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  • 1. Eutrophication Botty Dimanov Hristo Dimitrov Yana Staneva Boris Zhikov Section 10/5
  • 2. Eutrophication: Defined
    • Eutrophication - enhancement of an aquatic environment with extremely high level of nutrients
    • Anthropogenic eutrophication – eutrophication, caused by human beings
    • [Campbell]
    http://www.macalester.edu/environmentalstudies/threerivers/studentprojects/ENVI_133_Spr_08/Phosphorus/eutrophication.gif
  • 3. Consequences
    • Excess of nutrients => accelerates growth of plankton
    • Phytoplankton + Zooplankton => Algal Bloom [“Eutrophication”]
    • O 2 decreases + waste + no sunlight => intoxication of inhabitants [Cloern]
  • 4. The Process Itself http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg/800px-Scheme_eutrophication-en.svg.png
  • 5. Impact on people
    • Economic
      • Tourism income decreases
      • Fishing is abolished [Cloern]
    • Health
      • Damaged sea-food may cause illnesses
      • Dangerous for humans due to toxic substances
      • May cause neurological disorders [Cloern]
  • 6. Impact on ecosystems
    • Decrease of species diversity
    • Emigration of aquatic species
    • Toxic chemicals are produced [Cloern]
    • Combustion of fuels => N oxides
    • Fertilizers => NH 3
    • Wind
    http://www.eoearth.org/images/1/12/Sea_of_Azov_eutrophication.jpg
  • 7. Prevention of process
    • Fertilizers’ usage
    • should be limited
    • Decrease amounts of Nitrogen in fertilizers [Cloern]
    • Increase efficiency of N/P removers
    • Imply developed technologies
    • for ferilizers’ production
    • [“Eutrophication”]
    http://www.minnehahacreek.org/images/fertilizer_002.jpg
  • 8. Prevention of outcomes
    • Restoration of wetlands and buffer zones
    • Reduction of density of coastal inhabitants
    • Reduction of Nitrogen emissions in other areas as well
    • Sewage treatment
    http://www.sawater.com.au/NR/rdonlyres/35604970-F730-44C8-960B-1E38AAACBE77/441/image003.gif
  • 9. Example 1
    • Lake Erie
    • Borders Michigan, Ohio and Canada
    • 1950s
    • Phosphorus based detergents from local companies
    • 1972- Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement [Wright]
    http://www.wkyc.com/weblog/weather/uploaded_images/Lake-Erie-715951.jpg
  • 10. Example 2
    • Baltic Sea
      • Input of nutrient
        • sewage treatment plants and industries
        • atmospheric deposition
        • agriculture [“FINAL…”]
    • Outcomes
      • Inability to see through water [“Campbell”]
      • Toxic algae [“Eutrophication”]
      • Large mats of algae washed ashore [“FINAL”]
    http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/nature/en_GB/nature/_files/79382152008761702/default/Baltic%20Sea_topo_small.jpg
  • 11. Works Cited
    • Campbell, Neil, and Jane Reece. Biology . San Francisco: Pearson, 2008.
    • Cloern, James. &quot;Eutrophicartion - Encyclopedia of Earth&quot;. Encyclopedia of Earth. June 9, 2010 <http://www.eoearth.org/article/Eutrophication>.
    • &quot;Eutrophication&quot;. Fubra Limited. June 10, 2010 <http://www.water-pollution.org.uk/eutrophication.html>.
    • “ FINAL Eutrophication”. Helsinki Commission. June 10, 2010.
    • <http://helcom.navigo.fi/stc/files/BSAP/FINAL%20Eutrophication.pdf>
    • Wright, Ian. &quot;Untitle Document&quot;. June 10, 2010 <http://drake.marin.k12.ca.us/stuwork/rockwater/Eutrophication/examplespage.html>.