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    Eutrophication botty hristo_yana_boris_10-5 Eutrophication botty hristo_yana_boris_10-5 Presentation Transcript

    • Eutrophication Botty Dimanov Hristo Dimitrov Yana Staneva Boris Zhikov Section 10/5
    • Eutrophication: Defined
      • Eutrophication - enhancement of an aquatic environment with extremely high level of nutrients
      • Anthropogenic eutrophication – eutrophication, caused by human beings
      • [Campbell]
      http://www.macalester.edu/environmentalstudies/threerivers/studentprojects/ENVI_133_Spr_08/Phosphorus/eutrophication.gif
    • Consequences
      • Excess of nutrients => accelerates growth of plankton
      • Phytoplankton + Zooplankton => Algal Bloom [“Eutrophication”]
      • O 2 decreases + waste + no sunlight => intoxication of inhabitants [Cloern]
    • The Process Itself http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg/800px-Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg.png
    • Impact on people
      • Economic
        • Tourism income decreases
        • Fishing is abolished [Cloern]
      • Health
        • Damaged sea-food may cause illnesses
        • Dangerous for humans due to toxic substances
        • May cause neurological disorders [Cloern]
    • Impact on ecosystems
      • Decrease of species diversity
      • Emigration of aquatic species
      • Toxic chemicals are produced [Cloern]
      • Combustion of fuels => N oxides
      • Fertilizers => NH 3
      • Wind
      http://www.eoearth.org/images/1/12/Sea_of_Azov_eutrophication.jpg
    • Prevention of process
      • Fertilizers’ usage
      • should be limited
      • Decrease amounts of Nitrogen in fertilizers [Cloern]
      • Increase efficiency of N/P removers
      • Imply developed technologies
      • for ferilizers’ production
      • [“Eutrophication”]
      http://www.minnehahacreek.org/images/fertilizer_002.jpg
    • Prevention of outcomes
      • Restoration of wetlands and buffer zones
      • Reduction of density of coastal inhabitants
      • Reduction of Nitrogen emissions in other areas as well
      • Sewage treatment
      http://www.sawater.com.au/NR/rdonlyres/35604970-F730-44C8-960B-1E38AAACBE77/441/image003.gif
    • Example 1
      • Lake Erie
      • Borders Michigan, Ohio and Canada
      • 1950s
      • Phosphorus based detergents from local companies
      • 1972- Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement [Wright]
      http://www.wkyc.com/weblog/weather/uploaded_images/Lake-Erie-715951.jpg
    • Example 2
      • Baltic Sea
        • Input of nutrient
          • sewage treatment plants and industries
          • atmospheric deposition
          • agriculture [“FINAL…”]
      • Outcomes
        • Inability to see through water [“Campbell”]
        • Toxic algae [“Eutrophication”]
        • Large mats of algae washed ashore [“FINAL”]
      http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/nature/en_GB/nature/_files/79382152008761702/default/Baltic%20Sea_topo_small.jpg
    • Works Cited
      • Campbell, Neil, and Jane Reece. Biology . San Francisco: Pearson, 2008.
      • Cloern, James. &quot;Eutrophicartion - Encyclopedia of Earth&quot;. Encyclopedia of Earth. June 9, 2010 <http://www.eoearth.org/article/Eutrophication>.
      • &quot;Eutrophication&quot;. Fubra Limited. June 10, 2010 <http://www.water-pollution.org.uk/eutrophication.html>.
      • “ FINAL Eutrophication”. Helsinki Commission. June 10, 2010.
      • <http://helcom.navigo.fi/stc/files/BSAP/FINAL%20Eutrophication.pdf>
      • Wright, Ian. &quot;Untitle Document&quot;. June 10, 2010 <http://drake.marin.k12.ca.us/stuwork/rockwater/Eutrophication/examplespage.html>.