxygen. That is how an exchange of gases happens between mammals and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byproducts of digestion, which are discarded by the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the environment these byproducts are decomposed by microorganisms and nutrients are released in the soil. These nutrients are needed by plants 15. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Representative Organisms Bat Giraffe Zebra Hippopotamus
    10. 10. Leopard Panthera pardus <ul><li>• Habitat : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G rasslands, woodlands and riverside forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals have been studied in open savannah habitats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally considered nocturnal animals (e.g. being active during the night) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can also be diurnal and crepuscular, as rainforest leopards are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are exceptionally adaptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Range : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found mostly in central Africa, can be also found in south Asia (India/ South China). They are missing in North and South America. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• What they eat? : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are classified as carnivores. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are stalkers, they wait hidden somewhere, and then suddenly attack and kill very fast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most likely to hunt between sunset and sunrise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their diet includes: ungulate s and monkeys, but also reptiles, bird, and fish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Africa leopard’s most commonly killed prey are the antelopes, especially impalas 15. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Locomotion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They move quadrupedally, run very fast, and have the ability to climb trees even with a prey in its jaws. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Ecological role/ niche : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They must compete with other animals for food and place to live; larger predators like tigers and lions can take their prey or kill its infants; so it is better to hunt in different arias from them, which means it uses different animals as its food. 15. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>• Life cycle changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can mate all year round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The estrous cycle lasts 46 days and the female usually is in heat for 7 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestatio n - 100 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The little leopards are in a litter of 2-4, but only 1-2 are able to survive their first year (big infant mortality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The female will search for a hidden, quiet place, because it needs to take care of the cubs in the beginning. They open their eyes 10 days after they are born, but they stay with their mother from 18-24 months, before leaving them and start hunting and living only by themselves. 15. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Other characteristics : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variant of coloration: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red/orange in the savannah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pale cream and yellow brown in the desert </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>golden in the rainforest, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melanistic (black) in the high mountains. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stealth predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only known big cat that can take its pray up to a three, and sometimes 15. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Koala Phascolarctos cinereus <ul><li>Lives in eucalyptus forests </li></ul><ul><li>Range: From northern Queensland to southern Australia(“Habitat”). </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds mainly on eucalypts leaves 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: spend 16 to 18 hours a day motionless. Most of it they spend sleeping; walk by both their hands and legs </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle: Female koalas reach maturity at age of 2-3 years 7. </li></ul><ul><li>May get irritated when in contact with other creatures & humans 5. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) <ul><li>Habitat: dry woodland districts with a 7-8 month dry season 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Range: only on southern and southwestern Madagascar , Africa 2. </li></ul><ul><li>What they eat: classified as herbivores: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly leaves (esp. of tamarind tree), fruits (berries), and flowers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More rarely bird eggs, insects, and small mammals; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dew from leaves –source of water. 10. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locomotion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Q uadrupedally on ground as well as on tops of branches ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail stand s up for balance . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological role/ niche: (SIGNIFICANT) 8. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive use of ground; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to adapt to different environments => further than any other lemur species into the interior of Madagascar; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threatened with extinction because of deforestation, etc. 9. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Madagascar: The Ring-Tailed Lemur’s Sweet Home
    15. 15. <ul><li>Weaning: ~ 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood – first weeks, young carried in mothers’ mouths or on belly, then start riding on mothers’ backs 9. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual maturity: @ ~ 15 months </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation period: ~ 4.5 months </li></ul><ul><li>Birth to 1 or 2 babies </li></ul><ul><li>Birth season – late summer/early fall </li></ul><ul><li>Life span – up to 27 years (in captivity) 9. </li></ul>Life Cycle Changes
    16. 16. Other Character istics <ul><li>Grooming claw </li></ul><ul><li>Long tail </li></ul><ul><li>Opposable thumb 11. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy sunbathing in the morning before feeding: “worshipping the sun” in Lotus position (Yoga  ) 12. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Human Interactions with Other Mammals <ul><li>Humans are actually mammals </li></ul><ul><li>However: various human-mammal interactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We eat other mammals…but sometimes they eat us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We obtain food produced from mammals (e.g. milk from cows) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We make clothes of mammals’ fur, etc. 13. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Do you know… <ul><li>To which animal group most of the characters in The Lion King belong? </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals , of course. Simba is a lion; Timon is a meerkat ; Pumbaa is a warthog ; Rafiki is a mandrill…the list is REALLY long! 13. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Fun Facts <ul><li>Male lions prefer to rest while females are doing most of the hunting (read this, guys, and then say that a woman’s place is at home!) </li></ul><ul><li>Just like humans, dogs and cats can be either right or left-handed (or should we say ‘pawed’) </li></ul><ul><li>A ring-tailed lemur’s tail is longer than its body 13. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Vocabulary <ul><li>O ccipital condyles – undersurface facets of the occipital bone in vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Synapsids – group of amniotes, to which mammals belong </li></ul><ul><li>Monotremes – like all mammals, monotremes have hair and produce milk, but they lack nipples </li></ul><ul><li>Marsupials – Opossums, kangaroos, and koalas </li></ul><ul><li>Placenta – structure in which nutrients diffuse into the embryo from the mother’s blood </li></ul><ul><li>Opposable thumb – a thumb which makes primates different from other animals, they can touch the ventral surface of the tip of all four fingers with the ventral surface of the thumb of the same hand </li></ul><ul><li>N eocortex – brain region that is unique to mammals </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>B ronchus – is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>A lveolus – an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity in lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Warm-blooded – maintaining a nearly constant body temperature, usually higher than and independent of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>M alleus , incus , and stapes – the three bones that comprise the middle ear of mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Fetus – developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus – a female reproductive organ, within which the fetus develops during gestation </li></ul><ul><li>Wean – to stop feeding offspring with mother’s milk </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation – the process of carrying offspring in the womb during pregnancy 6. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;File:Ring Tailed Lemur and Twins.jpg -.&quot; Wikimedia Commons . Uknown, 26 Aug. 2009. Web.30Mar.2010.<>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Aronsha Photography -- Photo Detail.&quot; Aronsha Scenic and Nature Stock Photography (35-mm, Digital) . Aronsha. Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Tree of Life Web Project - Details for Media ID# 28722.&quot; Tree of Life Web Project . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Friends of the Coalas.&quot; Coalas - Facts Diet . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Parks & Wildlife Service - Eucalypt Forests.&quot; Parks & Wildlife Service - Home . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;MSN Encarta.&quot; Dictionary . Microsoft. Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;PE HTML PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN&quot; &quot;; Koala: Koala Habitat.&quot; Lycos . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ring-tailed Lemur -.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Lemur Life Cycle |; EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>&quot;ANIMAL BYTES - Ring-tailed Lemur.&quot; SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS - HOME . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ring-tailed Lemur.&quot; Tree of Life Web Project . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ring-Tailed Lemur.&quot; Honolulu Zoo Home Page . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Amazing Facts , Animal Facts, Interesting Facts, Trivia.&quot; A Parent's Guide to Internet Safety . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Teeth.&quot; Texas A&M University Kingsville Users . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Biological Diversity 9.&quot; Estrella Mountain Commuity College . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Fallopian Tube -.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Placenta -.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Reproduction in Mammals.&quot; The Earth Life Web . Web. 30 Mar. 2010. <>. </li></ul>