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  • Eutrophication1

    1. 1. Eutrophication (Anthropogenic eutrophication) Mina Ivanova Lassie Milanova Ivaylo Danailov 10/7
    2. 2. Eutrophication <ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>an ecosystem response to the human activites that fertilize water bodies with nitrogen and phosphorus;(1) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential to organisms that use light and chemical energy to survive. They are found in lakes, rivers, estuaries, and in enormous regions of the upper parts of oceans;(1,2) </li></ul><ul><li>The nutrients are primarily from agricultural and urban sources. They are delivered by stormwater runoff and atmospheric deposition;(1) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Harmful Algae Blooms <ul><li>Also called Marine or Water Blooms; </li></ul><ul><li>It is the rapid increase of algae in water bodies; </li></ul><ul><li>Algae – microscopic plants; aquatic; unicellular; no roots, leaves, or stems. They could be green, yellowish-brown, or red. Occur in both freshwater and marine water bodies; </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them are a result from an excess of nutrients (eutrophication) which causes a big increase in reproduction and growth;(3,2) </li></ul>
    4. 5. The “Dead Zone” of Mississippi River <ul><li>5,800 square mile zone in the Gulf of Mexico, where Mississippi river flows into the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by fertilizers released into the river by human activities near it’s banks </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton productivity reaches it’s peak. As it dies, bacteria feed with it’s remains and they strip the oxygen out of the water. This condition is called hypoxia. </li></ul>http://
    5. 6. The Baltic Sea “Dead Zone” <ul><li>Larger than Estonia </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the release of many fertilizers in the water by Sweden and Finland </li></ul><ul><li>There are parts in the sea where the oxygen concentration is 0 </li></ul><ul><li>(8) </li></ul>
    6. 7. Negative Ecological Effects <ul><li>Creation of toxins that are damaging to animals and plants – they are dying; </li></ul><ul><li>The balance of N and P in the water is disturbed; </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease of sunlight; </li></ul><ul><li>Usage of most of the amount of oxygen in the aquatic environment; </li></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible? – The People!(2) </li></ul>
    7. 8. Eutrophication and the Environment <ul><li>Fish and other aquatic organisms are harmed due to the decomposed algae in the water </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of organisms => interpecific competition => decrease in diversity </li></ul><ul><li>The water has increased turbidity (how much a water has lost its transparency) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic algae may lead to the dead of different animals </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    8. 9. Impact on Humans <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish and other marine animals’ death => loss of money and food sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative – money spent on treatment of the water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stock losses due to death of farm animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxic algae bring infections up the food chain which may result in death or diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. How to Prevent Eutrophication <ul><li>Banning Phosphate Detergents </li></ul><ul><li>European Union is decreasing the amount of N and P delivered to the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing N emissions from vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce livestock densities- their wastes reach the water, causing Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Special stations that clean the domestic sewage water </li></ul><ul><li>Improve efficiency of fertilizers (4,5) </li></ul>
    10. 11. What can be done once Eutrophication occurs <ul><li>Plant vegetation alongside the coast to absorb the excess nutrients- the so called Riparian Buffer Zone. The trees prevent the nutrients from reaching the water </li></ul><ul><li>Manual cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Use bacteria that make denitrification- they take the nitrates and turn them into simple molecular nitrogen (4,5) </li></ul>
    11. 12. Work Cites <ul><li>&quot;Eutrophication&quot;. Boston University. 8th May, 2010 <> </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Algal Bloom&quot;. ScieneDaily. 8th May, 2010 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Harmful Algal Blooms&quot;. TPWD. 8th May, 2010 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eutrophication” Thinkquest. 8 th May, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>< http :// > </li></ul><ul><li>5. Eutrophication” Encyclpedia of Earth. 8 th May 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>< > </li></ul><ul><li>“ General Effects of Eutrophication”. 8 th May, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>6. Picture citations from slide 4: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>7. “Mississippi River Dead Zone” 8 th May, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>8. “ World’s Largest DeadZone” National Geographic. 8 th May, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>< > </li></ul>