Fish 10 1-karkelanova_tantcheva_shuleva
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  • Organisms have to possess this structure at least at some part of their development in order to be defined as Chordates.
  • Most fish belong to Osteichthyes. They have a bony skeleton which is opposite to cartilaginous skeleton.
  • Ectothermic means that fish have a variable body temperature which closely matches that of the surroundings
  • Yolk is contained in the egg How many eggs may a fish lay depends on the type of fish, how heavy it is and how big are its eggs
  • Extracting oxygen from water is harder and consumes more energy that extracting it from air

Fish 10 1-karkelanova_tantcheva_shuleva Fish 10 1-karkelanova_tantcheva_shuleva Presentation Transcript

  • Fish  man’s best friend(1)
  • Scientific Name i.e. how do crazy guys call them?
    • ichthyoid – from Greek ichtys /fish/
    • ichtyology – ichtys /fish/ + logos /reason/ (Greek)
    • Kingdom Animalia(2)
    • Phylum Chordata(2) – organisms that possess a structure called a notochord
      • rod that extends most of the length of the body
      • Acts as a support during locomotion
      • bilateral symmetry
  • Our Fish
    • Subphylum Vertebrata
    • Infraphylum Gnathostomata
    • Superclass Osteichthyes(3) – “bony fish” => have bony skeleton
      • Class Actinopterygii - ray-finned fish
      • Class Sarcopterygii - lobe-finned fish
    • Class Condrichthyans(4) – cartilage skeleton
      • mostly sharks, rays and their relatives
      • Subclass Elasmobranchii – skarks, rays, skates
      • Subclass Holocephali – so called “ghost sharks”
  • Cladogram – Fish Relatives(5)
  • What makes a fish our fish friend?(6)
    • All fish are:
      • Ectothermic i.e. “cold-blooded”, aquatic vertebrates
      • Skin is generally covered with scales
      • Their limbs are modified into fins for swimming
    (7)
  • Fish Sex
    • Fish reproduce sexually (wow :O)
    • Females lay eggs outside their body
    • Males sprays milt over the eggs (fish’s sperm cells)
    • Yolk – where the food for the embryo is contained
      • May remain little longer after the new born fish goes out
      • Very few fish carry eggs in their bodies
      • From 1500 to 5000 eggs may be laid
  • Kiss a Fish(8)
  • Fish Anatomy
    • Circulation
      • Single circuit  heart-gills – body-heart
        • Transport of oxygen, nutrients, wastes
      • Single Pericardial sac:
        • 2-chambered heart (upper atrium & lower ventricle)
        • 2 accessory chambers
    • Respiration
      • Oxygen – extracted from water
      • Gills – have a lid, rich in blood vessels
        • Open mouth  H 2 O goes to gill  O 2 exchanged for CO 2 (diffusion)  lid opens – water leaves  O 2 enters the blood system
  • Fish Running around
    • Snake-like varieties
      • Wave-like fashion
      • Very slow type of movement
    • Fish with streamlined bodies and a stiff caudal fin or tail
      • Swing their tail from side to side
      • Move faster
    • Pectoral and Pelvic fins => difficult maneuvers; acts as breaks
    • Dorsal and anal fins => thought to help balance during steady swimming
  • Friends
  • The Great White Shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ) a.k.a. The Great White / White Death
    • The world’s largest know predatory fish; at the top of the ocean’s food chain
    • Cartilaginous fish
    • Live in cool, coastal waters (oceans)
    • Eat sea lions, seals, small toothed whales, and even sea turtles
    • Warm-blooded (endothermic)
    • Swim up to 69 km/h; can weigh more than 2 T
    • Endangered species
  • Adaptations:
    • Acute hearing, sharp eyesight, good sense of smell (using them for hunting), torpedo-shaped body (good swimmers), Several rows of teeth
    • One extra sense: have organs that sense the electromagnetic fields generated by animals (3)
  • Interactions with Humans
    • Sample biting
    • Human attacks are rare.
  • Fun Fact
    • “ Great whites can detect one drop of blood in 100 L of water and can sense even tiny amounts of blood in the water up to 5 km away. ” (3)
  •  
  • Clone anemone fish ( Amphiprion ocellaris) a.k.a. Clownfish
    • Ray-finned fish
    • Habitat: warm waters (Indian, Pacific Ocean, Barrier Reef, Red Sea)
    • Lifespan: 3-6 years
    • Range: 10 cm max
    • Aquarium fish
    • Symbiosis with sea anemone: uses it as a shelter, provides nutrients with its fecal matter, eats small invertebrates which can potentially harm the anemone
  • Fun Fact:
    • All clownfish are born male, but as they mature one dominant becomes female. The female is also a primary defender.
  • The Electric Eel (Electrophorus electricus)
    • Elongated cylindrical body (~2 m; 20 kg)
    • habitat: Amazon river, basins in South America
    • feed on invertebrates; adult eels eat fish and small mammals
    • vascularized respiratory organ in oral cavity
    • Developed sense of hearing
    • Generate powerful electric shocks
  • Fun Fact
    • Electric eels can produce an electric shock of up to 500 volts, which is deadly for an adult human.
  • The mollusk joke
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xRad4Y3FPdM&NR=1
  • Works Cited
    • http://richardwiseman.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/fish-bowl.jpg
    • http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Chordata.html
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteichthyes
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondrichthyes
    • Textbook
    • http://www.ecnca.org/Animals/Fish/Fish_Characteristics.htm
    • http ://i.livescience.com/images/ig54_butterfly_fish_02.jpg
    • http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2006-02/15/xin_130203150724296283015.jpg